Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Jesus in Both Testaments In the Old Anticipation Coming Prophesied Contained Shadow Type In the Old Anticipation Coming Prophesied Contained Shadow Type.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Jesus in Both Testaments In the Old Anticipation Coming Prophesied Contained Shadow Type In the Old Anticipation Coming Prophesied Contained Shadow Type."— Presentation transcript:

1 Jesus in Both Testaments In the Old Anticipation Coming Prophesied Contained Shadow Type In the Old Anticipation Coming Prophesied Contained Shadow Type In the New Realization Arrived Present Explained Substance Truth In the New Realization Arrived Present Explained Substance Truth

2 Jesus in Every Section I. Law Foundation for Christ II. History-----Preparation for Christ III. Poetry-----Aspiration for Christ IV. Prophecy--Expectation of Christ V. Gospels-----Manifestation of Christ VI. Acts Propagation of Christ VII. Epistles---Interpretation of Christ VIII. Revelation--Consummation in Christ I. Law Foundation for Christ II. History-----Preparation for Christ III. Poetry-----Aspiration for Christ IV. Prophecy--Expectation of Christ V. Gospels-----Manifestation of Christ VI. Acts Propagation of Christ VII. Epistles---Interpretation of Christ VIII. Revelation--Consummation in Christ

3 The Epistles: Interpretation and Application of Christ Paul’s Epistles: Exposition in Christ General Epistles: Exhortation for Christ Paul’s Epistles: Exposition in Christ General Epistles: Exhortation for Christ

4 Paul’s Epistles: Exposition The Key: “…in Christ” Romans (3:24)-----Redemption in Christ 1Corinth. (1:2)-----Jubilation in Christ Galatians (2:4)-----Emancipation in Christ Ephesians (1:3)----Exaltation in Christ Philippians (1:26)--Exultation in Christ Colossians (1:28)--Completion in Christ Romans (3:24)-----Redemption in Christ 1Corinth. (1:2)-----Jubilation in Christ Galatians (2:4)-----Emancipation in Christ Ephesians (1:3)----Exaltation in Christ Philippians (1:26)--Exultation in Christ Colossians (1:28)--Completion in Christ

5 Paul’s Epistles: Exposition 1Thess. (1:3)------Expectation in Christ 2Thess. (1:12)----Glorification in Christ 1Timothy (1:14)--Faithfulness in Christ 2Timothy (1:13)--Soundness in Christ Titus (1:9) Steadfastness in Christ Philemon (1:6)----Benefaction in Christ 1Thess. (1:3)------Expectation in Christ 2Thess. (1:12)----Glorification in Christ 1Timothy (1:14)--Faithfulness in Christ 2Timothy (1:13)--Soundness in Christ Titus (1:9) Steadfastness in Christ Philemon (1:6)----Benefaction in Christ

6 General Epistles: Exhortation Hebrews---Perfection in Christ (6:1) James-----Wisdom from Christ (1:5) 1Peter-----Submission to Christ (1:2) 2Peter-----Purification by Christ (1:9) 1John-----Communion with Christ (1:7) 2John-----Continuation with Christ (1:4) 3John-----Contribution for Christ (1:5, 8) Jude------Contention for Christ (1:3) Hebrews---Perfection in Christ (6:1) James-----Wisdom from Christ (1:5) 1Peter-----Submission to Christ (1:2) 2Peter-----Purification by Christ (1:9) 1John-----Communion with Christ (1:7) 2John-----Continuation with Christ (1:4) 3John-----Contribution for Christ (1:5, 8) Jude------Contention for Christ (1:3)

7 Revelation: Consummation I.The Person of Christ (1) II. The Possession of Christ (2-3) III. The Program of Christ (4-22) A. In Heaven (4-5) 1. Praise God for Creation (4) 2. Praise God for Redemption (5) B. On Earth (6-22) 1. The Tribulation (6-18) 2. The Second Coming (19) 3. The Millennium (20) 4. New Heaven and New Earth (21-22) I.The Person of Christ (1) II. The Possession of Christ (2-3) III. The Program of Christ (4-22) A. In Heaven (4-5) 1. Praise God for Creation (4) 2. Praise God for Redemption (5) B. On Earth (6-22) 1. The Tribulation (6-18) 2. The Second Coming (19) 3. The Millennium (20) 4. New Heaven and New Earth (21-22)

8 Order of General Epistles Decade Paul’s Epistles Date General Epistles A.D. 40s Galatians 48 A. D. 50s 1 Thessalonians Thessalonians Corninthians Corinthians Romans 57 A. D. 60s Ephesians 60 Philippians Colossians 60 Philemon 60 James (60-62) 1 Timothy & 2 Peter (64, 66) Titus Hebrews (64-69) 2 Timothy 67 Jude (68-69) A. D. 80s-90s 1,2,3 John (90-95) Revelation (90-95) Decade Paul’s Epistles Date General Epistles A.D. 40s Galatians 48 A. D. 50s 1 Thessalonians Thessalonians Corninthians Corinthians Romans 57 A. D. 60s Ephesians 60 Philippians Colossians 60 Philemon 60 James (60-62) 1 Timothy & 2 Peter (64, 66) Titus Hebrews (64-69) 2 Timothy 67 Jude (68-69) A. D. 80s-90s 1,2,3 John (90-95) Revelation (90-95)

9 HEBREWS WHO? Author is unknown; several views: –Apollos (style, OT connection, emphasis); –Luke (Greek, ass’n with Timothy--13:23) –Paul (doctrine, early Fathers in the East; later in West); –Barnabas (ass’n with Timothy; some Fathers (Tertullian); he was a Levite (Acts 4:36). What is Known About the Author of Hebrews: 1. He was not one one of 12 apostles (2:3, 4). 2. He wrote before the destruction of Jerusalem (7-8). 3. He was well versed in O.T. (98 citations). 4. He wrote in a more technical Greek. 5. He was familiar with Platonic philosophy. 6. He emphasized Jesus’ earthly ministry and high priestly ministry (chaps, 2, 7-10). 7. He was associated with Timothy (13:23). 8. He was in Italy when he wrote (13:24). WHO? Author is unknown; several views: –Apollos (style, OT connection, emphasis); –Luke (Greek, ass’n with Timothy--13:23) –Paul (doctrine, early Fathers in the East; later in West); –Barnabas (ass’n with Timothy; some Fathers (Tertullian); he was a Levite (Acts 4:36). What is Known About the Author of Hebrews: 1. He was not one one of 12 apostles (2:3, 4). 2. He wrote before the destruction of Jerusalem (7-8). 3. He was well versed in O.T. (98 citations). 4. He wrote in a more technical Greek. 5. He was familiar with Platonic philosophy. 6. He emphasized Jesus’ earthly ministry and high priestly ministry (chaps, 2, 7-10). 7. He was associated with Timothy (13:23). 8. He was in Italy when he wrote (13:24).

10 HEBREWS WHEN? Between A. D Before A.D. 70 wile temple still stood (8:4; 9:9; 10:1). 2. While Timothy is still alive (13:23). 3. Not in the “earlier days” of Christianity (10:32-34) 4. While the end of the Temple was impending (8:13). TO WHOM? 1. Hebrew Christians in danger of apostatizing (2:1). 2. Hebrew Christians overly devoted to rituals of Judaism (7-10) 3. Hebrew Christians who were immature in their faith (5:12- 6:1). 3. Hebrew Christians who had undergone persecution and suffering (10:32; 12:4) WHERE? 1. Jerusalem and Palestine (cf. references to the Temple ). 2. Churches in the East (cf. 13:24) WHEN? Between A. D Before A.D. 70 wile temple still stood (8:4; 9:9; 10:1). 2. While Timothy is still alive (13:23). 3. Not in the “earlier days” of Christianity (10:32-34) 4. While the end of the Temple was impending (8:13). TO WHOM? 1. Hebrew Christians in danger of apostatizing (2:1). 2. Hebrew Christians overly devoted to rituals of Judaism (7-10) 3. Hebrew Christians who were immature in their faith (5:12- 6:1). 3. Hebrew Christians who had undergone persecution and suffering (10:32; 12:4) WHERE? 1. Jerusalem and Palestine (cf. references to the Temple ). 2. Churches in the East (cf. 13:24)

11 HEBREWS WHAT? –1. The theme is perfection in Christ (6:1) –2. Some 98 + O.T. quotes (all from LXX but 10:30) –3. “Jesus,” “Christ,” “Lord” 68 times vs. “Lord Jesus Christ” –4. Key words: eternal (6), better (13), perfect (15), let us (13), let (5), “once for all” (6). –5. Warning passages – about peril of: a. Drifting (2:1-4)d. Departing (6:1f) b. Doubting (3:7)e. Despising (10:26) c. Dullness (5:11)f. Denying (12:15) WHAT? –1. The theme is perfection in Christ (6:1) –2. Some 98 + O.T. quotes (all from LXX but 10:30) –3. “Jesus,” “Christ,” “Lord” 68 times vs. “Lord Jesus Christ” –4. Key words: eternal (6), better (13), perfect (15), let us (13), let (5), “once for all” (6). –5. Warning passages – about peril of: a. Drifting (2:1-4)d. Departing (6:1f) b. Doubting (3:7)e. Despising (10:26) c. Dullness (5:11)f. Denying (12:15)

12 HEBREWS VI. WHY? 1. Written by a Jewish Christian to Jewish Christians to show the superiority of Christianity over Judaism. them they should no longer be Hebrews.” 2. To warn against falling away from Christian perfection (6:1) 3. To show how O.T. Levitical system was fulfilled in Christ. VI. WHY? 1. Written by a Jewish Christian to Jewish Christians to show the superiority of Christianity over Judaism. them they should no longer be Hebrews.” 2. To warn against falling away from Christian perfection (6:1) 3. To show how O.T. Levitical system was fulfilled in Christ.

