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Advances in Electromagnetic Theory and the Decline of Science Ivor Catt. 30 August 2014 For a copy of this Powerpoint lecture, please apply to

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1 Advances in Electromagnetic Theory and the Decline of Science Ivor Catt. 30 August 2014 For a copy of this Powerpoint lecture, please apply to Further background is at

2 “If something were published in that journal by someone who did not accept virtually all the precepts enshrined in previous issues of the journal, it would carry little meaning, or communication, because having broken with the traditional agreed premises of the journal, no reader would any more know what was still agreed; no one would even be sure what the words in the revolutionary article meant.” “The Rise and Fall of Bodies of Knowledge.”

3 Does the professor pretend to not understand? Or does he really not understand? Can he understand something outside the paradigm? Please would NPA members address this issue. Crimestop means the faculty of stopping short, as though by instinct, at the threshold of any dangerous thought. It includes the power of not grasping analogies, of failing to perceive logical errors, of misunderstanding the simplest arguments if they are inimical to Ingsoc, and of being bored or repelled by any train of thought which is capable of leading in a heretical direction. Crimestop, in short, means protective stupidity. - George Orwell, “1984”, pub. Chancellor, 1984 edn., p225 “The mind should develop a blind spot whenever a dangerous thought presented itself. The process should be automatic, instinctive. Crimestop, they called it in Newspeak. He set to work to exercise himself in crimestop. He presented himself with propositions -- 'the Party says the earth is flat', 'the party says that ice is heavier than water' -- and trained himself in not seeing or not understanding the arguments that contradicted them.” Orwell also describes crimestop from the perspective of Emmanuel Goldstein in the book “The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism”Emmanuel Goldstein

4 Tore Wessel-Berg; “Electromagnetic and Quantum Measurements. A Bitemporal Neoclassical Theory”, pub. Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001” Page xv Forward by Peter A Sturrock, Emeritus Professor of Applied Physics, Stanford University. President of the Society for Scientific Expoloration “The distinguished astrophysicist Thomas Gold has written about the pressures on scientists to move in tight formation, to avoid having their legs nipped by the sheepdogs of science. …..... I have learned that many interesting topics have been ignored by Twentieth Century science for inadequate reasons.” Science and Politics. ; This presentation is a modification of some of the four hour seminar my co- author Dr. David Walton and I gave in Newcastle University on 9 October That seminar is now at However, that lecture was on electromagnetic theory, and hardly touched on the Politics of Knowledge.

5 “Peer Review outlaws Paradigm Shift.” I begin by discussing a minor advance in electromagnetic theory. It will show that the Science Establishment cannot even accommodate relatively minor advances. A minor advance is too great a threat to their lecture notes, text books, reputations, careers and pensions. However, the situation is worse than the epigram “Peer Review outlaws Paradigm Shift.”

6 Should an accident happen, and a significant advance (which means heresy) happen to get through peer review, like my 1965, 1966 and ProcIEEE 1980s papers, it will be ignored, or lost. I am confident that none of the content of those papers (or the content of my six books, all on the www) is in any “Computer Science” or “Electromagnetic Theory” university course or text book in the world, even though the first paper, about “The Glitch”, admittedly heavily camouflaged, points to a fatal flaw in digital systems. The late Professor Kinniment wrote a book about “The Glitch”; Hesitates-is-Lost.pdf. However, it will not be taught. Electromagnetic Theory is frozen at The third paper, x22k1, is obviously very important, but its two articles, published in the top peer reviewed journal in the world, ProcIEEE, will be unknown to every professor and text book writer in the world. It has to be ignored (“unknown”) because, for instance, one article sheds new light on Faraday’s discovery of electromagnetic induction. Investigation of such fundamentals is not permitted, so the ProcIEEE articles should not have been published. Hesitates-is-Lost.pdf The letter by Dunkley takes my breath away. Bizarre. How can all journalists around the world ignore this kind of thing?

