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Company LOGO Air Pollution TREN 1F90 Sustainability, Environment and Tourism.

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Presentation on theme: "Company LOGO Air Pollution TREN 1F90 Sustainability, Environment and Tourism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Company LOGO Air Pollution TREN 1F90 Sustainability, Environment and Tourism

2 Note worksheet Available for download at tren1f90

3 ap.lbl.gov/.../ELSI/Frames/pollution-main-f.html

4 Major Air Pollutants Oxides of Carbon Carbon monoxide: CO is a colourless, odourless gas

5 Major Air Pollutants Oxides of Carbon Carbon monoxide: CO is a colourless, odourless gas poisonous: ______________________________ _______________________________________

6 Major Air Pollutants Oxides of Carbon Carbon monoxide: CO is a colourless, odourless gas poisonous: binds to hemoglobin and blocks oxygen transport to cells

7 Image credit: dept.physics.upen n.edu/.../ subsection1_1_3. html dept.physics.upen n.edu/.../ subsection1_1_3. html Mode of action of CO Direct binding to hemoglobin molecules within red blood cells, upsetting cellular metabolism → disrupts oxygen and carbon dioxide transport Hemoglobin molecule with carbon monoxide attached

8 Image copyright 2000 by Nucleus Communications, Inc. All rights reserved. See “Why is Carbon Monoxide so Poisonous?” at carbon_monoxide.htm carbon_monoxide.htm

9 Major Air Pollutants Oxides of Carbon Carbon monoxide: CO is a colourless, odourless gas poisonous: binds to hemoglobin and blocks oxygen transport to cells ________% comes from natural sources, especially from ___________________________

10 Major Air Pollutants Oxides of Carbon Carbon monoxide: CO is a colourless, odourless gas poisonous: binds to hemoglobin and blocks oxygen transport to cells 85 % comes from natural sources, especially from ___________________________

11 Major Air Pollutants Oxides of Carbon Carbon monoxide: CO is a colourless, odourless gas poisonous: binds to hemoglobin and blocks oxygen transport to cells 85 % comes from natural sources, especially from oxidation of methane (marsh gas)

12 Major Air Pollutants Carbon monoxide: human sources:_________________________

13 Major Air Pollutants Carbon monoxide: human sources: combustion of fuels

14 Major Air Pollutants Carbon monoxide: human sources: combustion of fuels human inputs insignificant on a global scale, but 95 ‑ 98% of CO levels in cities may come from this source, and CO levels may be 50 ‑ 100 times greater than worldwide averages

15 Source: Ministry of the Environment, Air Quality in Ontario – A Concise Report on the State of Air Quality in the Province of Ontario Canada.Ministry of the Environment CO Concentrations in Ontario Geographical distribution of 1 hour maximum CO concentrations (ppm) across Ontario (1997)

16 Major Air Pollutants Carbon monoxide: human sources: combustion of fossil fuels human inputs insignificant on a global scale, but 95 ‑ 98% of CO levels in cities may come from this source, and CO levels may be 50 ‑ 100 times greater than worldwide averages cigarette smoke contains 200 ‑ 400 ppm CO; ties up 5 ‑ 15 % of smoker's hemoglobin during smoking

17 Major Air Pollutants Carbon dioxide: CO2 is a normal component of atmosphere (currently about ______ ppm)

18 Major Air Pollutants Carbon dioxide: CO2 is a normal component of atmosphere (currently about 391 ppm) average concentrations rising slowly due to ______________________________________

19

20 Major Air Pollutants Carbon dioxide: CO2 is a normal component of atmosphere (currently about 391 ppm) average concentrations rising slowly due to burning of fossil fuels, destruction of forests

21 Major Air Pollutants Carbon dioxide: CO2 is a normal component of atmosphere (currently about 391 ppm) average concentrations rising slowly due to burning of fossil fuels, destruction of forests serious implications regarding global climate change via the "greenhouse effect"

22 Major Air Pollutants Oxides of sulphur Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) Sulphur trioxide (SO 3 ) acrid, poisonous, corrosive gases produced primarily by_____________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________

23 Major Air Pollutants Oxides of sulphur Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) Sulphur trioxide (SO 3 ) acrid, poisonous, corrosive gases produced primarily by burning of high-sulphur fossil fuels (coal, oil) in industrial processes, thermal generators, and heating systems

24 Major Air Pollutants Oxides of sulphur SO 2 reacts slowly in air to produce SO 3 ; SO 3 may react with water to form droplets of H 2 SO 4 (sulphuric acid) dangerous to health when H 2 SO 4 and sulphate salt particulate pollution are inhaled together → synergistic effect greatly increases risk of lung cancer