13 HEBREWS WORD STUDY “Better”“Eternal” 1. Than angels (1:4)1. Salvation (5:9) 2. Things (6:9, 11:40)2. Judgment (6:2) 3. Person (7:7)3. Redemption (9:12) 4. Hope (7:19)4. Spirit (9:14) 5. Covenant (7:22; 8:6a)5. Inheritance (9:15) 6. Promises (8:6b)6. Covenant (13:20) 7. Sacrifices (9:23) 8. Possession (10:34) 9. Country (11:16) 10. Resurrection (11:35) 11. Blood (12:24) WORD STUDY “Better”“Eternal” 1. Than angels (1:4)1. Salvation (5:9) 2. Things (6:9, 11:40)2. Judgment (6:2) 3. Person (7:7)3. Redemption (9:12) 4. Hope (7:19)4. Spirit (9:14) 5. Covenant (7:22; 8:6a)5. Inheritance (9:15) 6. Promises (8:6b)6. Covenant (13:20) 7. Sacrifices (9:23) 8. Possession (10:34) 9. Country (11:16) 10. Resurrection (11:35) 11. Blood (12:24)

14 HEBREWS WORD STUDY “Once (for all)” regarding Christ: 1. Into holy place (9:11) 2. To put away sin (9:26) 3. Offered to bear sin (9:28) 4. Purged (10:2) 5. Offered His body (10:10) 6. Offered “one sacrifice” 7. Offered “one offering” WORD STUDY “Once (for all)” regarding Christ: 1. Into holy place (9:11) 2. To put away sin (9:26) 3. Offered to bear sin (9:28) 4. Purged (10:2) 5. Offered His body (10:10) 6. Offered “one sacrifice” 7. Offered “one offering”

15 HEBREWS OUTLINE OF HEBREWS I. Doctrinal (1-10) Christ is better than— A. Prophets (1:1-3) B. Angels (1:4—2:`8) –peril of drifting (2:1-4) C. Moses (3) –peril of doubting (3:7-19) D. Joshua (4:1-13) E. Levitical priests (4:14-7:28) –peril of dullness (5:11) peril of departing (6:1f.) F. Tabernacle (8:1-5) G. Old Covenant (8:6—9:22) H. Sacrifices (9:23—10:39)--peril of despising (10:26) OUTLINE OF HEBREWS I. Doctrinal (1-10) Christ is better than— A. Prophets (1:1-3) B. Angels (1:4—2:`8) –peril of drifting (2:1-4) C. Moses (3) –peril of doubting (3:7-19) D. Joshua (4:1-13) E. Levitical priests (4:14-7:28) –peril of dullness (5:11) peril of departing (6:1f.) F. Tabernacle (8:1-5) G. Old Covenant (8:6—9:22) H. Sacrifices (9:23—10:39)--peril of despising (10:26)

16 HEBREWS II. Practical (11-13) –A. Faith (11) –B. Hope (12) –peril of denying (12:18-29) –C. Love (13) II. Practical (11-13) –A. Faith (11) –B. Hope (12) –peril of denying (12:18-29) –C. Love (13)

17 JAMES WHO? James, the brother of Jesus, pastor at Jerusalem. Internal Evidence: 1) Son of Zebedee (Mk. 1:19) – martyred c. A.D. 44 (Acts 12:2) before James was written. 2) Son of Alphaeus (Mk. 3:18)--Not prominent enough to write an encyclical letter 3) “The less” (Mk. 15:40 )-- Not prominent enough to write an encyclical letter. 3) The father of Judas (Thaddaeus), and apostle (Lk. 6:16 cf. Mt. 10:3 and Jn. 14:22)--Not prominent enough to write the book. 4) Brother of Jesus (Mk. 6:3; Gal. 1:19) and-- Brother of Jude (Jude 1) same person who: a) Was an unbeliever in Jn. 7:5, 10. b) Christ appeared to after his resurrection (1Cor. 15:7). c) Awaited the Spirit on Pentecost (Acts. 1:13). WHO? James, the brother of Jesus, pastor at Jerusalem. Internal Evidence: 1) Son of Zebedee (Mk. 1:19) – martyred c. A.D. 44 (Acts 12:2) before James was written. 2) Son of Alphaeus (Mk. 3:18)--Not prominent enough to write an encyclical letter 3) “The less” (Mk. 15:40 )-- Not prominent enough to write an encyclical letter. 3) The father of Judas (Thaddaeus), and apostle (Lk. 6:16 cf. Mt. 10:3 and Jn. 14:22)--Not prominent enough to write the book. 4) Brother of Jesus (Mk. 6:3; Gal. 1:19) and-- Brother of Jude (Jude 1) same person who: a) Was an unbeliever in Jn. 7:5, 10. b) Christ appeared to after his resurrection (1Cor. 15:7). c) Awaited the Spirit on Pentecost (Acts. 1:13).

18 JAMES d) Received a visit from Paul (Acts 9:26; Gal 1:19). e) Called “the Lord’s brother” (Gal. 1:19) f) Called a “pillar” in the church (Gal. 2:9). g) Presided at the Jerusalem Council in Acts 15 (vv. 13, 19). h) Urged Paul to show his respect for the Jewish Law (Acts 21:17f). External Evidence: a) Early Church accepted it as by James. b) Early Fathers favor James (Origen, Eusebius, Cyril of Jerusalem, Athanasius, and Augustine). d) Received a visit from Paul (Acts 9:26; Gal 1:19). e) Called “the Lord’s brother” (Gal. 1:19) f) Called a “pillar” in the church (Gal. 2:9). g) Presided at the Jerusalem Council in Acts 15 (vv. 13, 19). h) Urged Paul to show his respect for the Jewish Law (Acts 21:17f). External Evidence: a) Early Church accepted it as by James. b) Early Fathers favor James (Origen, Eusebius, Cyril of Jerusalem, Athanasius, and Augustine).

19 JAMES WHEN? Early View: Before Acts 15, A.D because: a) It has a highly Jewish nature (O.T. illus. Synagogue (2:2), law, etc.) b) Church government was not highly developed yet (5:14). c) He reflects no awareness of the Acts 15 Council which would have been relevant to his theme. d) It has total silence on the non-Jewish church which came later. e) It seems to be unaware of Paul’s writings which implies a date before he wrote (2 Pet. 3:15-16). WHEN? Early View: Before Acts 15, A.D because: a) It has a highly Jewish nature (O.T. illus. Synagogue (2:2), law, etc.) b) Church government was not highly developed yet (5:14). c) He reflects no awareness of the Acts 15 Council which would have been relevant to his theme. d) It has total silence on the non-Jewish church which came later. e) It seems to be unaware of Paul’s writings which implies a date before he wrote (2 Pet. 3:15-16).

20 JAMES 2) Late View: A. D a) After Acts 15 (49 + A.D.) b) After Jewish of dispersion (1:1 cf. Acts 18:2) (50+) c) After Paul’s teaching (cf. 1:25; 2:21, 22) (57+ A.D.) d) Ethical and exhortational emphasis fits later date. e) Other general epistles were written later. f) Before A. D. 62 when James was martyred (see Josephus, Antiquities, IX,1). 2) Late View: A. D a) After Acts 15 (49 + A.D.) b) After Jewish of dispersion (1:1 cf. Acts 18:2) (50+) c) After Paul’s teaching (cf. 1:25; 2:21, 22) (57+ A.D.) d) Ethical and exhortational emphasis fits later date. e) Other general epistles were written later. f) Before A. D. 62 when James was martyred (see Josephus, Antiquities, IX,1).