7 My next point is new. I am convinced that no journalist at any level will touch this material. The Fourth Estate, the Media, must keep at arm’s length from the political class, otherwise we have a totalitarian government. Today, the Media are in the hands of Establishment Science, so we have totalitarian science. Case study. I have sent what will be very interesting material to this journalist with The Times, and am confident that she will not reply The following communities feed off Establishment Science for funding, prestige etc. They will do nothing to damage, or study, Establishment Science, or “Modern Physics”. Sociology of Science History of Science Philosophy of Science Politics of Knowledge They are all Whiggish, and none of those communities will have anything to do with my work. The following is stated in Wikipedia’s entry for “Whig History”; “It has been argued that the historiography of science is "riddled with Whiggish history." [ ”historiography of science [

8 MacRoberts and MacRoberts say in that during a paradigm shift, the Defenders of the Faith, defenders of mainstream dogma, do not understand the new paradigm, but those promoting the new paradigm understand both the old and the new. In contrast, my research shows that the Defenders of the Faith do not even understand the dogma, or old paradigm, they are defending. The TEM step first arose with the introduction of digital computers in around No professor or text book writer in the world has a grasp of the TEM step (or pulse) as it would, or rather should, be described in their classical electromagnetic theory. I shall give a number of reasons why.

9 However, first I shall give you case studies which proves that accredited professors lack grasp of the TEM Step. “The Catt Question” is an elementary question about the fundamentals of classical electromagnetism. No accredited expert on classical electromagnetism will put anything in writing about “The Catt Question”. Thirty years ago I put in a lot of effort to get accredited experts to outline the fundamentals of their theory. I finally prevailed on four high level administrators to select their top expert and instruct them to write to me. They were Pepper, McEwan, Mink and Secker. They contradicted each other, and wrote nonsense. Forrest Bishop has pointed out that since classical electromagnetism is irrational, any defence of it has to be irrational. The four irrational, contradictory “answers” are in my 1995 book Of particular interest is Pepper, “knighted for services to physics”, and now editor of the top Royal Society journal Since his single letter to me in 1993, he has been doggedly incommunicado, like the rest of them. (Except that once McEwan wrote that he disagreed with Pepper. He wrote to me, but refused to communicate with Pepper. ). More than a decade later, Nobel Prize Winner Josephson ed to me that Pepper had changed his mind, but Pepper does not confirm this.) Lago and others support early Pepper.

10 The problem extends into NPA. I wrote to the two most senior members of NPA who were said to be expert in electromagnetic theory and also academics, and they did not reply. Although the Transverse Electromagnetic Wave was known in 1950, it was limited to the sine wave. The only TEM waves discussed in text books and in the www are sinusoidal. That is, the voltage step travelling down a USB cable or from one logic gate to the next, and also the pulse, do not exist. All illustrations of the TEM Wave on the www are of the sine wave. Even such sine wave illustrations are missing from text books. No text book contains the crucial diagrams in my book, Figures 4 and 5 in Central to my theories is the negative charge on the bottom conductor during a TEM step. In virtually all illustrations of the TEM Wave on the www, this negative charge is not shown.

11 An example of the mathematical rubbish which masquerades as discussion of the TEM wave is here; 0.pdf 0.pdf The result is catastrophic. Not only you, but all professors and text book writers in the world, are incapable of grasping the TEM wave in a digital system.

12 Nobel Prizewinner Brian Josephson, a theoretical (mathematical) physicist, has written 100 s to me about “The Catt Question”. As to the Second Catt Question, Josephson was asked whether the displacement current on the front face of a TEM step caused magnetic field. His answer was remarkable and instructive. I wrote; The displacement current is in a vertical direction. This causes magnetic field in a horizontal plane, some of it lateral, some of it in the forward direction. Concentrate on the forward direction. We are dealing with a Transverse Electromagnetic Wave, which by definition only has magnetic field in a transverse direction. Thus, we must either remove displacement current from classical electromagnetism, or remove the TEM Wave. If would be extremely valuable for the future of science if you, Brian Josephson, commented on this. Ivor Catt

13 That is easy to answer at least. curl H is proportional to the sum of the ordinary current and the displacement current, so the latter must be associated with a magnetic field if Maxwell's equations are correct. Brian J. This is the smoking gun. Nobel Prizewinner Professor Brian Josephson (as usual for him) talks confusingly of curls and divs, but he does say that the Displacement Current dD/dt at the front face of a TEM step causes magnetic field. This is the first time we get an admission from anyone that the displacement current in the front face of a TEM step causes magnetic field. However, indulging as he does in curls and divs, he is unable to see its significance. The significance is that by definition a TEM step ( = transverse electromagnetic) cannot have magnetic field in the forward direction. So the definition of a TEM Wave is incompatible with displacement current. – Ivor Catt 21 May 2012 For the next reply from Josephson, go to the end of In this reply, Josephson makes the extraordinary statement; “This is the problem if you work with simplified physics rather than follow the maths.” - BJ Here we see a clear recommendation that we retreat from physical reality and replace it by mathematics.

