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CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb 2007 1 An Update on Google Digitization at the University of Michigan Actually, a 50 slide kitchen sink and everything.

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Presentation on theme: "CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb 2007 1 An Update on Google Digitization at the University of Michigan Actually, a 50 slide kitchen sink and everything."— Presentation transcript:

1 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb An Update on Google Digitization at the University of Michigan Actually, a 50 slide kitchen sink and everything in it (Much of it stolen from John Wilkin) Paul N.Courant

2 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb Outline of the talk Background--what it is and how we got there, Status report--what’s been done, what’s being done, and how the work is done GBS and MBooks--two access systems Implications and questions Conversation

3 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb Part 1 Background

4 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb Beginnings A conversation one day in 2002 Intensive planning and negotiations ( ) Equipment design and refinement ( ) Early deployment and growth ( )

5 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb Michigan’s deal What will be digitized? –7m (University Library, bound print) vols Google covers costs Make searchable on Google What about the legal issues? What happens to the books? We get a copy of the images (more on this later) Contract available online

6 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb UM prior to Google  Digital initiatives going back to 1980s  UMLibText  Humanities Text Initiative  PEAK, JSTOR, Making of America

7 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb University Library mission statement: “To support, enhance, and collaborate in the instructional, research, and service activities of faculty, students, and staff, and contribute to the common good by collecting, organizing, preserving, communicating, and sharing the record of human knowledge.” Why engage in this partnership?

8 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb Part 2 Status

9 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb Production status Google began in July, 2004 UM receiving content continuously Large amounts of UM content went into GBS in November, 2005 Production ramp-up continues –New facility –Scaling (on pace to meet the 6-year target) –Pattern of doubling growth

10 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb But how do they do it????

11 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb THE GOOGLE WORKSTATION (CONFIDENTIAL)

12 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb THE ANN ARBOR WORK GROUP

13 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb Accomplishments  Getting books out and back - developed workflows - back on the shelf within 5-7 days  Developed mechanisms for receiving content from Google  Image quality - library preservation standards  Pre-/post-condition survey

14 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb About the files Returned to UM: package per volume, id’d by barcode –600dpi TIFF ITU G4 (bitonal) for print –300dpi JPEG2000 color/grayscale for illus. –File naming conventions corresponding to UM specs –Checksums –Production notes –OCR (UTF-8 text files) –Page metadata: page numbers, page features, chapter start Quality control –Ongoing improvement of hardware/engineering –Image quality good and improving What is secret and why? –Technology –Numbers

15 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb Workflow diagram

16 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb Accomplishments (2)  September 2006 UM released local implementation - MBooks  System for accessing our digital collections  Access through MIRLYN - UM Library OPAC  Created Rights Database to manage access

17 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb Part 3 Two access systems

18 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb Bunker Hill

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29 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb Record for out-of-copyright work

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33 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb Search within the book Walt Whitman

34 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb Record for in-copyright work

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36 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb In copyright: search within text Walt Whitman

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39 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb Why would UM put the materials online? Responsibility for the “archive” Michigan “audience” more specific and thus more specialized… –Rights that Google may not have Current Section 108 provisions Services for disabled users Negotiated rights? –Functions that Google may not want to support More flexible displays More powerful citation tools Power searches? Data mining and other research applications

40 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb Part 4 Big questions and implications

41 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb Key contract provisions, pt. 1: the archive Use of U of M Digital Copy on U of M Website. U of M shall have the right to use the U of M Digital Copy, in whole or in part at U of M's sole discretion, as part of services offered on U of M's website. U of M shall implement technological measures … to restrict automated access to any portion of the U of M Digital Copy …. U of M shall also make reasonable efforts … to prevent third parties from (a) downloading or otherwise obtaining any portion of the U of M Digital Copy for commercial purposes, (b) redistributing any portions of the U of M Digital Copy, or (c) automated and systematic downloading from its website image files from the U of M Digital Copy…. Cf. Google: driven by a business model

42 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb Key contract provisions, pt. 2: one archive or many? Use of U of M Digital Copy in Cooperative Web Services. Subject to the restrictions set forth in this section, U of M shall have the right to use the U of M Digital Copy, in whole or in part at U of M's sole discretion, as part of services offered in cooperation with partner research libraries such as the institutions in the Digital Library Federation….

43 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb Creating a cooperative enterprise Original vision –Greater than the sum of our parts –Effort tied to the mission of our scholarly enterprise(s) –Extensible framework for content and services CIC discussions –All 13 institutions participating –Two coordinated instances of replicated content –A foundation for creating shared definition Next?

44 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb Transformative implications (2004) Broad, efficient, democratizing access Access as driver for … Exaggerating and resolving IP issues Creation of cooperative “universal” library Exacerbating paradox of “library as place” Facilitating “specialization” (ceding “generalist” role to Google) Freeing up resources for related issues (e.g., institutional repositories, scholarly communication)

45 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb Implications for users--the obvious I just came across a copy of the classic philosophy text "Principia Ethica" in your catalog of books and what I want to tell you is WOW!!!... This is an extraordinary service to the public.... What is interesting, though, is that for those books you have online that are different editions from the one I own, I am inclined to buy the books anew so as to be able to refer to the copy you have online... I know of no better method for doing textual analysis than by using your service. I am writing a paper on the history of statistics and was disheartened when I picked up Claude Bernard's Introduction to Experimental Medicine - because it did not have an index. But then I found you.

46 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb Use and users, more Those who “rediscover” their own collections Those who find what they would not have found otherwise Not new ways of reading, but efficiencies only imagined

47 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb IP Issues Orphaned works 108 The immovable object and the irresistible force What might a reasonable arrangement look like? –Let books be books?

48 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb Universal Library Borges’s ‘universal library’?: “This ideal, although unrealizable, has influenced and continues to influence librarians and others.” –Now it is realizable, but here we are blocked by the rights environment. Again, we should be able to find a Pareto- improving trade

49 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb Library as Place So, what are we going to do in the library? –So far, we seem to be plenty busy –We might even work on search tools that can be used by the ordinary scholar working outside (inside?) her own narrow field Will we attract users with expertise, with the promise of propinquity to other users?

50 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb Specialization Maybe we can specialize in the academic library way of doing things, and let Google take care of the other audiences. And maybe, given the nature of our business and the lives of undergraduates, not.

51 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb Freeing up resources Space, the final frontier… Institutional repositories Shared physical storage Support publication and scholarship in the library with library expertise

52 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb What’s next?  Storage - RFP  Move from storage to other UM libraries  MBooks  Collections  correcting OCR???  Rights clearance  Services for persons with disabilities  Shared effort

53 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb Why does the University of Michigan support this project? At its essence, digitizing books and widening their exposure is about the public good. I believe it transcends debates about snippets, and copyright, and who owns what when, and rises to the very ideal of a university—particularly a great public university like Michigan. Our work is about the social good of promoting and sharing knowledge. As a university, we have no other choice but to make this happen. - Mary Sue Coleman Scholarship and Libraries in Transition March 2006

54 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb For further information…  Michigan Digitization Project  –Contract –Project FAQ –Link to information about UM access?  Mirlyn (UM online catalog)   

55 CNI 17 April 2007 HASTAC 23 Feb Two Futures


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