21 JAMES TO WHOM? Hebrew Christians of Eastern dispersion (cf. 1:1) cf. Peter to Jews of Western dispersion (1Peter (1:1). WHERE? Palestine and, perhaps, surrounding areas. WHY? 1) To comfort the persecuted (1:5). 2) To commend “pure religion” (1:27). 3) To convict the mere professors but not doer of the faith (2:14f). TO WHOM? Hebrew Christians of Eastern dispersion (cf. 1:1) cf. Peter to Jews of Western dispersion (1Peter (1:1). WHERE? Palestine and, perhaps, surrounding areas. WHY? 1) To comfort the persecuted (1:5). 2) To commend “pure religion” (1:27). 3) To convict the mere professors but not doer of the faith (2:14f).

22 JAMES WHAT? –1) The theme is wisdom in Christ. –2) It is the “Proverbs of the N.T.” (1:5; 3:13, 15, 17). 3) James is the apostle of “good works” (2:14, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26). –4) Jewish in style, illustration, emphasis, and appeal. –5) Very practical and moral, not doctrinal and theological. –6) Luther wrongly called it “a right strawy epistle.” –7) Calvin rightly saw: “we are justified by faith alone, but the faith that justifies is not alone.” WHAT? –1) The theme is wisdom in Christ. –2) It is the “Proverbs of the N.T.” (1:5; 3:13, 15, 17). 3) James is the apostle of “good works” (2:14, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26). –4) Jewish in style, illustration, emphasis, and appeal. –5) Very practical and moral, not doctrinal and theological. –6) Luther wrongly called it “a right strawy epistle.” –7) Calvin rightly saw: “we are justified by faith alone, but the faith that justifies is not alone.”

23 JAMES PAUL JAMES Before GodBefore man Not by worksUnto good works Root of justificationFruit of justification Against dead worksAgainst dead faith (Not faith + works = just.But faith-->works = just. PAUL JAMES Before GodBefore man Not by worksUnto good works Root of justificationFruit of justification Against dead worksAgainst dead faith (Not faith + works = just.But faith-->works = just.

24 JAMES 8. Key words: “Faith” (15), “work(s)” (15), “wisdom” (5), “doer” (4) 9. Compare general epistles –James – ethical (prayer and practice) –Peter – experiential (hope and knowledge) –John – exhortational (love and truth) –Jude – expositional (faith and conflict) 10. Book abounds in metaphors, similes, figures of speech (e.g., 1:6; 3:6). 11. It contains numerous references to nature (1:6, 10, 11, 17, 18; 3:3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 18: 4:14: 5:2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 14, 17, 18). 8. Key words: “Faith” (15), “work(s)” (15), “wisdom” (5), “doer” (4) 9. Compare general epistles –James – ethical (prayer and practice) –Peter – experiential (hope and knowledge) –John – exhortational (love and truth) –Jude – expositional (faith and conflict) 10. Book abounds in metaphors, similes, figures of speech (e.g., 1:6; 3:6). 11. It contains numerous references to nature (1:6, 10, 11, 17, 18; 3:3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 18: 4:14: 5:2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 14, 17, 18).

25 JAMES I. PATIENCE IN TRIALS REWARDED (1:1-5) A. Purpose of trials (1-2) B. Principles of temptation (13-15) II. PRACTICE OF TRUTH REQUIRED (1:16-27) A. Truth is instrument of life (16-18) B. Truth is mirror of life (19-27) III. PARTIALITY IN THOUGHTS REBUKED ( 2:1-13) A. Respect of persons (1-19) B. Requirement of the law (10-13) I. PATIENCE IN TRIALS REWARDED (1:1-5) A. Purpose of trials (1-2) B. Principles of temptation (13-15) II. PRACTICE OF TRUTH REQUIRED (1:16-27) A. Truth is instrument of life (16-18) B. Truth is mirror of life (19-27) III. PARTIALITY IN THOUGHTS REBUKED ( 2:1-13) A. Respect of persons (1-19) B. Requirement of the law (10-13)

26 JAMES IV. PRODUCTIVITY OF TRUST REVEALED (2:14-26) A. Profit of (14-20) B. Picture of (21-26) V. PERFECTION OF TONGUE RELATED (3) A. Need of (1-6) B. Lack of (7-12) C. Means of (13-18) VI. PRINCIPLES OF TRANSGRESSION REMEDIED (4) IV. PRODUCTIVITY OF TRUST REVEALED (2:14-26) A. Profit of (14-20) B. Picture of (21-26) V. PERFECTION OF TONGUE RELATED (3) A. Need of (1-6) B. Lack of (7-12) C. Means of (13-18) VI. PRINCIPLES OF TRANSGRESSION REMEDIED (4)

27 JAMES VII. PERVERSION OF TREASURES REVILED (5:1-6) VIII. PERSEVERANCE IN TESTING RECOMMENDED (5:7-20) A. By patience (7-11) B. By propriety (12) C. By prayer (13-18) D. By personal work (19-20) VII. PERVERSION OF TREASURES REVILED (5:1-6) VIII. PERSEVERANCE IN TESTING RECOMMENDED (5:7-20) A. By patience (7-11) B. By propriety (12) C. By prayer (13-18) D. By personal work (19-20)

28 1 PETER WHO? Peter, the apostle of the circumcision. Internal Evidence: 1) The claim of the book (1:1). 2) The character of the book is similar to Peter speeches in Acts 2, 4 and 10. 3) The authoritative tone and command (in 5:2) to Elders to be “shepherds” (cf. Jn. 21:16) fits Peter. 4) The claim to be an eyewitness of Christ (5:1) fits. 5) Any differences in style from an untrained fisherman (Acts 4:13) are due to 30 years of learning and the use of “Silvanus” (5:12) his scribe. WHO? Peter, the apostle of the circumcision. Internal Evidence: 1) The claim of the book (1:1). 2) The character of the book is similar to Peter speeches in Acts 2, 4 and 10. 3) The authoritative tone and command (in 5:2) to Elders to be “shepherds” (cf. Jn. 21:16) fits Peter. 4) The claim to be an eyewitness of Christ (5:1) fits. 5) Any differences in style from an untrained fisherman (Acts 4:13) are due to 30 years of learning and the use of “Silvanus” (5:12) his scribe.

29 1 PETER External Evidence: 1) Peter’s name was on the earliest mss. 2) It was accepted in the earliest Bibles as from Peter. 3) It was cited by early Father’s as Peter’s (e.g., Polycarp, Clement, and Irenaeus). WHEN? About A.D. 64 (at the beginning of Nero’s persecution) and before Paul’s pastoral epistles (2 Peter 3:15, 16). TO WHOM? Hebrew Christians of the Eastern dispersion (1:1). Peter was primarily an Apostle to Jews (Gal. 2:7), though Gentiles were also in his audience (cf. 4:3; 1:14, 18). External Evidence: 1) Peter’s name was on the earliest mss. 2) It was accepted in the earliest Bibles as from Peter. 3) It was cited by early Father’s as Peter’s (e.g., Polycarp, Clement, and Irenaeus). WHEN? About A.D. 64 (at the beginning of Nero’s persecution) and before Paul’s pastoral epistles (2 Peter 3:15, 16). TO WHOM? Hebrew Christians of the Eastern dispersion (1:1). Peter was primarily an Apostle to Jews (Gal. 2:7), though Gentiles were also in his audience (cf. 4:3; 1:14, 18).

30 1 PETER WHERE? Asia Minor (1:1) (Note: He wrote from “Babylon” which can be: (5:13) 1. Literally a) in Mesopotamia or b) Egypt. 2. Symbolically in Rome (cf. Rev. 17:5, 6, 18). WHAT? 1. The theme is submission to Christ (1:2) 2. Key words: submisssion (2:13, 18: 3:1, 5; 5:8), obey (1:2, 14, 22; 2:7, 9), suffer (2:29; 3:14, 17; 4:1, 13, 15, 16; 5:10), precious (1:2, 19; 2:5, 7; 3:4), holy (1:15, 16: 2:9), hope (1:3, 21: 3:15), glory (1:7, 21; 4:13; 5:1, 4). 3. Influence by theology of Paul and ethics of James. WHERE? Asia Minor (1:1) (Note: He wrote from “Babylon” which can be: (5:13) 1. Literally a) in Mesopotamia or b) Egypt. 2. Symbolically in Rome (cf. Rev. 17:5, 6, 18). WHAT? 1. The theme is submission to Christ (1:2) 2. Key words: submisssion (2:13, 18: 3:1, 5; 5:8), obey (1:2, 14, 22; 2:7, 9), suffer (2:29; 3:14, 17; 4:1, 13, 15, 16; 5:10), precious (1:2, 19; 2:5, 7; 3:4), holy (1:15, 16: 2:9), hope (1:3, 21: 3:15), glory (1:7, 21; 4:13; 5:1, 4). 3. Influence by theology of Paul and ethics of James.