14 A Google search shows that “Galileo’s famous statement”, “mathematics is the language of science” has 200,000 hits. “Galileo + mathematics” has 2 million hits. So if we want a science which is based on physical reality, we are up against at least one big hitter, Galileo, a man whom I strongly support in general, particularly in my dialogue with Harry Ricker over “the truth that there are no truths”. Both parties in the Galileo debate, in which Establishment Modern Physics is on the side of the church, not the side of Galileo, feel very strongly indeed about it. I think dissidents like you should be on the side of Galileo. Unlike the Establishment, you do not have to prevent scientific advance (pursuit of the truth) from obsoleting your text books and lecture notes.

15 On the vary rare occasions when I have been able to present this work, I have never before given this historical approach, showing how my ideas originated and have developed over fifty years. This should make them easier to understand, and more credible. Classical Theory Motorola Phoenix made the fastest logic, ECL (Emitter Coupled Logic coupled_logic ). A logic gate switched in 1.35nsec. coupled_logic A logic signal travels at 6 inches per nsec across a printed circuit board. Thus, the time a logic gates switches equalled the time it took for its output to travel 8 inches.

16 In Phoenix, Arizona, Motorola were semiconductor experts, but lacked expertise in digital electronics. So in 1964 they hired me because of my five years of expertise in digital electronics to investigate whether by switching logic faster than it took for signals to propagate across the system, they might fall off a cliff into massive crosstalk. Who in this audience says that the crosstalk between one signal line and another in a USB cable is a dv/dt or di/dt spike? Who says it is a flat topped pulse?

17 I thought in terms of (1) two voltage planes, one for ground and the other for 5v. When designing the Ballman Scratchpad Memory for the NSA, I built these planes into every printed circuit board. I also thought in terms of (2) two parallel conductors above a ground plane. I decided that these were the fundamentals I must address. If a 5v logic step travelled down one conductor, how large was the crosstalk into the parallel conductor? The formula in the main publication, by Jarvis, cited in said that the crosstalk could be greater than the original signal, which I knew must be wrong. Surely we did not have an amplifier?http://www.ivorcatt.org/x0312.jpg After some puzzling results, and with the help of the late Ken Johnson, I made the major discovery, that the signal broke up into two signals, Even Mode and Odd Mode, travelling at different velocities. I published this, with photographs and mathematical proof, in 1966 in the IEEE. This result is generally unknown today.

18 Who in this audience knew that when a signal travels down a conductor above a ground plane in the presence of another parallel conductor, two velocities are involved? Who in this audience knew that the crosstalk to the other conductor can rise to 50%, however far apart they are?

19 Let us return to the 5v supply by two voltage planes. Would someone in the audience like to suggest what is the source impedance at a point when a logic gate lying between a 5v plane and a 0v plane wants to suddenly take current from the 5v supply plane and dump it in the 0v?

20 I asked Bill Herndon what was the source impedance at a point between two voltage planes, one at 0v and the other at 5v. He replied; “It’s a transmission line.” I said, “Is that your idea?” He said, no it wasn’t; he wished it was. He said it came from Stopper in GEC, whom I never met. Bill previously worked with Stopper at GEC across town. To understand this, think in terms of the two rectangular voltage planes, 5v and 0v, supplying 5v to a switching logic gate at one corner. Then we see that at their corner, they represent a two conductor transmission line whose width increases with increasing distance from the corner, and whose Zo decreases. Thus, after 1.35 nsec, the source impedance of the 5v supply, Zo, has fallen to the characteristic impedance of a quarter circle of the pair of conductors at a distance from the corner where a signal could make the round trip in 1.35 nsec. Thus, the switching load sees a rapidly diminishing source impedance for the 5v supply.

