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The Immune System By: Keely Corscadden, Sarah Goss, and Lindsey Renner system.html.

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1 The Immune System By: Keely Corscadden, Sarah Goss, and Lindsey Renner system.html

2 Pathogens and Antigens -Pathogens are microorganisms that cause disease, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoa. -An antigen is a macro molecule that stimulates an immune response because they are foreign proteins and chemicals; they become the target of white blood cells. -Antigen receptors have different shapes that require different antibodies to attach to it, making particular matches, just as there are specific active sites for specific substrates. -Antibodies identify the antigen as a foreign invader and defend the body against infection T he Biology Project. "Introduction to Immunology." The Biology Project. University of Arizona, 10 Nov Web.. Dirnberger. "Physiology: Immune System." Biology Kennesaw State. University, n.d. Web. 1 Nov .

3 Acquired vs. Passive Immunity -Acquired immunity: develops with exposure to various antigens (body builds up immunity against the specific antigen), long lasting -Ex: chicken pox -Passive immunity: due to antibodies produced in body other than one’s own (mother passes on to children), can also be due to injections, not long lasting -Ex: flu shots Raven, et al. "The Immune System." Biology. McGraw Hill Higher Education, Web. 30 Oct

4 First Line: External Defense of the Natural Immunity (wall/moat) withfriendship.com

5 -Nonspecific targets -Surface barriers prevent disease-causing organisms from entering body -ex: skin (low moisture, low pH- hard for bacteria to survive), thick layer of dead cells, chemicals on skin- disrupt certain viruses -Bacteria already inhabiting skin- outcompete pathogens -Mucous membranes (such as coating respiratory and digestive tracts) trap and eliminate possible invaders -Lysozymes: enzymes in mucus that digests bacteria cell walls -Flushing effect: tears, saliva, urine -Coughing reflex -Dirnberger. "Physiology: Immune System." Biology Kennesaw State University, n.d. Web. 1 Nov . -Starr, Cecie, and Ralph Taggart. Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life llus. Lisa Starr. 9th ed. N.p.: Brooks/Cole, Print. 1st Line:

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7 Second Line: Internal Defense of the Innate Immunity (soldiers+call to arms) users.trytel.com

8 2nd Line: -Nonspecific responses (response without identifying invader) -Fast-acting WBCs try to engulf and destroy pathogen at entry point (ex: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils) -Macrophages (large phagocytic WBCs) signaled and try to engulf and destroy pathogens -Attack anything foreign- problematic for people with transplants -Blood-clotting proteins coagulate blood to close gap so no other pathogens can enter -Damaged cells release chemicals (ex: histamine), which cause blood vessels to leak fluid into tissue (swelling) and isolates foreign invader from coming into contact with more tissue (prevents them from replicating and spreading to other cells) -Chemicals attract white blood cells (phagocytes) that destroy invaders and dead/damaged cell (process called phagocytosis) -Some organs have pathogen-killing functions (ex: lymph nodes) -Raven, et al. "The Immune System." Biology. McGraw Hill Higher Education, Web. 30 Oct Starr, Cecie, and Ralph Taggart. Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life. Illus. Lisa Starr. 9th ed. N.p.: Brooks/Cole, Print.

9 Phagocytes: -Group of white blood cells (phagocytic) that find and “eat” viruses, dead or injured body cells, and bacteria -Engulf pathogens by the process of phagocytosis: -Three main types: -Granulocytes, Macrophages, and Dendritic Cells 2.htm "The Immune System - in More Detail". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB Web. 30 Oct Starr, Cecie, and Ralph Taggart. Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life. Illus. Lisa Starr. 9th ed. N.p.: Brooks/Cole, Print.

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11 Second Line of Defense:

12 Third Line: Acquired Immunity/ Immune Response (spies)

13 3rd Line: -Specific responses to specific targets -Lymphocytes (T cells and B cells) -Circulate throughout blood and respond to specific microbes and antigens -Only cells with specificity for a specific antigen will interact with them (similar to active site and substrate) -T cells= cell mediated response -B cells= humoral response -Raven, et al. "The Immune System." Biology. McGraw Hill Higher Education, Web. 30 Oct Starr, Cecie, and Ralph Taggart. Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life. Illus. Lisa Starr. 9th ed. N.p.: Brooks/Cole, Print.

14 Lymphocytes: Cells of the Acquired Immune System -T Cells and B Cells are white blood cells that fall into this category -Created in bone marrow then move to parts of the lymphatic system -Spleen, Lymph Nodes, Thymus, transportation system (lymph vessels) to move/store these cells in the body -System feeds cells into the body as well as filters out dead cells and outside organisms like bacteria (potentially harmful) -Cells have receptors with specific fits to attach to antigens within the body -Help cells differentiate the foreign invaders from regular cells/tissues -Enough different lymphocytes to recognize nearly all antigens "The Immune System - in More Detail". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB Web. 30 Oct

15 T Cells (Thymus Cells) -Two types: Helper T Cells and Killer T Cells -Produced in bone marrow then moved to the thymus (organ below breastbone) to mature -Target and kill any cells within body that are already infected -Recognize foreign cells and inactivate any harmful molecules in the body with receptors -Produce cell death (Killer T Cells) "The Immune System - in More Detail". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB Web. 30 Oct The Immune System - in More Detail". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB Web. 30 Oct

16 Helper T Cells -Secrete interleukins -Interleukins trigger cell divisions/differentiation creating large “armies” against a specific antigen (B Cells) -Primary job is to activate B Cells and Killer T Cells -Helper T Cells are activated by phagocytes presenting antigens that the receptors of the HTC’s bind to and recognize -After activating, HTC’s divide and make proteins in B Cells and T Cells Starr, Cecie, and Ralph Taggart. Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life. Illus. Lisa Starr. 9th ed. N.p.: Brooks/Cole, Print. "The Immune System - in More Detail". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB Web. 30 Oct

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18 B Cells (Bone Marrow) -Produced, develop, and mature in bone marrow -When viruses are free in fluid of body (humoral response) -Make and secrete antibodies -Antibodies are proteins that have Y shaped binding spots to help them attach to and destroy antigens. By binding to antigens, antibodies can neutralize toxins, tag pathogens for destruction, and prevent any pathogens from attaching to regular body cells. -Place markers on pathogens and alert complement proteins, macrophages, and natural killing cells to attack the marked cells -natural killing cells are more “interested” in killing cells with more antibodies attached to them -When they recognize antigens, they produce plasma cells to give off lots of antibodies to fight the antigens as well as memory cells that have a longer life span to recognize antigens in the future so that they can be attacked for swiftly "The Immune System - in More Detail". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB Web. 30 Oct Starr, Cecie, and Ralph Taggart. Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life. Illus. Lisa Starr. 9th ed. N.p.: Brooks/Cole, Print.

19 Third Line of Defense:

20 Third Line of Defense Video: hill.com/sites/ /student_view0/chapter24/animation__the_immu ne_response.html

21 www2.bakersfieldcollege.edu Lines of Defense (summary): = abovethecrowd.com

22 References: 1) "The Immune System - in More Detail". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB Web. 30 Oct ) Raven, et al. "The Immune System." Biology. McGraw Hill Higher Education, Web. 30 Oct . 3) The Biology Project. "Introduction to Immunology." The Biology Project. University of Arizona, 10 Nov Web.. 4) Dirnberger. "Physiology: Immune System." Biology Kennesaw State University, n.d. Web. 1 Nov . 5) Starr, Cecie, and Ralph Taggart. Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life. Illus. Lisa Starr. 9th ed. N.p.: Brooks/Cole, Print.


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