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Joe Massey Department of Plant & Soil Sciences Mississippi State University Water-Conserving Irrigation Systems for Furrow Irrigated Soybean and Rice Grown.

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Presentation on theme: "Joe Massey Department of Plant & Soil Sciences Mississippi State University Water-Conserving Irrigation Systems for Furrow Irrigated Soybean and Rice Grown."— Presentation transcript:

1 Joe Massey Department of Plant & Soil Sciences Mississippi State University Water-Conserving Irrigation Systems for Furrow Irrigated Soybean and Rice Grown in the Mississippi Delta

2 Acknowledgements Justin Dulaney (Coahoma Co.) Earl Kline (Bolivar Co.) Collier Tillman (Leflore Co.) Buddy Allen (Tunica Co.) Kirk Satterfield (Bolivar Co.) Tim Walker (MS DREC) Shane Powers (YMD) Lyle Pringle (MSU DREC) Jim Thomas (MSU ABE ret.) Tom Eubank (MSU DREC) MAFES MS Rice Promotion Board MS Water Resources Research Institute MS Soybean Promotion Board YMD Collaborators Support

3 Soybean-Rice Rotation Common rotations are 2:1 or 1:1 soybean:rice crop value: ~$430 million (soybean) and ~$208 million (rice) for the Mississippi Delta.

4 Crop Acres in MS Delta USDA NASS (2011)

5 Avg. Irrigation Water Use (A-ft/A) (YMD, 2010)

6 Estimated Irrigation Water Use (A-ft/A) 247,000 A 100% flood irrigated x 3.07 A-ft/A = ~758,000 A-ft water/yr (rice crop) 1,054,000 A 65% irrigated x 0.76 A-ft/A = ~520,000 A-ft water/yr (soybean crop) Estimated combined rice-soy water use: ~1.3 million A-ft/yr YMD total water use in 2010: ~2.5 million A-ft/yr

7 2011 Soybean Phaucet-Optimzed Furrow Irrigation Results Tillman Farm Homeplace Fields A and B Conventional Design (33.8 A) Phaucet + Timer (40.6 A) Savings (%) Water Use (A-inches) # of Irrigations Energy Use (gal/A) (est.) Total Pumping Time (hrs) NA Soybean Yield (bu/A)

8 Potential Water Savings in Furrow- Irrigated Soybean (A-ft/A) 1,054,000 A 65% irrigated x 0.76 A-ft/A = ~520,000 A-ft water/yr (soybean 22% savings via Phaucet = up to ~100,000 A-ft YMD estimated average overdraft: ~300,000 A-ft/yr

9 Soybean Phaucet-Optimzed Furrow Irrigation Results Comments: MSU Phaucet trials have been conducted on rectangular, relatively ‘uniform’ fields…savings could be greater than 22% on hard-to-water, irregularly-shaped fields, but such fields are hard to study.

10 Phaucet Comments: Pump timers may be important to securing savings unless someone will be present to shut-off well when field waters out. Murphy Switch Brand ~$280 each Grainger Brand Switch ~$30 each

11 Potential Water & Energy Savings in Rice

12 Pringle (1994) How much water does rice actually need? Depending on soil and cultivar, rice needs ~14 to 25 inches water (1.1 to 2.1 A-ft/A) per 80-day flood in Mississippi. SoilInches per 80-d Flood Sharkey1.2 Alligator1.2 Forestdale3.3 Brittain3.6 Avg. Deep Percolation Losses VarietyMeasured ET (inches) Rosemont12.8 ± 3.0 Maybelle13.6 ± 1.7 Newbonnet15.7 ± 2.2 Lemont16.7 ± 2.1 Avg. Evapo- Transpiration Losses 1991 rainfall was 66.5% of avg rainfall was 97.9% of avg. ET was linearly-related to biomass production

13 Total H 2 O Requirements (ET + Soil Percolation) = ~14 to 25 A-in/A YMD (2009) 6-yr average water use in Mississippi rice production Pringle (1994): Water Use Requirements for Rice in the MS Delta

14 Estimated Adoption Rates for Rice Irrigation Systems in MS (2009) Sources: MSU Extension Service grower surveys; rice consultant surveys; YMD permitting data.

15 Zero-Grade Rice Irrigation Agronomic Issues Limit Adoption Drawbacks of Zero-Grade Systems: 1.Water-logging of rotational crops, leading to continuous rice systems which can result in 2.Pest management issues (weed resistance; herbicide carry- over) and 3.Loss of yield bump associated with Soy-Rice Rotation Conversion of 0-Grade to “Ridge-Irrigation” in Tunica Co. Farmers creating crest in center of 0-grade 40-acre fields to have 0.3-ft fall: Rice irrigated as normal for 0-grade. Soybean irrigated with tubing placed on ridge down center of field.