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22 Perhaps this is the realisation which led me to the fact that a capacitor, which is composed of two parallel plates, is a transmission line. (No peer reviewed journal will publish the statement; “A capacitor is a transmission line.” ) I remember that at that time, in order to turn a very narrow negative 150 picosecond pulse (generated by my EH125 pulse generator) to a positive pulse, I introduced two tantalum capacitors into a coaxial cable, one from inner to outer, and the other from outer to inner. The pulse happily inverted unchanged, presumably because the capacitors had not read about the standard LCR model for a capacitor with its series inductance L and its self resonant frequency Capacitors cannot read. The development of my ideas has been extraordinarily slow, extending over fifty years. Since so little has been published, and what little has been published is not read, I have been increasingly distanced from my colleagues.

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24 We do not connect to a capacitor plate in the middle, and the standard diagram has led to a lot of confusion, going as far back as Maxwell and Heaviside. The real picture was;http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/x2ab.pdf I illustrate a transmission line divid The 150 picosecond pulse divided into three pulses, two into the capacitors, and one into the right hand coaxial cable, or transmission line. Since the Zo of a capacitor is very small, only a tiny amount went that way. Similarly, if you put a voltage across three resistors in series, 1 ohm, 1,000 ohms and 1 ohm, very little of the energy ends up in the 1 ohm resistors. It is illustrated here, at Figure 14.http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/illus/fig014.gif

25 The transient impedance of a capacitor is resistive, since it is a transmission line, not reactive (or inductive). It has no series inductance. The LCR model for a capacitor is nonsense. See Figure 2 in I published “a capacitor is a transmission line” in 1978, 36 years ago. No professor or text book writer knows this, and he needs to not know it. My remark, which is Google hit no. 3 out of 5 million, is called “Nonsense about self resonant frequency”. It is ignored.http://www.ultracad.com/articles/esrbcap.pdf “self resonant frequency”, based on the LCR model, has 5 million hits on Google. Many tell the innocent student how to measure it. The reason why the professor and text book writer must not know that a capacitor is a transmission line is because the classical treatment of one is incompatible with the other Maxwell invented “Displacement Current” dD/dt in order to ease the flow of current through a capacitor by saying dD/dt causes magnetic field. However, for 150 years nobody, including my hero Heaviside, noticed that the front face of a TEM step has changing electric field, or dD/dt, which must cause a forward magnetic field. But by definition a TEM wave has no forward magnetic field. I published on the problem in 1979, 35 year ago. At the time, Wireless World had a circulation of 60,000.

26 Until well after 1967 I avoided the formidable Maxwell Equations, even though they were written more simply then – such as dB/dt (e.g. in Professor Kip in 1962), rather than the more awe-inspiring divs and curls of today, which further divorce the student from physical reality. In my 1966 paper, I merely used Faraday’s Law v=dφ/dt and the Law of Conservation of Charge. Later, after I had 100% failed to pass Peer Review for decades, I changed from trying to publish my theories to asking questions about classical electromagnetism. I will now present these questions to you, preceded by the results of an experiment recently published in a non-peer reviewed journal. It is called “The Wakefield Experiment.” ; The results show that a charged capacitor does not store its energy in a static electric field [contradicting Wikipedia which says; “{A capacitor is} used to store energy electrostatically in an electric field.” ] field

27 In the Wakefield Experiment, a very long piece of coaxial cable, representing a charged capacitor, was discharged into a piece of cable of the same characteristic impedance Zo. Already in 1963 the Tektronix manual said;http://ivorcatt.co.uk/x212.pdf “p2-2 "The output pulse duration is equal to twice the transit time of the charge line used, plus a small built-in charge time due to the lead length from the GR panel connectors to the mercury switch contact point. The transit time of the cable is defined as the time required for a signal to pass from one end of the line to the other. For a 10-nsec charge line then, the duration of the output pulse would be 20 nanoseconds p2-3 "The pulse amplitude obtained will be approximately one-half the power source voltage.... "” For the next fifty years, nobody else pondered this strange behaviour. In 1980 I published the suggestion that “.... a steady charged capacitor is not steady at all ; it contains energy current, half of it travelling to the right at the speed of light, and the other half travelling to the left at the speed of light.” After 47 years I realised that if we tapped into the charged capacitor along its length, we would get the proof, that a charged capacitor did not have an electrostatic field, and half of its energy was in a magnetic field.

