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I. CHARACTERISITCS OF SEED PLANTS.. A. ALL HAVE VASCULAR TISSUE.... 1. VASCULAR TISSUE TRANSPORTS MATERIALS...... a. PHLOEM: TUBES WHICH TRANSPORT FOOD.

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Presentation on theme: "I. CHARACTERISITCS OF SEED PLANTS.. A. ALL HAVE VASCULAR TISSUE.... 1. VASCULAR TISSUE TRANSPORTS MATERIALS...... a. PHLOEM: TUBES WHICH TRANSPORT FOOD."— Presentation transcript:

1 I. CHARACTERISITCS OF SEED PLANTS.. A. ALL HAVE VASCULAR TISSUE VASCULAR TISSUE TRANSPORTS MATERIALS a. PHLOEM: TUBES WHICH TRANSPORT FOOD DOWN FOR STORAGE b. XYLEM: LARGER TUBES WHICH TRANSPORT WATER UP STEM VASCULAR TISSUE HELPS SUPPORT PLANT AGAINST GRAVITY USED TO STORE THE FOOD PRODUCED 1

2 .. B. SEEDS: RESULT OF SEXUAL REPRODUCTION, HAS THREE COMPONENTS EMBRYO: DEVELOPS FROM ZYGOTE (FERTILIZED EGG) a. YOUNG PLANT WITH BEGINNINGS OF ROOTS, STEM, LEAVES b. HAS 1 OR 2 COTYLEDONS (SEED LEAVES) EMBRYO: DEVELOPS FROM ZYGOTE (FERTILIZED EGG) a. YOUNG PLANT WITH BEGINNINGS OF ROOTS, STEM, LEAVES b. HAS 1 OR 2 COTYLEDONS (SEED LEAVES) STORED FOOD: NOURISHES EMBRYO UNTIL LEAVES SPROUT SEED COAT: OUTER PROTECTIVE COVERING ("SKIN") OF SEED 2

3 ...C. SEED DISPERSAL: DISTRIBUTES NEW PLANTS TO NEW AREAS NEEDED TO ALLOW SEED ENOUGH SUN, NUTRIENT AND WATER FOUR COMMON METHODS OF SEED DISPERSAL a. ANIMALS EAT FRUIT WITH SEEDS, EXPEL SEEDS IN WASTE OR BARBS ON SEED COAT ATTACH TO FUR b. SEEDS DISPERSED BY WATER c. SEEDS DISPERSED BY WIND d. MAY BURST FROM A SEED POD 3

4 ...D. GERMINATION: EARLY GROWTH STAGE OF EMBRYO ROOTS EMERGE, GROW DOWN WITH GRAVITY, LEAVES GROW UP a. ROOTS AND STEM SENSE GRAVITY, HAVE OPPOSITE RESPONSES b EMBRYONIC LEAVES BREAK SURFACE, FIRST PHOTOSYNTHESIS GERMINATION RELIES ON ENERGY STORED IN SEED, ENDS WHEN LEAVES BEGIN PHOTOSYNTHESIS 4

5 .. E. THE FUNCTION OF THE LEAF CAPTURES AND HELPS CONTROL SUNLIGHT a. HAS CHLOROPLASTS FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS b. MAKES FOOD AND STORES ENERGY IN FORM OF STARCH ALLOWS FOR THE EXCHANGE OF GASES, MOVEMENT OF WATER,.. F. TRANSPIRATION: EVAPORATION OF WATER FROM STOMATA EVAPORATION PULLS WATER UP FROM ROOTS REGULATES EXCESSIVE LOSS DURING DRY PERIODS AND AT NIGHT 5

6 .. G. STRUCTURE OF THE LEAF CUTICLE: WAXY, WATERPROOF COVERING UPPER EPIDERMIS: UPPER PROTECTIVE LAYER OF CELLS PALISADE LAYER: ELONGATED LAYER WITH CHLOROPLASTS a. MAINLY RESPONSIBLE FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS b. LONG SHAPE ALLOWS CHLOPRPLASTS TO MOVE UP AND DOWN AIR SPACES: IN SPONGY LAYER, ALLOW EXCHANGE OF GASES (CO 2, H 2 O) 6

7 SPONGY LAYER: ROUNDISH CELLS FOR STORAGE, PHOTOSYNTHESIS FIBROVASCULAR BUNDLE (LEAF VEIN): CONATINS XYLEM, PHLOEM LOWER EPIDERMIS: CELL LAYER, PROTECTS BOTTOM OF LEAF STOMATA: OPENINGS IN BOTTOM OF LEAF, ALLOW GAS EXCHANGE GUARD CELLS: OPEN AND CLOSE STOMATES TO CONTROL MOISTURE a. WHEN WET, CELL SWELL LIKE BALLOONS, OPEN STOMATE b. WHEN DRY, CELLS SHRINK, SNAP STOMATE SHUT 7