25 bisulphite ammonium sulfate sulphuric acid sulphur dioxide

26 Major Air Pollutants Oxides of sulphur SO 2 emissions may be reduced by: 1._____________________________________ 2._____________________________________ 3._____________________________________

27 Major Air Pollutants Oxides of sulphur SO 2 emissions may be reduced by: 1.Switching to low-sulphur fuels (< 1% sulphur) 2._____________________________________ 3._____________________________________

28 Major Air Pollutants Oxides of sulphur SO 2 emissions may be reduced by: 1.Switching to low-sulphur fuels (< 1% sulphur) 2.Processing fuels to reduce / remove sulphur 3._____________________________________

29 Major Air Pollutants Oxides of sulphur SO 2 emissions may be reduced by: 1.Switching to low-sulphur fuels (< 1% sulphur) 2.Processing fuels to reduce / remove sulphur 3.Catalytic ‘scrubbing’ of exhaust or stack gases

30 Major Air Pollutants Oxides of Nitrogen Nitric oxide (NO) Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) NO formed in reaction between N and O at high temperatures in boilers, internal combustion engines, etc. NO reacts slowly with ________and rapidly with ______________ to form NO2, a reddish ‑ brown gas with a pungent choking odour

31 Major Air Pollutants Oxides of Nitrogen Nitric oxide (NO) Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) NO formed in reaction between N and O at high temperatures in boilers, internal combustion engines, etc. NO reacts slowly with oxygen and rapidly with ozone to form NO 2, a reddish ‑ brown gas with a pungent choking odour

32 Major Air Pollutants Oxides of Nitrogen natural microbial action produces _______ times more NOx than human activities, but anthropogenic NOx is concentrated: urban NOx levels are ______ to ______ times greater than non ‑ urban atmospheres. NO 2 is a______________________________ and may damage plants

33 Major Air Pollutants Oxides of Nitrogen natural microbial action produces about 10 times more NOx than human activities, but anthropogenic NOx is concentrated: urban NOx levels are ______ to ______ times greater than non ‑ urban atmospheres. NO 2 is a_________ and may damage plants

34 Major Air Pollutants Oxides of Nitrogen natural microbial action produces about 10 times more NOx than human activities, but anthropogenic NOx is concentrated: urban NOx levels are 10 to 100 times greater than non ‑ urban atmospheres. NO 2 is a _________ and may damage plants

35 Major Air Pollutants Oxides of Nitrogen natural microbial action produces about 10 times more NOx than human activities, but anthropogenic NOx is concentrated: urban NOx levels are 10 to 100 times greater than non ‑ urban atmospheres. NO 2 is a lung irritant and may damage plants

36 exceedance_gases.htm NOx Emissions in North America 1 x 1 degree Source: Canadian Global Emissions Interpretation CentreCanadian Global Emissions Interpretation Centre

37 Major Air Pollutants Oxides of Nitrogen major threat is its role in the formation of ______________________________________ may be controlled from chimneys by ______________________________________ ______________________________________ control in auto exhaust requires ___________________________________

38 Major Air Pollutants Oxides of Nitrogen major threat is its role in the formation of photochemical oxidants may be controlled from chimneys by ______________________________________ ______________________________________ control in auto exhaust requires ________________________

39 Major Air Pollutants Oxides of Nitrogen major threat is its role in the formation of photochemical oxidants may be controlled from chimneys by adjusting flame temperature and fuel delivery rates to ensure more complete combustion control in auto exhaust requires ________________________

40 Major Air Pollutants Oxides of Nitrogen major threat is its role in the formation of photochemical oxidants may be controlled from chimneys by adjusting flame temperature and fuel delivery rates to ensure more complete combustion control in auto exhaust requires the use of catalytic converters

41 Average NO 2 Concentrations in Ontario Average NO 2 Concentrations in Ontario Source: MOE (1999)MOE

42 Major Air Pollutants Hydrocarbons E.g. methanebutane benzenepropane Sources include: 1)________________________________ 2)________________________________ 3)________________________________ involved in the production of __________________________________ some directly carcinogenic; most are highly reactive and do not persist for a long time

43 Major Air Pollutants Hydrocarbons E.g. methanebutane benzenepropane Sources include: 1)Incompletely- burned fuels 2)________________________________ 3)________________________________ involved in the production of __________________________________ some directly carcinogenic; most are highly reactive and do not persist for a long time

44 Major Air Pollutants Hydrocarbons E.g. methanebutane benzenepropane Sources include: 1)Incompletely- burned fuels 2)Solvent and fuel evaporation 3)________________________________ involved in the production of __________________________________ some directly carcinogenic; most are highly reactive and do not persist for a long time

45 Major Air Pollutants Hydrocarbons E.g. methanebutane benzenepropane Sources include: 1)Incompletely- burned fuels 2)Solvent and fuel evaporation 3)Refinery emissions involved in the production of __________________________________ some directly carcinogenic; most are highly reactive and do not persist for a long time