28 Now let us return to the three unanswerable questions, which expose fatal internal flaws in classical electromagnetic theory. First, “The Catt Question”. When a TEM step travels down a transmission line at the speed of light, where does the negative charge which appears on the surface of the bottom conductor come from?

29 Next, The Second Catt Question. When a TEM step travels along a transmission line, the electric field at the front edge goes from nothing to a 5v field between the two conductors. This field is D, so at the front edge there is a dD/dt,which is Displacement Current. This was invented by Maxwell in order for it to create magnetic field. However, the magnetic field created by this particular dD/dt is in the horizontal plane, some of it in the forward direction. But a TEM Wave only has magnetic field in the vertical direction. So we have to exclude either the TEM Wave or Displacement Current from classical electromagnetism.

30 dD/dt both must and must not create magnetic field. So the statement; “A capacitor is a transmission line” will never be published or taught.

31 Now The Third Catt Question. When a capacitor is charged, energy enters it at the speed of light. htm. There is no mechanism for the energy, once inside the capacitor, to slow down. When discharged, see The Wakefield Experiment, the energy exits at the speed of light. Why does classical theory say that the energy in a charged capacitor is stationary? htm

32 New Theory When a TEM step travels in a transmission line guided by two conductors, there are four features involved; - electric current in the conductors i - magnetic field, or flux, surrounding the conductors B - electric charge on the surface of the conductors +q, -q - electric field, or flux, in the vacuum terminating on the charge (Figure 2), DFigure 2 Theory N Traditional theory, which I call “Theory N”, says that the electric current and charge cause the electric and magnetic field. Who in this audience believes that when a battery is trying to light a lamp, it wants to send electric current or charge down the conductors, and that if successful, the current causes the Poynting Vector field ExH between the conductors?

33 Theory H In 1892, Heaviside reversed this. His Theory H says that the field causes the electric current. In Heaviside's magnificent, regal statement, "We reverse this" in his Electrical Papers, vol. 1, 1892, page 438, Heaviside wrote; Now, in Maxwell's theory there is the potential energy of the displacement produced in the dielectric parts by the electric force, and there is the kinetic or magnetic energy of the magnetic force in all parts of the field, including the conducting parts. They are supposed to be set up by the current in the wire [Theory N]. We reverse this; the current in the wire is set up by the energy transmitted through the medium around it [Theory H]…. 1, 212

34 Heaviside’s “Theory H” disappeared from the record, along with all his work on pulses down cables. He was not mentioned in any text book for more than fifty years. (But his operational calculus survived.) This was because not long after 1892, in 1897, Marconi achieved wireless signalling, which was much more glamorous, and led to the development of ever more sophisticated mathematics, which exclude the pulse. Today, text books tell you that in order to understand electromagnetic theory, you must first master the mathematics of vectors and other mathematics. A Google search for “mathematics is the language of science”, 200,000 hits, will reinforce this advice. In contrast, look for the mathematics in my talk. My talk is about physics, not mathematics. The TEM step is central to digital electronics, which is 95% of today’s electronics. It is what goes down a USB cable in every home. The maths pushers who control education call the TEM pulse “degenerate”. In the U.S. university bible, J. D, Jackson, “Classical Electrodynamics”, pub. Wiley 1692/1975, p341, says; “.... we take note of a degenerate or special type of solution, called the.... TEM Wave..... axial wave number.... Ѡ.... e +/-ikz....”. When Catt was drawn in 1964 into Heaviside’s problem, the transmission of pulses, in Heaviside’s case undersea from Newcastle to Denmark, Catt did not know that Heaviside had made a contribution, and he had to rediscover Heaviside’s concept of “Energy Current” travelling in a transmission line guided by two conductors. He only came upon Heaviside’s work twelve years later.

35 J A Fleming

36 Theory C In 1976 Catt made the next advance, which is unknown to any professor or text book writer today. Theory N. The battery yearns to send out electric current. If is succeeds, the current creates the Poynting Vector ExH. This energy is delivered to the lamp, which lights. Theory H. The battery yearns to send out energy current – Poynting Vector – into the space between the conductors. If it succeeds, the energy enters the lamp sideways, as Professor Kip said. The Poynting Vecor, or field, also creates the electric current and electric charge. Theory C. The critical path is for energy to be transferred from battery to lamp. This is via the intermediary of ExH field, Poynting Vector. Electric current and charge are not in the path of energy, from battery to field to lamp. When a battery is connected to a lamp by two wires and the lamp lights, electric current is not involved. Heaviside came close 116 years earlier, but missed Theory C. He wrote; “By the way, is there such a thing as an electric current?”. Had he not been suppressed, someone would have come to Theory C earlier. Even today, Heaviside’s switch from electric current to energy current is virtually unknown. Note that Heaviside worked in digital electronics. Of course, not only Theory H, but also Theory C is unknown today.

