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Human Physiology Project Sijie Mao Biology 5. Nervous System Central Nervous System -Brain: receives and processes information, controls body, thought.

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Presentation on theme: "Human Physiology Project Sijie Mao Biology 5. Nervous System Central Nervous System -Brain: receives and processes information, controls body, thought."— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Physiology Project Sijie Mao Biology 5

2 Nervous System Central Nervous System -Brain: receives and processes information, controls body, thought -Brain stem: involuntary functions - Spinal cord: connects brain to body, reflex responses Peripheral Nervous System - sensory nerves: transmits to brain - motor nerves: receives impulses from central (involuntary/conscious) D. The functions of the nervous system - The communication system, controls and coordinates functions in the body and responds to external/internal stimuli

3 D.The role of neurons in transmitting electrochemical impulses - Environment/neuron stimulates neuron - Electrical impulse travels along neuron when a portion of its cellular membrane temporarily changes charge - Impulse continues on to another neuron/cell with the release of neurotransmitters at axon terminals (chemicals that stimulate an impulse in the next cell) E. The roles of sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons in sensation, thought and response - Sensation: sensory neurons carry information collected from the sensory receptors/nerves to the central nervous system - Thought: interneurons facilitate communication in the central nervous system, connecting sensory and motor neurons to generate a response - Response: motor neurons carry commands from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands

4 B. How the nervous system meditates communication between different parts of the body and the body’s interaction with the environment - internal/external information gathered by nerves/ sensory receptors throughout the body - nerves relay info through electrochemical impulses to central nervous system - information is processed, response command sent through nerves - nerves relay commands to muscles/glands for response

5 C. How feedback loops in the nervous system regulate conditions in the body - body tries to maintain homeostasis (stable internal conditions) - Nerves stimulated by changes in conditions i.e.: temperature - Central nervous system stimulates release in chemicals/change in the body’s activity - Causes body to return to a stable condition - Stops nervous system response as stimulus/stability restored

6 Skeletal System Bone Functions: - supports body/protects internal organs - pulled/released by muscle to produce movement - store minerals - blood cell formation site

7 Structure: - cells and protein fibers surrounded by calcium deposits Bone marrow: - red marrow produces red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets

8 Cartilage Functions: - connective tissue - flexibility - lengthens bone when it grows at the growth plates and ossification occurs Ossification - cartilage is replaced by bone after special cells deposit minerals Structure: cells surrounded by flexible protein fibers

9 Joints Functions: - allows bones to attach to each other and move - include immovable, slightly movable and freely movable joints Ligaments Functions: - protects and holds freely movable joints together

10 Muscular System Skeletal muscle Functions: -allow voluntary movement i.e.: legs, arms etc Structure: - attached to bone - striped - long/thin cells - many nuclei

11 Smooth muscle Functions: - involuntary movement i.e.: stomach, blood vessels, intestines etc Structure: - in hollow structures - spindle shape - one nucleus

12 Cardiac muscle Functions: - movement of the heart Structure: - in heart - one/two nucleus - striped

13 H. The cellular and molecular basis of muscle contraction, including the roles of actin, myosin, Ca+2, and ATP - Motor neurons stimulates muscle cells with neurotransmitters (acetylcholine) to contract - Impulses release Ca+2 allowing thin actin to slide over thick myosin filaments which shortens the muscle - ATP provides energy to power the contraction Movement - Muscles contract/relax to cause opposite movements - Connect to bones with tendon to pull bones with joints

14 Skin - Forms a covering over the body Epidermis Functions: - Protection against infection, sun and injury Structure: - Outer layer of skin - Dead cell outer layer, live cell inner layer - Tough, flexible, waterproof - Constantly replaced Integumentary System

15 Dermis Functions: - role in temperature regulation: blood vessels expand/narrow, perspiration Structure: - Inner layer - Contains oil and sweat glands, blood vessels, nerve endings and hair follicles

16 Hair Functions: - protection from the sun, particles from entering the body i.e.: nostrils, ears - temperature regulation: insulation Structure: - Rapidly dividing cells - Columns of dead cells filled with keratin