46 Major Air Pollutants Hydrocarbons E.g. methanebutane benzenepropane Sources include: 1)Incompletely- burned fuels 2)Solvent and fuel evaporation 3)Refinery emissions involved in the production of photochemical smog some directly carcinogenic; most are highly reactive and do not persist for a long time

47

48 Major Air Pollutants Photochemical oxidants -secondary pollutants produced in the atmosphere by _____________________________ ___________________________________________ -a complex mixture of reactive components including: 1) O 3 ___________________________________ Effects: ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________

49 Major Air Pollutants Photochemical oxidants -secondary pollutants produced in the atmosphere by reaction of NOx and hydrocarbons in the presence of sunlight -a complex mixture of reactive components including: 1) O 3 ___________________________________ Effects: ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________

50 Major Air Pollutants Photochemical oxidants -secondary pollutants produced in the atmosphere by reaction of NOx and hydrocarbons in the presence of sunlight -a complex mixture of reactive components including: 1) O 3 Ozone Effects: ______________________________________ ______________________________________

51 Major Air Pollutants Photochemical oxidants -secondary pollutants produced in the atmosphere by reaction of NOx and hydrocarbons in the presence of sunlight -a complex mixture of reactive components including: 1) O 3 Ozone Effects: crop damage; rots rubber and plastics; throat irritation; fatigue; sterility

52 2) PAN __________________________________ Effects:________________________________ ______________________________________ 3) R - C=O ______________________________ | H Effects: ________________________________ ______________________________________

53 2) PAN peroxyacetyl nitrates Effects:________________________________ ______________________________________ 3) R - C=O ______________________________ | H Effects: ________________________________ ______________________________________

54 2) PAN peroxyacetyl nitrates Effects: damage to wild plants and to crops; irritation of eyes and mucous membranes 3) R - C=O ______________________________ | H Effects: ________________________________ ______________________________________

55 2) PAN peroxyacetyl nitrates Effects: damage to wild plants and to crops; irritation of eyes and mucous membranes 3) R - C=O aldehydes | H Effects: ________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________

56 2) PAN peroxyacetyl nitrates Effects: damage to wild plants and to crops; irritation of eyes and mucous membranes 3) R - C=O aldehydes | H Effects: eye, nose, throat irritation, coughing, wheezing, and bronchitis. Formaldehyde is considered a probable human carcinogen.

57 PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDANTS: Nitrous acid Nitric Acid Ethene, etc. Nitrogen dioxide ozone ammonium sulfate ammonia

58 Particulates May be solids: __________________________________

59 Particulates may be solids: smoke __________________________________

60 Particulates may be solids: smoke soot __________________________________

61 Particulates may be solids: smoke soot dust __________________________________

62 Particulates may be solids: smoke soot dust asbestos __________________________________

63 Particulates may be solids: smoke soot dust asbestos metallic particles __________________________________

64 Particulates may be solids: smoke soot dust asbestos metallic particles sulphate salts __________________________________

65 Particulates may be solids: smoke soot dust asbestos metallic particles sulphate salts pollen

66 Particulates may be liquids: __________________________________

67 Particulates may be liquids: oil sprays __________________________________

68 Particulates may be liquids: oil sprays aqueous sprays __________________________________

69 Particulates May be liquids: oil sprays aqueous sprays solvent sprays

70 Particulates May be liquids: oil sprays aqueous sprays solvent sprays e.g., ‘chemtrails’ from passenger jets

71 Particulates may be liquids: oil sprays aqueous sprays solvent sprays Liquid droplets suspended in air: __________________________________

72 Particulates may be liquids: oil sprays aqueous sprays solvent sprays Liquid droplets suspended in air: aerosols

73 Particulates Effects of particulates include: __________________________________

74 Particulates Effects of particulates include: Damage to respiratory tract __________________________________

75 Particulates Effects of particulates include: Damage to respiratory tract Synergistic effects on health (e.g. lung disease) __________________________________

76 Particulates Effects of particulates include: Damage to respiratory tract Synergistic effects on health (e.g. lung disease) Damage to crops, wildlife, livestock __________________________________

77 Particulates Effects of particulates include: Damage to respiratory tract Synergistic effects on health (e.g. lung disease) Damage to crops, wildlife, livestock Soiling and damage to materials __________________________________

78 Particulates Effects of particulates include: Damage to respiratory tract Synergistic effects on health (e.g. lung disease) Damage to crops, wildlife, livestock Soiling and damage to materials Microclimate effects, reduced visibility