31 1 PETER 4. Contrast:Paul – Apostle of faith John – Apostle of love Peter – Apostle of hope 5. It has a servant motif (2:22, 24) 4. Contrast:Paul – Apostle of faith John – Apostle of love Peter – Apostle of hope 5. It has a servant motif (2:22, 24)

32 1 PETER WHY? –1. To encourage believers in their trials (5:10-12 cf. 1:6) –2. To show them how to live out their salvation (2:2, 12). –3) To exhort them to submission for Christ (2:13; cf. 2:18; 5:5) and thereby mitigate governmental oppression. WHY? –1. To encourage believers in their trials (5:10-12 cf. 1:6) –2. To show them how to live out their salvation (2:2, 12). –3) To exhort them to submission for Christ (2:13; cf. 2:18; 5:5) and thereby mitigate governmental oppression.

33 1 PETER Outline: I. Explanation of suffering (1:1-12) – It is from God II. Exemplification of suffering (1:13—3:12) – It is in Christ III. Exhortation to sufferer (3:13—4:11) – It is for Christian IV. Expectation for sufferer (4:13, 14) – It is to glory Outline: I. Explanation of suffering (1:1-12) – It is from God II. Exemplification of suffering (1:13—3:12) – It is in Christ III. Exhortation to sufferer (3:13—4:11) – It is for Christian IV. Expectation for sufferer (4:13, 14) – It is to glory

34 1 PETER HOW? (to interpret difficult texts) A. 1 Peter 3:21: “Baptism... Now saves you.” 1. We are saves us from penalty of sin actually by grace through faith--This is Spirit baptism (1Cor. 12:13). 2. We are saves us from power of sin (viz., from a bad conscience) by water baptism (1 Pet. 3:21). 3. We are saves from sin symbolically (cf. “the like figure”--v. 21) by water baptism. HOW? (to interpret difficult texts) A. 1 Peter 3:21: “Baptism... Now saves you.” 1. We are saves us from penalty of sin actually by grace through faith--This is Spirit baptism (1Cor. 12:13). 2. We are saves us from power of sin (viz., from a bad conscience) by water baptism (1 Pet. 3:21). 3. We are saves from sin symbolically (cf. “the like figure”--v. 21) by water baptism.

35 1 PETER B. 1 Peter 3:19: “Christ... Preached to the spirits in prison.” There are three views: –1. Christ preached to spirits in Hades to give them “a second chance.” (Problem: This is contrary to Heb. 9:27). –2. Christ preached by the Spirit through Noah to human spirits imprisoned in bodies who were living in Noah’s day (Problem: Men are not spirits in prison). –3. Christ preached to spirits in Hades to announce their doom and/or His victory over them (This is the most likely view). B. 1 Peter 3:19: “Christ... Preached to the spirits in prison.” There are three views: –1. Christ preached to spirits in Hades to give them “a second chance.” (Problem: This is contrary to Heb. 9:27). –2. Christ preached by the Spirit through Noah to human spirits imprisoned in bodies who were living in Noah’s day (Problem: Men are not spirits in prison). –3. Christ preached to spirits in Hades to announce their doom and/or His victory over them (This is the most likely view).

36 2 PETER WHO? “Simon Peter, … apostle of Jesus Christ (1:1) Internal Evidence: 1) The claim of the book supports Peter the apostle (1:1; 3:1, 2). 2) The confirmation of this claim by being sent to same group as 1 Peter (2 Pet. 3:1). 3) The character of the book supports Peter (similar to 1 Peter in vocabulary, diction, and thought (cf. Acts 2, 4, 10). 4) The companion of Peter (viz., Paul) is mentioned (3:15). 5) The contents confirm it is from Peter (viz., telling the manner of his death and eyewitness of the Transfiguration--1:14-18). 6) The chronology of the book support Peter (Paul’s “letters” were in circulation by then (3:15-16). 7) The citation by Jude (Jude 1:7f.) ( see Pet. 2 ) verify it was from a late first c entury writer. WHO? “Simon Peter, … apostle of Jesus Christ (1:1) Internal Evidence: 1) The claim of the book supports Peter the apostle (1:1; 3:1, 2). 2) The confirmation of this claim by being sent to same group as 1 Peter (2 Pet. 3:1). 3) The character of the book supports Peter (similar to 1 Peter in vocabulary, diction, and thought (cf. Acts 2, 4, 10). 4) The companion of Peter (viz., Paul) is mentioned (3:15). 5) The contents confirm it is from Peter (viz., telling the manner of his death and eyewitness of the Transfiguration--1:14-18). 6) The chronology of the book support Peter (Paul’s “letters” were in circulation by then (3:15-16). 7) The citation by Jude (Jude 1:7f.) ( see Pet. 2 ) verify it was from a late first c entury writer.

37 2 PETER External Evidence: 1. Earliest mss. Accepted it with the title on it. 2. Many early Fathers cited it (including Origen, Rufinus, Clement of Rome, Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Cyril of Jerusalem, Athanasius, Augustine, Jerome, and Augustine). 3. There are allusions in the earlier Shepherd and Didache. 4. There is more evidence than for the Greek classics such as Herodotus and Thucydides. 5. Quotations by Jude 5 (2, 1:13; 17 (2, 3:3) verify it was from 1 st century. (see also Jude 8 (2Pet. 2:10). External Evidence: 1. Earliest mss. Accepted it with the title on it. 2. Many early Fathers cited it (including Origen, Rufinus, Clement of Rome, Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Cyril of Jerusalem, Athanasius, Augustine, Jerome, and Augustine). 3. There are allusions in the earlier Shepherd and Didache. 4. There is more evidence than for the Greek classics such as Herodotus and Thucydides. 5. Quotations by Jude 5 (2, 1:13; 17 (2, 3:3) verify it was from 1 st century. (see also Jude 8 (2Pet. 2:10).

38 2 PETER WHEN? About A.D. 66, just before his martyrdom. 1. After Paul’s letters (A.D. 60s) 2. Before is martyrdom (A.D ) TO WHOM? Same as first epistle (3:1), Jewish Christians. WHERE? In the churches of Asia Minor. WHAT? 1. The theme is purification by Christ (1:9). 2. The key words are: “full knowledge,” “diligent,” “remembrance,” and “corruption.” 3. Much like Jude (Jude 8 cites 2 Pet. 2:10), though scoffers are present in Jude, and future in Peter. WHEN? About A.D. 66, just before his martyrdom. 1. After Paul’s letters (A.D. 60s) 2. Before is martyrdom (A.D ) TO WHOM? Same as first epistle (3:1), Jewish Christians. WHERE? In the churches of Asia Minor. WHAT? 1. The theme is purification by Christ (1:9). 2. The key words are: “full knowledge,” “diligent,” “remembrance,” and “corruption.” 3. Much like Jude (Jude 8 cites 2 Pet. 2:10), though scoffers are present in Jude, and future in Peter.

39 2 PETER 4. 2 Peter is like 2 Timothy: –a) Against heresy –b) Joy in death –c) Scriptures is emphasized 5. 1 Peter compared to 2 Peter Tribulation Truth Consolation Exhrtation Hope Knowledge Suffering Error External Dangers Internal Dangers 6. Dominant doctrines: knowledge, ethics, and last things (eschatology) Peter is like 2 Timothy: –a) Against heresy –b) Joy in death –c) Scriptures is emphasized 5. 1 Peter compared to 2 Peter Tribulation Truth Consolation Exhrtation Hope Knowledge Suffering Error External Dangers Internal Dangers 6. Dominant doctrines: knowledge, ethics, and last things (eschatology).

40 2 PETER WHY? 1. To encourage Christian growth in grace and knowledge (3:18). 2. To warn against impurity (1:4, 9; 2:6, 7, 18) and apostasy (2:20f). 3. To warn against antinomianism and incipient Gnosticism (2:10; 1:16). 4. To exhort them to godly living in view of Christ’s return (3:11). WHY? 1. To encourage Christian growth in grace and knowledge (3:18). 2. To warn against impurity (1:4, 9; 2:6, 7, 18) and apostasy (2:20f). 3. To warn against antinomianism and incipient Gnosticism (2:10; 1:16). 4. To exhort them to godly living in view of Christ’s return (3:11).