37 “Although a cloud cannot exist without edges, the edges of a cloud do not exist. They have no width, volume, or materiality. However, the edges of a cloud can be drawn. Their shapes can be manipulated graphically and mathematically. The same is true of the so-called ‘electric current’..... Half of the primitives in electromagnetic theory disappear, and it ceases to be a dualistic theory. ρ and J disappear, becoming merely the physically non-existent results of the mathematical manipulation of E and H, with no more significance than “circularity” [see Letters in Wireless World, June 1979, p82, next slide.] For the creation of “electricity” by mathematical manipulation, use Maxwell’s Equations, for instance; which gives you the mathematical fantasy “charge”, mathematically derived from a real electric field. Compare charge with “slopiness”. Is slopiness, or charge, physically real?

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40 In science, there is no precedent for a mathematical derivation of something real being wrongly thought to be real. A good example where mathematical manipulation takes us from the real to the fantasy is in the sequence; distance, velocity, acceleration, rate of change of acceleration, rate of change of rate of change of..... Another example is length, area, volume, fourth dimension, fifth dimension. Mathematical rigour does not give us a dividing line between the real and fantasy. The mathematical manipulation of something real does not always give us something real. Since today the ruling dogma is “mathematics is the language of science”, which has 200,000 hits on Google, such an issue cannot be discussed. ; “.... it was said that whereas in the nineteenth century scientists were interested in whether a mathematical construct did or did not have a basis in physical reality, today scientists no longer care.”http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/x37h.pdf Ivor Catt 15 September 2013.

41 Lecture given in 2011 to the EMC group in the U.K. Branch of the IEEE.

42 Diagrams of a charging capacitor from Wikipedia’s “Displacement Current”

43 Where Wikipedia say I D or E, they should say dD/dt

44 For 150 years after Maxwell, nobody, not even Heaviside, noticed that when electric current/charge entered a capacitor it first had to spread out across the capacitor plates. After this was pointed out, the fact was ignored for the next thirty years. (It undermines “Displacement Current”)

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46 p.4t.com/EMTV2/EMTvol 2p318-9.jpg

47 A capacitor is like 1, not 2..

48 dD/dt both must and must not create magnetic field. So the statement; “A capacitor is a transmission line” will never be published or taught.

49 Self resonant frequency? Since a capacitor is a transmission line, it has no series inductance and so no self resonant frequency. Although Google for “self resonant frequency” puts Catt’s observation above Wikipedia’s at the front of two million hits, any link to Catt’s hit put in Wikipedia is removed. [September 2013 update. In Google, Catt is still no. 1 hit out of 4 million for “self resonant frequency”. Wikipedia have removed their web page for “self resonant frequency”! Yet Wikipedia does not ban entries on what does not exist. Ghosts does better with 70 million hits.]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghost

50 This is how a capacitor charges

51 Illustrations of the TEM step. Regard D and E as the same, and B and H as the same B

52 A battery was connected to the wires off at the left, and the wires are infinitely long.

53 Traditionally. when a TEM step (i.e. logic transition from low to high) travels through a vacuum from left to right, guided by two conductors (the signal line and the 0v line), there are four factors which make up the wave;

54 - electric current in the conductors, i - magnetic field, or flux, surrounding the conductors B - electric charge on the surface of the conductors +q, -q - electric field, or flux, in the vacuum terminating on the charge, D

55 The TEM Wave Traditionally. when a TEM step (i.e. logic transition from low to high) travels through a vacuum from left to right, guided by two conductors (the signal line and the 0v line), there are four factors which make up the wave; - electric current in the conductors, i - magnetic field, or flux, surrounding the conductors B - electric charge on the surface of the conductors +q, -q - electric field, or flux, in the vacuum terminating on the charge, D

56 The key to grasping the Question is to concentrate on the electric charge -q on the bottom conductor.

57 . The step advances one foot per nanosecond. Extra negative charge –p appears on the surface of the bottom conductor to terminate the new lines (tubes) of electric flux D which appear between the top (signal) conductor and the bottom conductor.