79 Particulates Photochemical smog is a combination of : Photochemical oxidants __________________________________

80 Particulates Photochemical smog is a combination of : Photochemical oxidants Gaseous hydrocarbons __________________________________

81 Particulates Photochemical smog is a combination of : Photochemical oxidants Gaseous hydrocarbons Particulates

82 Company LOGO Controlling Air Pollution

83 Controlling air pollution Technological approaches Legislative approaches Volunteer initiatives

84 Technological Approaches Catalytic converters Scrubbers Dust and particulate entrapment systems Activated carbon filters

85 catalytic-converter-location.jpg Technological Approaches Catalytic converters

86 cateran/data.aspx

87 The Reduction Catalyst first stage of the catalytic converter uses platinum and rhodium to help reduce the NOx emissions When an NO or NO2 molecule contacts the catalyst, the catalyst rips the nitrogen atom out of the molecule and holds on to it, freeing the oxygen in the form of O2. The nitrogen atoms bond with other nitrogen atoms that are also stuck to the catalyst, forming N2. For example: 2NO => N2 + O2 or 2NO2 => N2 + 2O2

88 The Oxidization Catalyst second stage of the catalytic converter reduces the unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide by burning (oxidizing) them over a platinum and palladium catalyst aids the reaction of the CO and hydrocarbons with the remaining oxygen in the exhaust gas. For example: 2CO + O2 => 2CO2

89 Scrubbers air pollution control devices air scrubbers, wet scrubbers, and gas scrubbers use a high-energy liquid spray to remove aerosol and gaseous pollutants from an air stream gases removed either by absorption or chemical reaction may be used for process air cleansing and dust collection commonly used to help control emissions of sulfur into the atmosphere See

90 Image source: aencmed/targets/illus/ilt/T629102A.gifhttp://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/ aencmed/targets/illus/ilt/T629102A.gif

91 Dust filters Use filter media and cyclonic action to trap dust and particulates in exhaust gases from industrial processes

92 Air Quality - Legislative approaches Federal: Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA): regulates air emissions on toxic substances through life cycle, fuels and fuel components, environmentally safe codes of practice, and control of transboundary air pollution, certain controlled substances (ozone depleting chemicals, asbestos, lead, mercury, vinyl chloride / PVC)Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA):

93 Part 7: Controlling Pollution and Managing Wastes Division 4: Fuels (Sections ) - National fuel mark system Division 5: Vehicle Engine and Equipment Emissions (Sections ) - transfers legislative authority from the Motor Vehicle Safety Act to CEPA. Generally speaking air, rail and marine engines are covered by the Aeronautics Act (R.S.C 1985, c. A-2),the Canada Transportation Act (S.C. 1996, c. 10) and the Canada Shipping Act (R.S.C. 1985, c. S-9) Division 6: International Air Pollution (Sections ) Division 8: Control of the Movement of Hazardous Waste and Recyclable Material and Prescribed Non-Hazardous Waste for Final Disposal (Sections ) CEPA Regulations

94 Air Quality - Legislative approaches CCME / Environment Canada Management Plan for Nitrogen Oxides and VOCs (Nov 1990) to identify domestic emissions problems and ensure international compliance (see

95 Air Quality - Legislative approaches Provincial Environmental Protection Act: Ontario Regulation 419/05, Air Pollution - Local Air QualityOntario Regulation 419/05, Air Pollution - Local Air Quality Decisions and Proposals for Individual ContaminantsDecisions and Proposals for Individual Contaminants Drive Clean Program: vehicle emissions testing program to reduce smog and its harmful effects on the air (http://www.ene.gov.on.ca/cons/ htm) (http://www.ene.gov.on.ca/cons/ htm)

96 Air Quality – volunteer initiatives Clean Air Day (05 June 2013) A day of celebration and awareness activities across the country to invite Canadians to take action on clean air and climate change.Clean Air Day One Tonne Challenge: Government of Canada challenges all Canadians to reduce our emissions of greenhouse gases by one tonne (or about 20%).One Tonne Challenge Consumer - Environmental Choice Program: helps consumers identify products and services that are less harmful to the environment, including air quality.Consumer - Environmental Choice Program

97 Air Quality – other initiatives ecoACTION programs:ecoACTION programs –ecoAUTO rebate programecoAUTO rebate program –ecoENERGY home retrofit grantsecoENERGY home retrofit grants –ecoTRANSPORT municipal grantsecoTRANSPORT municipal grants Commuter Challenge

98 Air Quality – other initiatives Energy Efficiency Participation InitiativesEnergy Efficiency Participation Initiatives Transportation Outreach Residential Wood Heating Guide Pesticide use guidelines Citizen Monitoring of lichens (air quality indicators) under international Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network (EMAN) protocolsCitizen Monitoring of lichens (air quality indicators) under international Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network (EMAN)protocols


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