16 Estimated Adoption Rates for Rice Irrigation Systems in MS (2009) Sources: MSU Extension Service grower surveys; rice consultant surveys; YMD permitting data.

17 Multiple-Inlet Irrigation in Straight-Levee Systems

18 Riser Straight-Levee System

19 Multiple-Inlet Irrigation in Straight-Levee Systems Advantages of Side-Inlets: More rapid flood establishment. Reduced nitrogen loss. Improved herbicide activation. Greater control of flood. Facilitates adoption of other water-saving practices. MAFES Publication No Thomas et al. (2004) Tacker (2010): Approximate cost = $12/A (tubing + labor)

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21 Estimated Energy Used By Groundwater-Based Irrigation Systems per A-in Water Delivered StateDiesel (gallons) Electric (kWh) per Acre-in water pumped AR (Tacker) 138 LA (Sheffield) MO (Vories) MS (Thomas) Avg. 0.9 gal34 kWh For every inch of water not pumped, at least 0.7 gallon/A diesel fuel saved.

22 in = 7-in water savings 0.7 gal diesel/in = 5 gal $3/gal = ~ $15/A Approximate water and fuel savings for adoption of side-inlet in straight-levee system Less ~$12/A cost of tubing and labor = ~ $2/A net savings

23 Total H 2 O Requirements (ET + Soil Percolation) = ~14 to 25 A-in/A in = 13-in water savings 0.7 gal diesel/in = 9 gal diesel/A $3/gal diesel = ~$27/A less tubing + labor = $15/A (net) Approximate water and fuel savings for adoption of side-inlet in straight-levee system with 25 A-in/A target

24 Estimated Irrigation Water Use (A-ft/A) 247,000 A rice x 0.45 = 112,500 A straight-levee rice x ~ 1-ft/A water savings (38 A-in  25-A-in) = ~100,000 A-ft savings saved by adoption of multiple-inlet irrigation on existing straight-levee fields Phaucet-optimized savings in soy: Up to 100,000 A-ft Multiple-inlet rice irrigation savings: Up to 100,000 A-ft = ~ 2/3 of 300,000 A-ft annual overdraft (potential)

25 Average Water Use by Different MS Rice Irrigation Systems SL + Side Inlet + Intermittent 9-yr Dulaney Seed

26 Average Water Use by Different MS Rice Irrigation Systems SL + Side Inlet + Intermittent 4-yr Kline Farms

27 Farmers Extend Savings of Multiple-Inlet Rice Irrigation by: Managing flood to increase rainfall capture and to reduce over-pumping. Very shallow flooding. Managing each paddy as separate production unit.

28 Flood Management within Each Paddy Top of Levee 4-in Freeboard for Rain Capture Top of Levee Emergency Overflow ~12-in Top of Gate 4-in Controlled Flood Irrigate each paddy as needed, not on a schedule. Prevent water movement from one paddy to next. Keep levels low to capture rainfall.

29 Multiple-Inlet Irrigation in Straight-Levee Systems Tacker (2010): Approximate cost = $12/A (tubing + labor)

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31 Total H 2 O Use = 7.6-in (rainfall) + 18-in (irrigation) = 25.6-in Rice Irrigation Trials Kline 38-A field, clay soil

32 Depth Gauges Used to Aid in Flood Management Allows rapid determination of flood status. Tillman constructed 200 in an afternoon.

33 Flow Meters used as Management Tool Permanently Installed Saddle-Type

34 Flow Meters used as Management Tool Portable flow meter

35 Tools & Methods to Efficiently Lay Tubing

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37 Takes a 3-person crew ~1 hour to lay one roll of 10 mil x 15-in tubing, install gates, punch air holes, and begin initial flood.

38 Multiple (Side) Inlet Irrigation is: A proven, cost-effective flood management tool currently available to MS growers. S erves as a ‘foundation’ on which greater water and energy savings can be achieved by managing flood to capture rainfall and reduce over-pumping. Summary 2010 tubing + labor costs: ~$12/A (Tacker, 2010) Takes a 3-person crew ~1 hour to install one roll of tubing incl. gates (E. Kline; J. Dulaney, 2011)

39 Summary Phaucet-optimized savings in soy: Up to 100,000 A-ft Multiple-inlet rice irrigation savings: Up to 100,000 A-ft = ~ 2/3 of 300,000 A-ft annual overdraft (potential)

40 $ Systematic Approach to Water and Energy Conservation in Irrigation of Row Crops Economics Agronomic Management Crop Breeding State/Federal Regulations Irrigation Technology Managing short- vs. longer-term risks


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