17 Nails Functions: - Protect finger and toe tips Structure: - Rapidly dividing cells - Cells filled with keratin form a plate

18 Circulatory System Heart Functions: -pumps blood through circulatory system Structure: - hollow organ - mainly composed of muscle - myocardium contract to pump blood - separated left (oxygen-rich blood) from right (oxygen-poor) by septum - 4 chambers: 2 atria (receive blood) 2 ventricles (pump out blood) - contains valves between to allow blood to flow in one direction - 2 pumps: right pumps to lungs left pumps to body

19 Blood Functions: - collects nutrients/waste from tissues - regulates internal conditions i.e.: temperature - aids against infection/disease - repair injury Structure - plasma: fluid containing proteins/nutrients/ hormones/ wastes - blood cells : red (carry oxygen) white (attack foreign substances) platelets (clotting)

20 Arteries - Transports oxygen-rich blood through the body - Walls contain muscle/connective tissue to push blood through Veins - Transports oxygen-poor blood back to the heart - Walls contain muscle/connective tissue to push blood through Capillaries - Brings oxygen/nutrient-rich blood to the body’s tissues (diffuses out of capillary walls) - Absorbs carbon dioxide/waste - Small, thin blood vessels

21 A. How the complementary activity of major body systems provides cells with oxygen and nutrients and removes toxic waste products such as carbon dioxide - Heart pumps nutrient-rich blood from the respiratory/digestive systems throughout the body through blood vessels - Blood vessels collect wastes and carry oxygen-poor blood to the heart where it is pumped back to the lungs to absorb oxygen and release carbon dioxide waste - Blood is pumped through the excretory system to filter out wastes

22 Air Passage - Enters through nose/mouth (filtered mucus/hairs) - Travels to pharynx (throat) the trachea (windpipe) - Epiglottis prevents food from passing down the trachea - To the bronchi to the lungs Respiratory System

23 Lungs - Bronchi leads to smaller bronchioles in the lungs - Continue to divide into smaller bronchioles until they end at alveoli (air sacs) - Oxygen diffuses out of alveoli to capillaries to be pumped through the body - Carbon dioxide from capillaries diffuse into alveoli to be transported out the body

24 Breathing - Partially involuntary function signaled by carbon dioxide levels - Air moving into and out the lungs - Enabled by air pressure: Inhale: diaphragm contracts, exterior pressure exceeds interior, air pulled in Exhale: diaphragm relaxes, interior pressure exceeds exterior, air pushed out

25 A. How the complementary activity of major body systems provides cells with oxygen and nutrients and removes toxic waste products such as carbon dioxide - Respiratory system collects oxygen - Collected by blood vessels to be pumped throughout the body by the circulatory system - Carbon dioxide returns through blood vessels to be exhaled - Reabsorb oxygen from the lungs

26 Digestive System F. The individual functions and sites of secretion of digestive enzymes (amylases, proteases, nucleases, lipases), stomach acid, and bile salts. - Amylase: salivary glands/pancreas, breaks down starches - Protease: stomach/pancreas, breaks down protein - Nuclease: pancreas, breaks down nucleic acid - Lipase: pancreas, breaks down fat - Stomach acid: gastric glands (lining the stomach) breaks proteins into smaller fragments/ begins break down of fats - Bile salts: liver, breaks down fat/fat-soluble vitamins Mouth - Teeth: breaks food down into smaller fragments - Saliva: begins chemical digestion of starches, kills bacteria, aids in chewing

27 Stomach - Begins chemical digestion of proteins/fat - Stomach muscles contract to churn and mix food Pancreas - Releases enzymes to break down carbohydrates, protein, fat and nucleic acids into the small intestine - Neutralizes stomach acid to allow enzymes to function Liver - Produces bile

28 Small Intestine - Duodenum: food mixes with enzymes/bile from the liver and pancreas, food is converted to nutrient molecules - Jejunum and ileum: nutrients are absorbed through the walls by capillaries Large Intestine - Water extracted through walls - Indigestible materials remain in the colon to be digested by bacteria - Waste passes out the body through the rectum