58 “The Catt Question.” Since 1982 the question has been: Where does this new charge -p come from?

59 . Sir Michael Pepper, Knighted "for services to Physics", says it comes from the south. Nobel Prizewinner Professor Josephson says it comes from the west. Accredited experts line up, half behind Pepper (Southerners) and half behind Josephson (Westerners). Professor Martin Rees, President of The Royal Society, and Master of their College (Newton’s college), would do nothing about the contradiction.

60 Both are wrong. Since the charge – p would have to travel at the speed of light, it would have infinite mass. Electricity is not fit for purpose, its primary purpose being to help a Battery to light a lamp.

61 Implications. We must progress to “Theory C”. If a TEM step travels down in a dielectric guided by two conductors, electric current is not involved. (Some field would penetrate an imperfect conductor.)

62 Although a cloud cannot exist without edges, the edges of a cloud do not exist. They have no width, volume, or materiality. However, the edges of a cloud can be drawn. Their shapes can be manipulated graphically and mathematically. The same is true of the so- called ‘electric current’.

63 This error, of thinking that the mathematical manipulation of something which is real (the field) is also real (electric current and charge) has is unique in the history of science. We know that the field is real, because it conveys the power ExH from battery to lamp, which lights the lamp, and we see the lamp light up. Maxwell’s equations show us how to manipulate field to give charge and current.

64 Is the mathematical manipulation of something which is real always also real?

65 Science has today been hijacked by mathematics. Within today’s culture of mathematical physics, the question cannot be asked. It can no longer be admitted that mathematics might move us from the real to the unreal. In The Mysterious Universe, p113, Professor James Jeans says; “…. The universe appears to have been designed by a pure mathematician.”

66 Field between the two conductors

67 The field pattern above was published in only one text book in the 20 th century. Perhaps that helps to explain why; Pepper (Southerner) and Josephson (Westerner) cannot grasp “The Catt Question” because they see a sine wave, not a pulse. They mention “frequency”. “The Catt Question” becomes hopelessly confused.

68 The move from “Slab” to “Rolling” Until this point, you saw “The Heaviside Signal”. We had “a slab of (unchanging) energy current.” But now sinusoidal change of E causes H which causes E

69 E causes H causes E? In the middle of a pulse, with no changes, this is impossible. So the pulse is excluded from electromagnetic theory. Also, the professors and text books must not point out that E and H are in phase.

70 Now E causes E! Omitting the constants, dE/dt= -dH/dx and dH/dt= -dE/dx. (When Catt points out that also, dE/dt= - dE/dx, he has to be ignored)

71 The real reason for the – sign in the formulae, thought to indicate a spurious causality between E and H, has to be suppressed. Like the length and breadth of a brick, E and H coexist. They are in fixed proportion.

72 Key formulae missing from all text books

73 Forrest Bishop, May 27, 2006 All images and animations are Copyright © 2006, Forrest Bishop, All Rights Reserved ORY_C_ANIMATIONS.htm Guide to Theory C Electromagnetics Computer Simulations

74 The purple boxes of energy current in other simulations are a substitute for these complicated fields. Field test 3 More accurate representations of a slab of energy current moving along two wires at the speed of light. The reddish cylinders represent the electric field between the wires; the blueish cylinders around each wire represent the magnetic fields. Field test

75 uk/cattq.htm Traditionally. when a TEM step travels through a vacuum from left to right, guided by two conductors, there are four factors which make up the wave: electric current in the conductors I magnetic field, or flux, surrounding the conductors B electric charge on the surface of the conductors +q, -q electric field, or flux, in the vacuum terminating on the charge (Figure 2), DFigure 2 The Catt Question The key to grasping the question is to concentrate on the electric charge -q on the bottom conductor. The step advances one foot per nanosecond. Extra negative charge appears on the surface of the bottom conductor to terminate the new lines (tubes) of electric flux D (figure 2) which appear between the top (signal) conductor and the bottom conductor.(figure 2) Since 1982 the question has been: Where does this new charge come from?


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