GeneticAcquired chemical characteristics such as gelatinization temperature, gel consistency, and aroma moisture content grain shape and size color and chalkiness bulk density purity thermal conductivity damage equilibrium moisture content cracked grains immature grains milling-related characteristics (head rice recoveries, whiteness and milling degree) are also included as relevant measures of quality because they are of concern to consumers Quality Characteristics
Milled rice characteristics Physical characteristics Milling degree Whiteness Translucency Grain length Foreign material Head rice Chalkiness Chemical characteristics Amylose content Gelatinization temperature Gel consistency
Milling Degree Amount of bran removed in milling process Measured by whiteness meter or amount in weight of bran removed
Whiteness A combination of Varietal physical characteristics Post harvest management and Degree of milling.
Head rice The amount of whole kernels after milling A whole kernel is 75% +
Chalkiness Endosperm opacity or white belly Opaqueness has an overall chalky texture caused by interruption of final filling of the grain. Loosely packed starch cells
Grain length Length to width ratio stable varietal property Japonica-short and bold Indicia long and slender
Foreign matter content Purity is related to the presence of dockage in the grain. Dockage refers to material other than paddy and includes chaff, stones, weed seeds, soil, rice straw, stalks
Chemical characteristics of milled rice Gelatinization temperature determines the time required for cooking the rice Gel consistency measures the tendency of the cooked rice to harden on cooling. High amylose content? Rice grains cook dry, are less tender, and become hard upon cooling. Low-amylose content? Rice grains cook moist and are sticky
Amylose content Classified as : Waxy (1-2%) Non waxy (>2%) Very low (2-9%) Low (10-20%) Intermediate (20-25%) High (25-30%) High amylose High volume expansion, dry and flaky during cooking, hard upon cooling
Amylose Content 25-30% amylose content is classified as High Intermediate amylose rice is preferred in most rice- growing areas of the world except where low - amylose japonicas are grown 20-25% amylose content is classified as Intermediate. 10-20% amylose content is classified as Low 10%20%30% HIGH MEDIUM LOW
Gelantization temperature Time required for cooking Measured by alkali spread factor Environment affect- higher temperature during growing high gelatinization temperature Classification: 1-2 high (74.5-80 o c), 3, high intermediate, 4-5, intermediate (70-74 o C), 6-7, low (<70 o C
Gel Consistency Classificat ion Length of gel (mm) Hard27-35 Medium Hard 36-40 Medium41-60 Soft61-100 Ifthen Gel consistency is hard, Cooked rice tends to be less sticky. Harder gel consistency is associated with harder cooked rices and this feature is particularly evident in high- amylose rice. Gel consistency is soft, Cooked rice has a higher degree of tenderness. This is a preferred characteristic
Maintaining and improving grain quality Variety Crop management Post production
Variety Selection Short and medium type grains produce higher head yield Earlier maturing varieties produce less head rice than late maturing varieties Uniform filling varieties have higher grain density and less chalkiness Flower unevenly also ripen unevenly.
Crop Management Water control Nutrient balance Weeds Even plant establishment Correct plant population Harvested on time