29 A. How the complementary activity of major body systems provides cells with oxygen and nutrients and removes toxic waste products such as carbon dioxide - Food is broken down into nutrients useable by the body by the digestive system - Nutrients pass through blood vessels to be pumped throughout the body by the circulatory system - Wastes are filtered out of the blood and removed by the kidneys and the excretory system

30 Wastes - Result from cellular activities ie: excess salts, carbon dioxide, hydrogen ions, urea (toxic chemical) Skin - Excretes excess water/salts/urea in sweat Lungs - Excrete carbon dioxide Excretory System

31 Kidneys G. The homeostatic role of the kidneys in the removal of nitrogenous wastes - Filtration: waste-laden blood enters the kidney, wastes flow into capillary walls of Bowman’s capsule and separated from the blood - Reabsorption: water/salts are reabsorbed by active transport/osmosis - able to regulate water/nutrient content in blood: reabsorb less water/salts when high water/salt concentration - maintain proper blood pH (extract hydrogen ions) - Secretion: waste (urine) remains to flow into collecting ducts to the bladder, later excreted - purified blood recirculates

32 Liver G. The homeostatic role of the liver in blood detoxification and glucose balance - Removes toxic chemicals from the blood - Removes glucose from the blood when stimulated by insulin and converts it into glycogen for storage - Converts glycogen into glucose when stimulated by glucagon and releases it into the blood

33 A. How the complementary activity of major body systems provides cells with oxygen and nutrients and removes toxic waste products such as carbon dioxide. - Circulatory system pumps blood throughout the body - Blood collects wastes - Waste-laden blood is pumped to the excretory system for waste removal

34 Hormones - Enzymes that travel through the blood stream and affect cell activity - Bind to specific chemical receptors on cells - Creates a longer, gradual response - Steroid: affects gene expression - Nonsteroid: activates/inhibits cell activities I. How hormones (including digestive, reproductive, osmoregulatory) provide internal feedback mechanisms for homeostasis at the cellular level and in whole organisms. - Feedback and complementary action - Homeostasis: inbalance causes hormones release to restore balance, release stopped/counteracted by opposing hormone after balance is restored Endocrine System

35 Endocrine glands - Release hormones into the blood stream Hypothalamus - Controls hormone secretions of the pituitary gland by releasing releasing hormones - Responds to sensory information from the nervous system and hormone levels Pituitary gland - Secretes regulatory hormones ie: growth hormone - Controls other glands

36 Thyroid gland - Regulates metabolism: secretes thyroxine to increase cellular respiration - Regulate calcium levels: Secretes calcitonin to decrease calcium levels in blood Parathyroid gland - Regulates calcium levels: Secretes parathyroid hormone to increases calcium levels (more absorption and reabsorption) Adrenal glands - Controls rate of metabolism - Regulates reabsorbtion/excretion of ions - Secretes adrenaline: allows body to prepare for and deal with stress (fight or flight situation) ie: increase in body activity, energy

37 Pancreas - Regulates blood sugar levels: secretes insulin to remove and store sugar from blood secretes glucogen to release sugar into blood Gonads - Ovaries/testes: produce gametes (sex cells) secrete sex hormones C. How feedback loops in the endocrine system regulates conditions in the body - Temperature/ metabolism: thyroxine (increases cellular activity) level is low, stimulates thyroid releasing hormone-release to stimulate thyroxine release, thyroxine level becomes high, thyroid releasing hormone-release stops - Water balance: decrease in water level stimulates thirst/hormone release to slow water removal from blood by kidneys, once water level is restored hormone release slows, increasing water removal

38 Male Reproductive System - Matures during puberty when FSH and LH hormones stimulate the production of testosterone Testes - Site of sperm production Epididymis - Site of storage/maturation of sperm Vas deferens - Transport sperm to urethra - Site of addition of fluids by adjoining glands, becomes semen Urethra and Penis - Delivery/ release site of sperm from body

39 Female Reproductive System - Matures during puberty when FSH and LH hormones are released that stimulate the production of estrogen and ovulation Ovaries - Store and releases egg follicles Fallopian tubes - Site of fertilization - Transports to uterus Uterus - Nourishes/protects fertilized egg Vagina - Leads to the exterior of the body Reproductive System