41 2 PETER I. KNOWLEDGE AND ITS PRINCIPLES (1) A. Provisions (2-4) B. Progress (5-11) C. Pledge (12-21) II. KNOWLEDGE AND ITS PERILS (2) A. Doctrine of false teachers (1-3a) B. Destruction of false teachers (3b-9) C. Doings of false teachers (10-22 ) III. KNOWLEDGE AND ITS PROMISE (3) A. Truth assailed (1-4) B. Truth attested (5-10) C. Truth applied (11-18) I. KNOWLEDGE AND ITS PRINCIPLES (1) A. Provisions (2-4) B. Progress (5-11) C. Pledge (12-21) II. KNOWLEDGE AND ITS PERILS (2) A. Doctrine of false teachers (1-3a) B. Destruction of false teachers (3b-9) C. Doings of false teachers (10-22 ) III. KNOWLEDGE AND ITS PROMISE (3) A. Truth assailed (1-4) B. Truth attested (5-10) C. Truth applied (11-18)

42 2 PETER How? (to explain early doubt about it). 1. Style was different because 1 Peter (5:12) used a scribe (Silvanus). 2. Different words fit the different topic. 3. It was written shortly before his death and so he was not around long to verify it. 4. Even so, there is more evidence than other classic works (e.g., Homer and Thucydides). How? (to explain early doubt about it). 1. Style was different because 1 Peter (5:12) used a scribe (Silvanus). 2. Different words fit the different topic. 3. It was written shortly before his death and so he was not around long to verify it. 4. Even so, there is more evidence than other classic works (e.g., Homer and Thucydides).

43 1 JOHN WHO? John, the apostle (1:1-4) Internal Evidence: 1. He was an eyewitness of Christ (1:1-3). 2. He spoke with the authority of an apostle (4:6). 3. He wrote in the same style as the apostle John (in the Gospel of John). 4. He wrote in the same style as “John” who penned “The [Book] Revelation” (1:9). External Evidence: 1. It was accepted in the earliest Bibles as a work of John. 2. It was accepted by the early Fathers as by John. WHO? John, the apostle (1:1-4) Internal Evidence: 1. He was an eyewitness of Christ (1:1-3). 2. He spoke with the authority of an apostle (4:6). 3. He wrote in the same style as the apostle John (in the Gospel of John). 4. He wrote in the same style as “John” who penned “The [Book] Revelation” (1:9). External Evidence: 1. It was accepted in the earliest Bibles as a work of John. 2. It was accepted by the early Fathers as by John.

44 1 JOHN WHEN? A.D Before John died (in A. D. 98 ala Irenaeus) – 2. During the reign of Domitian (A. D ) (see Revelation). – 3. After the Gospel of John (A.D ). TO WHOM? A group of Gentile churches (2:19; 5:21 cf. Rev. 1:11). WHERE? In Asia Minor (Turkey). WHEN? A.D Before John died (in A. D. 98 ala Irenaeus) – 2. During the reign of Domitian (A. D ) (see Revelation). – 3. After the Gospel of John (A.D ). TO WHOM? A group of Gentile churches (2:19; 5:21 cf. Rev. 1:11). WHERE? In Asia Minor (Turkey).

45 1 JOHN WHY? 1. To warn against denial of Christ’s humanity (Docetism) (4:2). 2. To warn against sin and show God’s provision for sin (2:1; 5:21). 3. To provide assurance for the believers (5:13f). WHY? 1. To warn against denial of Christ’s humanity (Docetism) (4:2). 2. To warn against sin and show God’s provision for sin (2:1; 5:21). 3. To provide assurance for the believers (5:13f).

46 1 JOHN WHAT? 1. The theme of the book is communion with Christ (1:7) 2. Compare: GOSPEL EPISTLE OF JOHN TheologicalEthical DidacticalPolemical ObjectiveSubjective Arouses faithEstablishes faith WHAT? 1. The theme of the book is communion with Christ (1:7) 2. Compare: GOSPEL EPISTLE OF JOHN TheologicalEthical DidacticalPolemical ObjectiveSubjective Arouses faithEstablishes faith

47 1 JOHN 2. Key words are light, darkness, truth, error, love, hate, life, eternal life, world, know, witness, and antichrist. 3. Style of writing : Peter -realistic Paul-syllogistic James-graphic John-symphonic and antithetic 4. John wrote 5 N.T. books. Gospel -Christian theology – veracity of Christianity (past) Epistles -Christian ethics – virtue of Christianity (present) Revelation-Chr. Politics - vision of Christianity (future) 2. Key words are light, darkness, truth, error, love, hate, life, eternal life, world, know, witness, and antichrist. 3. Style of writing : Peter -realistic Paul-syllogistic James-graphic John-symphonic and antithetic 4. John wrote 5 N.T. books. Gospel -Christian theology – veracity of Christianity (past) Epistles -Christian ethics – virtue of Christianity (present) Revelation-Chr. Politics - vision of Christianity (future)

48 1 JOHN 5.Peter – founded the Church Paul – liberated the Church John – established the Church 1 John – “the life” (cf. Jn. 14:6) 2 John – “the truth” 3 John – “the way” 5.Peter – founded the Church Paul – liberated the Church John – established the Church 1 John – “the life” (cf. Jn. 14:6) 2 John – “the truth” 3 John – “the way”

49 1 JOHN I. ADVANCE IN DIVINE LIGHT (1, 2) – walkin Him A. Conditions of (1) B. Command about (2:1-17) C. Continuance in (2:18-29) II. ATTITUDE TOWARD DIVINE LOVE (3, 4)--dwell in Him A. Salvation received thru it (3:1-10) B. Service rendered thru it (3:11-24) C. Steadfastness realized thru it (4:1-21) I. ADVANCE IN DIVINE LIGHT (1, 2) – walkin Him A. Conditions of (1) B. Command about (2:1-17) C. Continuance in (2:18-29) II. ATTITUDE TOWARD DIVINE LOVE (3, 4)--dwell in Him A. Salvation received thru it (3:1-10) B. Service rendered thru it (3:11-24) C. Steadfastness realized thru it (4:1-21)

50 1 JOHN III. AFFINITY WITH DIVINE LIFE (5) – Live in Him A. Possession of (1-12) B. Prayer in (13-17) C. Product of (18-21) 1 John 3:9: Christian “cannot sin”--Four views: 1. Mortally (Roman) 3. Absolutely (Grotius) 2. Deliberately (Ebard) *4. Habitually (Paulus) III. AFFINITY WITH DIVINE LIFE (5) – Live in Him A. Possession of (1-12) B. Prayer in (13-17) C. Product of (18-21) 1 John 3:9: Christian “cannot sin”--Four views: 1. Mortally (Roman) 3. Absolutely (Grotius) 2. Deliberately (Ebard) *4. Habitually (Paulus)

51 2 JOHN WHO? John the apostle Internal Evience: 1. “The elder,”a title of seniority and authority. Apostles were elders by office (cf. Acts 1:20 cf. 1 Tim. 3:1). 2. The apostle Peter spoke of himself as an Elder (1 Pet. 5:1). 3. He spoke with the authority of an apostle (1:9-14). 4. Only a well-know apostle like John would be recognized by the simple title “the elder.” 5. He wrote in the same style as the author of 1 John (see) who was the apostle John. WHO? John the apostle Internal Evience: 1. “The elder,”a title of seniority and authority. Apostles were elders by office (cf. Acts 1:20 cf. 1 Tim. 3:1). 2. The apostle Peter spoke of himself as an Elder (1 Pet. 5:1). 3. He spoke with the authority of an apostle (1:9-14). 4. Only a well-know apostle like John would be recognized by the simple title “the elder.” 5. He wrote in the same style as the author of 1 John (see) who was the apostle John.

52 2 JOHN External Evidence: 1. Earliest mss. Have “the elder” which John was known to be. 2. The book was cited by Polycarp, the disciple of John in the early 2nd cent. 3. It was also cited by Cryil of Jerusalem, Jerome, and Augustine. External Evidence: 1. Earliest mss. Have “the elder” which John was known to be. 2. The book was cited by Polycarp, the disciple of John in the early 2nd cent. 3. It was also cited by Cryil of Jerusalem, Jerome, and Augustine.

