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The Postwar Boom: Chapter Nineteen Somewhere Over the Rainbow.

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Presentation on theme: "The Postwar Boom: Chapter Nineteen Somewhere Over the Rainbow."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Postwar Boom: Chapter Nineteen Somewhere Over the Rainbow

2 READJUSTMENT AND RECOVERY  Ten million men and women in 46 try to rebuild their lives  GI Bill of Rights Purposes*  Many go to live in suburbs*  William Levitt built standardized homes in treeless lots  Divorce rates begin to rise due to women working Postwar America: Section One

3  Had to convert from a wartime to a peacetime economy  A million defense workers, along with veterans, were looking for work and unemployment rises  Prices on goods had risen by 25 percent—took two years for demand to catch up  Economists predicted a postwar depression—did not happen because of savings accounts* Postwar America

4 MEETING ECONOMIC CHALLENGES  Harry S. Truman*  Eleanor Roosevelt’s advice  Had to deal with the threat of communism and restoring the American economy after the war  Steelworkers, coal miners, and railroad workers go on strike—hurts the economy*  Takes over the mines; might do this with railroads; threatens to draft workers into the army Postwar America

5 SOCIAL UNREST PERSISTS  After WWII, violence occurs in South and veterans demand their rights  Truman willing to sacrifice not getting reelected due to his support  Commission on Civil Rights*  Congress refused to pass

6  Truman fights on  creates executive order to ban separation of races in military and discrimination when hiring federal employees  Lower courts no longer allowed to prevent African Americans from moving into certain neighborhoods  Truman does become reelected despite opposition and creates the Fair Deal* Postwar America

7 REPUBLICANS TAKE THE MIDDLE ROAD  Truman’s approval rating sinks due to Korean War and McCarthyism  Next election: Adlai Stevenson vs. Dwight “Ike” Eisenhower*  Republicans blame democrats for losses against communism overseas; claim federal govt. is growing too powerful; Truman admin is corrupt

8 Postwar America  Newspapers accuse Ike’s running mate, Nixon, of accepting private funds from wealthy supporters  The “Checkers” speech*  Speech saves his place; Eisenhower becomes pres.

9 The American Dream in the Fifties: Section Two This slide is brought to you by Coca-Cola THE ORGANIZATION AND THE ORGANIZATION MAN  White collar jobs increase, while blue collar jobs decrease*  Many work for large corporations and govt. agencies  Conglomerates*  Franchises*

10 This slide brought to you by Betty Crocker  Businesses did not want individuals, rebels, or creative thinkers working for them  Companies give personality tests to see if people “fit in” THE SUBURBAN LIFESTYLE *Living in the suburbs provided good schools and a safe and healthy environment to raise kids *Returning soldiers contributed to the baby boom* The American Dream in the Fifties

11 This slide is brought to you by Kool-Aid  Vaccines developed to cure typhoid and polio  Dr. Benjamin Spock writes a popular baby book with the following advice*  TV shows such as Father Knows Best and Ozzie and Harriet—glorify the female*  Some women work outside the home—usually as nurses, teachers, and office workers The American Dream in the Fifties

12 This slide is brought to you by Kodak  Americans have more free time—standard 40 hour work week is developed  Participate in fishing, bowling, hunting, boating, and golf  Watched or attended baseball, basketball, and football games  Avid readers—read books on cooking, religion, homemaking, romances, mysteries, and fiction  Read comic books, The Reader’s Digest, Sports Illus. The American Dream in the Fifties

13 This slide is brought to you by Cheerios THE AUTOMOBILE CULTURE  After WWII, there is an abundance of fuel, which made it inexpensive  Advertising and easy credit available made people want to buy cars  Living in the suburbs made having a car a necessity for travel—much different than the city*  “Automania” spurred the govt. to create highways to link cities (41,000 miles of it created) The American Dream in the Fifties

14 This slide is brought to you by 7-Up  With highways and cars, new jobs are created for vacations spots, restaurants, the movies, malls, gas stations, repair shops, and road crews  Problems with cars*  “White flight” occurred with cars*  Negative results with taking away jobs and resources CONSUMERISM UNBOUND  Consumerism* The American Dream in the Fifties

15 This slide is brought to you by Ford  New products began to appear such as washing machines, blenders, freezers, microwaves, televisions, tape recorders, record players, lawn mowers, grills, lawn decorations, and swimming pools  Planned obsolescence*  America becomes a “throwaway society”  Americans pay for these items with credit cards and installment buying  Advertising found in newspapers, magazines, billboards, radio, and, of course, tv The American Dream in the Fifties

16 I Love Lucy NEW ERA OF THE MASS MEDIA  Mass media*  Television: 1950  9 percent of homes; 1954  55 percent of homes; 1960  90 percent of homes  Description of early television sets  Federal Communications Commission*  I Love Lucy, Green Acres, Leave it to Beaver, Mickey Mouse Club Popular Culture: Section Three

17 Popular Culture  TV launches advertising, TV Guide, and tv dinners  Programs are criticized because they weren’t accurate with women, minorities, and real problems*  Radio, now, only covers news, weather, music, advertising, and community issues  Movie industry was hurting at first; movies rely on these factors*

18 A SUBCULTURE EMERGES  Critics against the suburban lifestyle and tv images emerge  Beat Movement*  Beatniks lived a life without work—sought a higher conciousness through Buddhism, music, and drugs  Poets and writers believed in having an open structure  Allen Ginsberg’s “Howl” and Jack Kerouac’s On the Road Popular Culture

19 AFRICAN AMERICANS AND ROCK N ROLL  Electronic music was being added to blues music  Alan Freed is the first disc jockey to play it and names the music rock ‘n’ roll*  Chuck Berry, Little Richard, Bill Haley and His Comets, and Elvis Presley make the music popular amongst teenagers  Elvis picked up his style from singing in church and listening to gospel, country, and blues music

20  Signed to RCA and songs sold millions of copies  Rebellious style captivates audiences; screaming girls and boys tried to imitate him Presley and the Ed Sullivan Show  Many adults believed the following about this music*  Some cities ban the music  Television and radio exposure would help erase these beliefs Popular Culture

21 URBAN POOR  One in every four Americans lived below the poverty level: elderly, single mothers, and minorities  Presence of white flight as African Americans moved from South to the North  Loss of taxes leaves city govts. unable to improve schools, transportation, and police and fire depts. The Other America: Section Four

22  Urban renewal* POVERTY LEADS TO ACTIVISM  During WWII, there was a shortage of agricultural laborers, so the govt. hired braceros*  When employment ended, there was an expectation to return to Mexico  Many remained illegally and more entered the country to escape the poor conditions of Mexico The Other America

23  1944 National Congress of Indian Affairs*  WWII, Native Americans became aware of discrimination when they came home and lost their wages and outsiders had take control of tribal lands  1953 federal govt. announces that it would give up responsibility for tribes  Termination policy*  Problems of termination policy* The Other America

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