40 Menstrual cycle Follicular phase - low estrogen levels stimulate FSH and LH hormones release - stimulates an egg follicle to mature - estrogen levels rise as follicle matures - causes uterine lining to thicken for possible fertilized egg Ovulation - releasing hormone releases FSH and LH hormones - causes egg follicle to rupture and release egg into a Fallopian tube Luteal phase - ruptured follicle releases estrogen - further stimulates uterine lining build-up - release of progesterone stimulates completes preparation for fertilized egg

41 Fertilization - fertilized egg - divides and implants into uterine lining for further development - ruptured follicle continues hormone release Menstruation - unfertilized egg - hormone release decreases - uterine lining detaches and is shed with unfertilized egg through vagina - return to low estrogen levels - stimulates beginning of another menstrual cycle

42 Disease - change that disrupts normal body functions - inherited, environmental, bacteria, virus, fungi, parasites D. There are important differences between bacteria and viruses with respect to their requirements for growth and replication, the body's primary defenses against bacterial and viral infections, and effective treatments of these infections Bacteria: living organism must absorb nutrients, complex and able to replicate itself, humoral immunity, treated by antibiotics that interfere with cell processes Virus: nonliving, use host cells to replicate, causes host cells to burst/not fulfill function, cell meditated immunity, antiviral drugs that prevent ability to invade/multiply in cells Immune System

43 Lymph System - vessels collects fluid lost by blood in tissue and returns to circulatory system - absorb fat nutrients - nodes filter, trap bacteria/microorganisms - organs filter blood/store white blood cells

44 Immune System Nonspecific Defense Skin: A. The role of the skin in providing nonspecific defenses against infection. - Impenetrable barrier to most pathogens - Oil and sweat glands form an acidic environment which kills many bacteria Other: saliva, sweat, tears, stomach acid kill bacteria, mucus and hair trap pathogens Inflammatory response: - white blood cells leak into infected tissues and destroy pathogens - increase in body temperature (fever), pathogens killed by increased temperature, speeds up white blood cell response/repair Interferon: virus infected cells produce proteins that slow viral infection by blocking replication and production of viral proteins

45 Specific defense F. The roles of phagocytes, B-lymphocytes, and T- lymphocytes in the immune system -Phagocytes: white blood cell that engulfs/destroys pathogens -B-lymphocytes: produce antibodies -T-lymphocytes: assist in activating plasma cells to make antibodies and attack/destroy cell membranes of pathogens

46 Humoral immunity: - B cells produce different antibodies - Pathogen enters the body, its antigen is recognized by some B cells - Become plasma cells (produce large numbers of antibodies) B. The role of antibodies in the body's response to infection - Each shaped like Y, containing two antigen binding sites - Bind to antigens of pathogens and link many bacteria together - Phagocytes attracted and destroy linked bacteria

47 Cell meditated immunity - T cells attack pathogens with specific antigens Permanent immunity - Once exposed to pathogen, body retains memory B and T cells producing antibodies against it - Allows stronger/quicker response Active immunity C. How vaccination protects an individual from infectious diseases - Weakened/mild form of pathogen is injected - Immune system creates antibodies against pathogen - Readies bodies against disease without serious illness

48 E. Why an individual with a compromised immune system (for example, a person with AIDS) may be unable to fight off and survive infections by microorganisms that are usually benign. - Weakened immune system unable to respond against previously minor pathogens AIDS: - HIV virus replicates within immune system cells, taking over and later killing them when they burst - Gradually most T cells are killed - Body is unable to mount resistance against pathogens

49 Miller Levine. Prentice Hall Biology Student Edition. Pearson Education, Inc. New Jersey nervoussystematlas.gif farabee/BIOBK/neurons_1.gif images/anatomy4.jpg vilenski.org/science/humanbody/ images/Respiratory_system.gi mcdb.colorado.edu/courses/ 3280/class06-1.html lectures/skeletal_muscle.html musc-img/antagonist.jpg vascularDisease.shtml tissues/tissnote.htm images/hair.jpg Bibliography

50 yoes/pictures/humans/lungs/ illus/232i1.htm


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