53 2 JOHN WHEN? A.D Before John died (in A. D. 98) 2. During the reign of Domitian (A. D ) 3. After the Gospel of John (A.D ). 4. Similarity with 1 John show it was the same time WHEN? A.D Before John died (in A. D. 98) 2. During the reign of Domitian (A. D ) 3. After the Gospel of John (A.D ). 4. Similarity with 1 John show it was the same time

54 2 JOHN TO WHOM? “The elect lady and her children” (1:1) 1. An individual named “Eklecta (chosen) or Kyria (lady) who had a house church (cf. Phile. 1:2). 2. A personification of church for there are: 1) no personal names mentioned; 2) a “sister” church is mentioned (13); 3) Her “all those” and her “children” imply members in the church (cf. Paul’s “my son”); 4) It parallel with 3 John which is to “the church” (9). WHERE? Unknown. Probably in Asia TO WHOM? “The elect lady and her children” (1:1) 1. An individual named “Eklecta (chosen) or Kyria (lady) who had a house church (cf. Phile. 1:2). 2. A personification of church for there are: 1) no personal names mentioned; 2) a “sister” church is mentioned (13); 3) Her “all those” and her “children” imply members in the church (cf. Paul’s “my son”); 4) It parallel with 3 John which is to “the church” (9). WHERE? Unknown. Probably in Asia

55 2 JOHN WHAT? 1. Theme is Continuation in Christ (1:4) 2. Key words: walk (3), truth (5), love (4), commandments (4), doctrine (3) (cf. Eph. 4:15). 3. Only N.T. book addressed to a “lady.” 4. “Truth” is used in 3 ways: a) Of the body of Christian teaching (1) - substantivally b) Of Christ (2)--personally c) For “truly” (4)-- adverbally 5. Note: 2 Jn. – written to Christian lady 3 Jn. – written to Christian gentleman 6. Warns again denying the humanity of Christ (7) (Colossians is against denying deity of Christ (2:9) WHAT? 1. Theme is Continuation in Christ (1:4) 2. Key words: walk (3), truth (5), love (4), commandments (4), doctrine (3) (cf. Eph. 4:15). 3. Only N.T. book addressed to a “lady.” 4. “Truth” is used in 3 ways: a) Of the body of Christian teaching (1) - substantivally b) Of Christ (2)--personally c) For “truly” (4)-- adverbally 5. Note: 2 Jn. – written to Christian lady 3 Jn. – written to Christian gentleman 6. Warns again denying the humanity of Christ (7) (Colossians is against denying deity of Christ (2:9)

56 2 JOHN WHY? 1) To encourage fidelity (to truth) (4, 6) 2) To exhort to charity (5) 3) To warn against heresy (7) Outline: –I. Path of truth (1-6)--love –II. Peril of truth (7-13)--laxity WHY? 1) To encourage fidelity (to truth) (4, 6) 2) To exhort to charity (5) 3) To warn against heresy (7) Outline: –I. Path of truth (1-6)--love –II. Peril of truth (7-13)--laxity

57 3 JOHN WHO? John the apostle 1. “The elder,”a title of seniority and authority. Apostles were elders by office (cf. Acts 1:20 cf. 1 Tim. 3:1). 2. The apostle Peter spoke of himself as an Elder (1 Pet. 5:1). 3. He spoke with the authority of an apostle (1:5-14). 4. Only a well-know apostle like John would be recognized by the simple title “the elder.” 5. He wrote in the same style as the author of 1& 2 John (see) who was the apostle John. WHO? John the apostle 1. “The elder,”a title of seniority and authority. Apostles were elders by office (cf. Acts 1:20 cf. 1 Tim. 3:1). 2. The apostle Peter spoke of himself as an Elder (1 Pet. 5:1). 3. He spoke with the authority of an apostle (1:5-14). 4. Only a well-know apostle like John would be recognized by the simple title “the elder.” 5. He wrote in the same style as the author of 1& 2 John (see) who was the apostle John.

58 3 JOHN WHEN? A.D Before John died (in A. D. 98) 2. During the reign of Domitian (A. D ) 3. After the Gospel of John (A.D ). 4. Similarity with 1&2 John show it was the same time. TO WHOM? Gaius of 1. Macedonia (Acts 19:29) 2. Corinth (Rom. 16:23; 1 Cor. 1:14) 3. Derbe (Acts 20:4, 5) WHERE? Probably Asia. WHEN? A.D Before John died (in A. D. 98) 2. During the reign of Domitian (A. D ) 3. After the Gospel of John (A.D ). 4. Similarity with 1&2 John show it was the same time. TO WHOM? Gaius of 1. Macedonia (Acts 19:29) 2. Corinth (Rom. 16:23; 1 Cor. 1:14) 3. Derbe (Acts 20:4, 5) WHERE? Probably Asia.

59 3 JOHN WHAT? 1. The Theme is Contribution for Christ (1:5, 8) 2. Key words: walk, truth, love, know, witness, testimony, good, evil, and beloved. 3. Note: John wrote it (1) Gaius receive it (1) Diotrephes occasioned it (9) Demetrius carried it (12) WHAT? 1. The Theme is Contribution for Christ (1:5, 8) 2. Key words: walk, truth, love, know, witness, testimony, good, evil, and beloved. 3. Note: John wrote it (1) Gaius receive it (1) Diotrephes occasioned it (9) Demetrius carried it (12)

60 3 JOHN 4. “Truth” is used as: –a) the sphere of compassion (1) –b) the sphere of conduct (4) –c) the source of power (3) –d) the standard of practice (12b) –e) the savior of participators (12a) 5. 2 Jn. – truth is worth standing for. 3 Jn. – truth is worth working for. WHY? 1) To commend the practice of fidelity (1-4) 2) To commend the practice of hospitality (5-8) 3) To condemn the primacy in authority (9-11) 4. “Truth” is used as: –a) the sphere of compassion (1) –b) the sphere of conduct (4) –c) the source of power (3) –d) the standard of practice (12b) –e) the savior of participators (12a) 5. 2 Jn. – truth is worth standing for. 3 Jn. – truth is worth working for. WHY? 1) To commend the practice of fidelity (1-4) 2) To commend the practice of hospitality (5-8) 3) To condemn the primacy in authority (9-11)

61 3 JOHN Outline: I. Confirmation of Gaius (1-8) – who was loved in the truth. II. Condemnation of Diotrephes (9-10) – who loved not the truth. III. Commendation of Demetrius (11-14)- who was loved by truth. Outline: I. Confirmation of Gaius (1-8) – who was loved in the truth. II. Condemnation of Diotrephes (9-10) – who loved not the truth. III. Commendation of Demetrius (11-14)- who was loved by truth.

62 Jude WHO? Jude, “the brother of James” (Mt. 13:55), both of whom were half-brothers of Jesus. Internal Evidence: 1. The author claims to be Jude (1:1). 2. The author spoke with authority (1:3-23). 3. But he was not an apostle (1:17). External Evidence: 1. Earliest mss. Have Jude’s name on it. 2. Early Bibles accept it as from Jude. 3 Early Fathers cite it (Irenaeus, Clement of Alex. Cyril of Jerusalem, Jerome, and Augustine. WHO? Jude, “the brother of James” (Mt. 13:55), both of whom were half-brothers of Jesus. Internal Evidence: 1. The author claims to be Jude (1:1). 2. The author spoke with authority (1:3-23). 3. But he was not an apostle (1:17). External Evidence: 1. Earliest mss. Have Jude’s name on it. 2. Early Bibles accept it as from Jude. 3 Early Fathers cite it (Irenaeus, Clement of Alex. Cyril of Jerusalem, Jerome, and Augustine.

63 Jude WHEN? A. D After 2 Peter (A. D. 64) since scoffers are future in 2 Peter (3:3) and present in Jude (1:18). 2. Before A. D. 70 (Temple not destroyed yet for, if it had, mentioning it would have support his point). WHEN? A. D After 2 Peter (A. D. 64) since scoffers are future in 2 Peter (3:3) and present in Jude (1:18). 2. Before A. D. 70 (Temple not destroyed yet for, if it had, mentioning it would have support his point).

64 JUDE WHO? Jude (Judas), brother of Jesus (Matt. 13:55) 1) A brother of James (1:1) who was Jesus’ brother (Gal. 1:19) cf. Mark 6:3 2) Not an apostle (17) WHEN? A.D , just after destruction of Jerusalem (after Apostles’ death – v.17) TO WHOM? Hebrew Christians (maybe same ones as James ) WHERE? Eastern Mediterranean (Palestine) WHO? Jude (Judas), brother of Jesus (Matt. 13:55) 1) A brother of James (1:1) who was Jesus’ brother (Gal. 1:19) cf. Mark 6:3 2) Not an apostle (17) WHEN? A.D , just after destruction of Jerusalem (after Apostles’ death – v.17) TO WHOM? Hebrew Christians (maybe same ones as James ) WHERE? Eastern Mediterranean (Palestine)

65 JUDE WHAT? 1. The theme is contention for Christ (1:3) 2. Key words: contend (1), keep (5), beloved (3), remember (2), once (2), eternal (3). 3. It resembles 2 Peter in spirit and content. 4. Fond of triplets [12 in 25 verses. Cf. mercy, peace, love (2)] 5. Only N.T. book to allude to pseudepigraphal books: –Assumption of Moses (9) and Book of Enoch (14) 6. There are three “eternal” things: “chains” (6), “fire” (7), “life” (21). 7. The book is strongly polemical (3). WHAT? 1. The theme is contention for Christ (1:3) 2. Key words: contend (1), keep (5), beloved (3), remember (2), once (2), eternal (3). 3. It resembles 2 Peter in spirit and content. 4. Fond of triplets [12 in 25 verses. Cf. mercy, peace, love (2)] 5. Only N.T. book to allude to pseudepigraphal books: –Assumption of Moses (9) and Book of Enoch (14) 6. There are three “eternal” things: “chains” (6), “fire” (7), “life” (21). 7. The book is strongly polemical (3).

66 JUDE WHY? 1) To exhort them to contend for the Faith (1-3). 2 ) To warn them against apostates (4-24): a. Who deny Christ’s deity (4) b. Who practice immorality (4, 8, 16) c. Who rebel against authority (8, 1, 18) d. Who live self-centerly (16, 19) e. Who seek their own gain (11-12, 16) f. Who are divisive (19) g. Who are fault-finding (16) h. Who are boastful (16) WHY? 1) To exhort them to contend for the Faith (1-3). 2 ) To warn them against apostates (4-24): a. Who deny Christ’s deity (4) b. Who practice immorality (4, 8, 16) c. Who rebel against authority (8, 1, 18) d. Who live self-centerly (16, 19) e. Who seek their own gain (11-12, 16) f. Who are divisive (19) g. Who are fault-finding (16) h. Who are boastful (16)

67 JUDE Outline: I. Contending for the “Faith” (1-3) A. The preserved (1, 2) B. The purpose (3) II. Contending against the “Faith” (4-19) A. Reason (4) B. Remembrance (5-19) 1. From the O.T. (5-16) 2. From the N.T. (17-19) Outline: I. Contending for the “Faith” (1-3) A. The preserved (1, 2) B. The purpose (3) II. Contending against the “Faith” (4-19) A. Reason (4) B. Remembrance (5-19) 1. From the O.T. (5-16) 2. From the N.T. (17-19)

68 JUDE III. Contending in the “Faith” (20-25) A. Strength (20, 21) B. Service (22, 23) C. Stability (24, 25) III. Contending in the “Faith” (20-25) A. Strength (20, 21) B. Service (22, 23) C. Stability (24, 25)

69 REVELATION WHO? John the apostle Internal Evidence: 1. He calls himself “John” (1:9). 2. No one else but the apostle John could use just the title “John” and be accepted. 3. Only other book to refer to Christ as the “Word” (Logos) (Jn. 1:1 cf. Rev. 19:13). 4. The style fits John the apostle (e.g.,logos, lamb, Jesus, true, dwell, witness, cites Zech. 12:10 in Jn. 19:37 and Rev. 1:7). WHO? John the apostle Internal Evidence: 1. He calls himself “John” (1:9). 2. No one else but the apostle John could use just the title “John” and be accepted. 3. Only other book to refer to Christ as the “Word” (Logos) (Jn. 1:1 cf. Rev. 19:13). 4. The style fits John the apostle (e.g.,logos, lamb, Jesus, true, dwell, witness, cites Zech. 12:10 in Jn. 19:37 and Rev. 1:7).

70 REVELATION External Evidence: 1. Earliest mss. Have John’s name in them. 2. Earliest Bible accepted it as by John. 3. Many early Fathers cited it as from John the apostle (Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Tertullian, Hippolytus, Clement of Alexandria, and Origen). 4. Most who reject John’s authorship also reject its inspiration. 5. Early voices to reject John’s authorship did so on dogmatic grounds (anti-millennialism). 6. Papias statement that John was martyred before A. D. 70 is contradicted by many other sources (see 3 above). External Evidence: 1. Earliest mss. Have John’s name in them. 2. Earliest Bible accepted it as by John. 3. Many early Fathers cited it as from John the apostle (Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Tertullian, Hippolytus, Clement of Alexandria, and Origen). 4. Most who reject John’s authorship also reject its inspiration. 5. Early voices to reject John’s authorship did so on dogmatic grounds (anti-millennialism). 6. Papias statement that John was martyred before A. D. 70 is contradicted by many other sources (see 3 above).

71 REVELATION HOW? (to interpret Revelation) Preterist (past): The predictions were fulfilled between A. D under Nero’s reign. Response: 1) It was written after A. D. 70 (see above); 2) If it about A. D. 70, then Second Coming and the resurrection are past too (Rev ) which is heretical (2 Tim. 2:18). Allegorical: All these predictions are allegorical. Response: 1) If so, then so are the Second Coming and the resurrection allegorical. 2) If other sections of the Bible (like Christ’s death and resurrection) are allegorized, it will undermine our salvation (Rom. 10:9; 1 Cor. 15:17). HOW? (to interpret Revelation) Preterist (past): The predictions were fulfilled between A. D under Nero’s reign. Response: 1) It was written after A. D. 70 (see above); 2) If it about A. D. 70, then Second Coming and the resurrection are past too (Rev ) which is heretical (2 Tim. 2:18). Allegorical: All these predictions are allegorical. Response: 1) If so, then so are the Second Coming and the resurrection allegorical. 2) If other sections of the Bible (like Christ’s death and resurrection) are allegorized, it will undermine our salvation (Rom. 10:9; 1 Cor. 15:17).

72 REVELATION Historical: Revelation is a symbolic picture of the total history of the church. Response: 1) It doesn’t fit the historical events, or it is capable of many different interpretations; 2) It is a form of allegorical interpretation (which is wrong for reasons just given). Futurist: The prophecies of John are future and literal (though it uses symbols and figures of speech to convey this literal meaning). E., g.: 1) “Keys” are figurative but Satan, the pit, and the millennium are is literal (20:1-6). – 2) “Stars” are symbols of literal “angels” (1:20). Historical: Revelation is a symbolic picture of the total history of the church. Response: 1) It doesn’t fit the historical events, or it is capable of many different interpretations; 2) It is a form of allegorical interpretation (which is wrong for reasons just given). Futurist: The prophecies of John are future and literal (though it uses symbols and figures of speech to convey this literal meaning). E., g.: 1) “Keys” are figurative but Satan, the pit, and the millennium are is literal (20:1-6). – 2) “Stars” are symbols of literal “angels” (1:20).

73 REVELATION WHEN? A. D. 95 (not 60s as preterists claim) 1. Early Father Irenaeus (2nd. Cent.) said of John “...who beheld the apocalyptic vision” that he received “almost in our day, toward the end of Domitian’s reign” (Against Heresies ). 2. Victorinus (3 rd cent.) wrote: “When John said these things, he was in the Island of Patmos, condemned to the mines by Caesar Domitian” (Commentary of Revelation 10:11). 3. Eusebius (4 th century) confirmed the Domitian date (Ecclesiastical History 3.18). 4. Other early Fathers after A.D. 70 refer to the Tribulation or Antichrist spoken of in Revelation as yet future (see Commondianus [3 rd century], Instructions 44, and Ephraem of Syria [4 th century], On the Last Times, 2). WHEN? A. D. 95 (not 60s as preterists claim) 1. Early Father Irenaeus (2nd. Cent.) said of John “...who beheld the apocalyptic vision” that he received “almost in our day, toward the end of Domitian’s reign” (Against Heresies ). 2. Victorinus (3 rd cent.) wrote: “When John said these things, he was in the Island of Patmos, condemned to the mines by Caesar Domitian” (Commentary of Revelation 10:11). 3. Eusebius (4 th century) confirmed the Domitian date (Ecclesiastical History 3.18). 4. Other early Fathers after A.D. 70 refer to the Tribulation or Antichrist spoken of in Revelation as yet future (see Commondianus [3 rd century], Instructions 44, and Ephraem of Syria [4 th century], On the Last Times, 2).

74 REVELATION 5. John’s exile on the Island of Patmos implies a later date when persecution was more rampant (1:9). 6. References to persecution and Martydom in the churches reflect a later date (cf. Rev. 2:10, 13 cf.). 7. Polycarp’s reference to the church at Smyrna (to the Philippians 11.3) reveals that it did not exist in Paul’s day (by A.D. 64) as it did in Revelation 2:8. 8. The conditions of the seven churches (Rev. 2-3) fit this later period rather than that reflected in Paul’s epistles written in the 60s. 9. Emperor worship reflected Revelation did not exist in Nero’s day, so he could not have been a fulfillment of it. 10. Laodicea was a prosperous city in Rev. 3:17, yet it was destroyed by an earthquake in c. A.D. 61 and is unlikely to have been rebuilt so fast in a few years. 5. John’s exile on the Island of Patmos implies a later date when persecution was more rampant (1:9). 6. References to persecution and Martydom in the churches reflect a later date (cf. Rev. 2:10, 13 cf.). 7. Polycarp’s reference to the church at Smyrna (to the Philippians 11.3) reveals that it did not exist in Paul’s day (by A.D. 64) as it did in Revelation 2:8. 8. The conditions of the seven churches (Rev. 2-3) fit this later period rather than that reflected in Paul’s epistles written in the 60s. 9. Emperor worship reflected Revelation did not exist in Nero’s day, so he could not have been a fulfillment of it. 10. Laodicea was a prosperous city in Rev. 3:17, yet it was destroyed by an earthquake in c. A.D. 61 and is unlikely to have been rebuilt so fast in a few years.

75 REVELATION 11. The Nicolaitans (of Rev. 2:6, 11) were not firmly established until nearer the end of the century. 12. There is not sufficient time on the early date for John’s arrival in Asia (late 60s) and replacement of Paul as the respected leader of the Asian Church (see Guthrie, New Testament Introduction, vol. 2, chapter 7). TO WHOM? 1) To seven churches: Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea (1:11) s trategically located on circular road that bound a populous, wealthy, and influential Providence. 2) To persecuted saints who refused emperor worship. WHERE? Asia Minor (Turkey) 11. The Nicolaitans (of Rev. 2:6, 11) were not firmly established until nearer the end of the century. 12. There is not sufficient time on the early date for John’s arrival in Asia (late 60s) and replacement of Paul as the respected leader of the Asian Church (see Guthrie, New Testament Introduction, vol. 2, chapter 7). TO WHOM? 1) To seven churches: Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea (1:11) s trategically located on circular road that bound a populous, wealthy, and influential Providence. 2) To persecuted saints who refused emperor worship. WHERE? Asia Minor (Turkey)

76

77 REVELATION WHY? 1. To reveal Christ’s person (1), possession (2, 3), and program for the future (4-22). 2. To awaken the church to be ready for Christ’s imminent coming (1:1; 22:12). 3. To unfold God’s plan to bring His kingdom to earth (11:15). 4. To encourage God-center worship among believers (see 3:9; 4:10; 5:14; 7:11; 9:20; 11:1, 16; 14:7; 15:4; 19:4, 10, 20; 22:9). 5. To comfort the persecuted saints (1:9). WHY? 1. To reveal Christ’s person (1), possession (2, 3), and program for the future (4-22). 2. To awaken the church to be ready for Christ’s imminent coming (1:1; 22:12). 3. To unfold God’s plan to bring His kingdom to earth (11:15). 4. To encourage God-center worship among believers (see 3:9; 4:10; 5:14; 7:11; 9:20; 11:1, 16; 14:7; 15:4; 19:4, 10, 20; 22:9). 5. To comfort the persecuted saints (1:9).

78 HOW (to respond to arguments for an early view--c. A. D. 68)? 1. The use of “quickly” (2:16; 22:12). Response: It means suddenly, not soon. 2. The use of “near” (1:3) Response: This is a relative term. In Hab. And Amos. ?? “short” was over 2000 years. 3. The “you” (Jesus’ disciples) of in Matt. 24:15-44 shows it was fulfilled in their day. Response: “You” is used here proleptically (in advance) as in other places (cf. Matt. 5-7) and the “we” (in 1 Thes. 4:17).. HOW (to respond to arguments for an early view--c. A. D. 68)? 1. The use of “quickly” (2:16; 22:12). Response: It means suddenly, not soon. 2. The use of “near” (1:3) Response: This is a relative term. In Hab. And Amos. ?? “short” was over 2000 years. 3. The “you” (Jesus’ disciples) of in Matt. 24:15-44 shows it was fulfilled in their day. Response: “You” is used here proleptically (in advance) as in other places (cf. Matt. 5-7) and the “we” (in 1 Thes. 4:17)..

79 HOW (to respond to arguments for an early view--c. A. D. 68)? 4. The reference in 17:9-11 to five fallen Roman emperors. Response: If so, the ten “horns” are future and simultaneous kings (see Dan. 2:44). 5. The allusion in 11:1 to the temple as yet standing. Response: This was part of a vision of the future Tribulation temple, not one on earth. 6. The reference in 13:18 to 666 or Neron Kesar in Hebrew. Response: The same numbers fit the Pope and others. It numbers may simply be symbolic of a man (6) who claims to be God (3) 7. The Greek is rough and unlike John’s more polished work in Gospel and Epistles in (A.D. 80s-90s). Response: The style is due to the apocalytic (vision) nature of the book. There are many similarities in style. 4. The reference in 17:9-11 to five fallen Roman emperors. Response: If so, the ten “horns” are future and simultaneous kings (see Dan. 2:44). 5. The allusion in 11:1 to the temple as yet standing. Response: This was part of a vision of the future Tribulation temple, not one on earth. 6. The reference in 13:18 to 666 or Neron Kesar in Hebrew. Response: The same numbers fit the Pope and others. It numbers may simply be symbolic of a man (6) who claims to be God (3) 7. The Greek is rough and unlike John’s more polished work in Gospel and Epistles in (A.D. 80s-90s). Response: The style is due to the apocalytic (vision) nature of the book. There are many similarities in style.

80 REVELATION WHAT? 1. The theme: consummation in Christ 2. Key words: seven, “I saw,” “Behold, I come quickly,” “Let him that has an ear, hear….” seals, trumpets, bowls, angels, judgment, repent, lamb, worship, glory, and wrath. 3. An enigmatic proclamations (mysterious meaning, cf. 13:18). 4. A dramatic plot and climactic plan (cf. 11:15). 5. A prophetic program (1:19). 6. A cataclysmic pronouncements (judgments). 7. An apocalyptic presentation (revelations). 8. A polemic purpose (anti-”Babylon”). 9. A numeric proliferation (abundance of numbers cf. “7s”). 10) A rhythmic (and parenthetic) progression. 11) Symbolic pictures (cf. 1:1, sign-ify). 12) Hebraic phraseology (400 + allusions to O.T.). WHAT? 1. The theme: consummation in Christ 2. Key words: seven, “I saw,” “Behold, I come quickly,” “Let him that has an ear, hear….” seals, trumpets, bowls, angels, judgment, repent, lamb, worship, glory, and wrath. 3. An enigmatic proclamations (mysterious meaning, cf. 13:18). 4. A dramatic plot and climactic plan (cf. 11:15). 5. A prophetic program (1:19). 6. A cataclysmic pronouncements (judgments). 7. An apocalyptic presentation (revelations). 8. A polemic purpose (anti-”Babylon”). 9. A numeric proliferation (abundance of numbers cf. “7s”). 10) A rhythmic (and parenthetic) progression. 11) Symbolic pictures (cf. 1:1, sign-ify). 12) Hebraic phraseology (400 + allusions to O.T.).

81 REVELATION I. THE PERSON OF CHRIST (1) – HIS CHARACTER A. His prophet (1, 2) B. His promise (3) C. His priests (4-6) D. His parousia [coming] (7) E. His pedigree (8) F. His proclamation (9-11) G. His pictorial presentation (12-18) H. His prophetic program (19-20) I. THE PERSON OF CHRIST (1) – HIS CHARACTER A. His prophet (1, 2) B. His promise (3) C. His priests (4-6) D. His parousia [coming] (7) E. His pedigree (8) F. His proclamation (9-11) G. His pictorial presentation (12-18) H. His prophetic program (19-20)

82 REVELATION II. THE POSSESSION OF CHRIST (2, 3) – HIS CHURCH A. His preserving of patient church (Ephesus) B. His priority in a persecuted church (Smyrna) C. His power in a polluted church (Pergamos) D. His purity in a paganized church (Thyatira) E. His providence in a professing church (Sardis) F. His protection of a pure church (Philadelphia) G. His primacy in a passive church (Laodicea) II. THE POSSESSION OF CHRIST (2, 3) – HIS CHURCH A. His preserving of patient church (Ephesus) B. His priority in a persecuted church (Smyrna) C. His power in a polluted church (Pergamos) D. His purity in a paganized church (Thyatira) E. His providence in a professing church (Sardis) F. His protection of a pure church (Philadelphia) G. His primacy in a passive church (Laodicea)

83 REVELATION III. THE PROGRAM OF CHURCH (4-22) – HIS CONTROL A. In heaven (4, 5) – his praise is sung. B. On earth (6-22) – his power is shown. 1. During the tribulation (6-19) 2. During the millennium (20) 3. During the eternal state (21, 22) III. THE PROGRAM OF CHURCH (4-22) – HIS CONTROL A. In heaven (4, 5) – his praise is sung. B. On earth (6-22) – his power is shown. 1. During the tribulation (6-19) 2. During the millennium (20) 3. During the eternal state (21, 22)


Download ppt "Jesus in Both Testaments In the Old Anticipation Coming Prophesied Contained Shadow Type In the Old Anticipation Coming Prophesied Contained Shadow Type."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google