8 ..H. STEMS: USED TO SUPPORT PLANT, HOLDS UP LEAVES, FOOD STORAGE HERBACEOUS STEMS: SOFT, GREEN STEMS a. OUTER HERBACEOUS STEM: EPIDERMIS, CORTEX FOR STORAGE b. INNER : FIBROVASCULAR BUNDLES, PITH (STORES, SUPPORT WOODY STEMS: HARD, RIGID, WITH OUTER PROTECTIVE BARK a. PHLOEM INSIDE BARK (SAPWOOD) b. CAMBIUM LAYER DIVIDES TO MAKE NEW XYLEM, PHLOEM c. HEARTWOOD MADE OF XYLEM CELLS, HAS ANNUAL RINGS d. CENTRAL PITH STORES FOOD, WATER, SUPPORTS PLANT 8

9 ..I. ROOTS; ANCHOR THE PLANT, ABSORB WATER, NUTRIENTS TAPROOT: LONG THICK CENTRAL ROOT WITH ROOT HAIRS (CARROT) FIBROUS ROOTS: SEVERAL MAIN ROOTS IN A BRANCHING PATTERN ROOT STRUCTURE a. ROOT CAP PROTECTS ROOT TIP, EPIDERMIS PROTECTS REST OF ROOT b. AREA OF MITOSIS BEHIND ROOT CAP, THEN REGION OF GROWTH c. MATURE ROOT CELLS FORM ROOT HAIRS d. CAMBIUM FORMS NEW XYLEM, PHLOEM, CORTEX AREA STORES FOOD 9

10 II. GYMNOSPERMS: NAKED SEEDS, NEEDLE-LIKE LEAVES, DEEP ROOT SYSTEMS..A. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS SEEDS LACK PROTECTIVE COVERINGS, OFTEN ERUPT FROM CONES MOST ARE TREES SUCH AS PINE, SEQUOIA, SPRUCE SOME ARE SHRUBS OR VINES 10

11 .. B. THE FOUR TYPES OF GYMNOSPERMS CYCADS: TROPICAL, PALM-LIKE, HAVE HUGE CONES, AMONG OLDEST GINKO: ALSO VERY OLD, ONLY ONE SPECIES SURVIVES, MAY BE 25m GNETOPHYTES: LIVE IN DESERTS, RAIN FORESTS, INCLUDE SOME TREES, SHRUBS AND VINES CONIFERS: LARGEST AND MOST DIVERSE GROUP OF CONE-BEARERS a. MOST CONIFERS ARE EVERGREEN (GREEN YEAR-LONG) b. INCLUDE HEMLOCKS, JUNIPERS, CEDARS, REDWOODS, PINES, etc. 11

12 ... C. LIFE CYCLE OF GYMNOSPERMS GYMNOSPERM PRODUCES MALE, FEMALE CONES a. SMALLER MALE CONES MAKE, EXPEL POLLEN GRAINS (SPERM) b. FEMALE CONE SCALES HAVE AN OVULE WITH AN EGG CELL(S) POLLEN RELEASED, SCATTERED ON WIND POLLEN ATTACHES TO STICKY OVULE, GROWS TUBE INTO OVULE SPERM CELL MOVES DOWN TUBE, FERTILIZES EGG CELL(S) FERTILIZED EGG BECOMES EMBRYO, OVULE BECOMES SEED COAT WIND DISPERSES SEEDS, NEW PLANT GROWS IS CONDITIONS ARE GOOD 12

13 III. ANGIOSPERMS: HAVE SEEDS ENCLOSED IN A FRUIT AND PRODUCE FLOWERS.. A. FLOWER: REPRODUCTIVE ORGAN WITH BOTH MALE. FEMALE STRUCTURES BUD: DEVELOPING FLOWER ENCLOSES IN LEAF-LIKE SEPALS PETALS: COLORFUL STRUCTURES AROUND REPRODUCTIVE STRUCTURES a. PETALS ATTARCT POLLINATORS SUCH AS INSECTS AND BIRDS b. SURROUND AND PROTECT REPRODUCTIVE STRUCTURES 13

14 PISTILS: FEMALE STRUCTURE CONSISTS OF STIGMA, STYLE, OVARY a. OVARY: FEMALE ORGAN WITH EGGS AT BASE OF PISTIL IN FLOWER b. STYLE: TUBE WHICH CONNECTS STIGMA, OVARY c. STIGMA: STICKY TOP OF STYLE, COLLECTS POLLEN STAMEN: MALE REPRODUCTIVE STRUCTURE, MAKES POLLEN a. FILAMENT: STALK WHICH HOLDS THE ANTHER IN CENTER OF FLOWER b. ANTHER: POLLEN-PRODUCING ORGAN OF FLOWER 14

15 .. B. ANGIOSPERM REPRODUCTION: POLLINATION BY WIND, INSECTS, ANIMALS POLLINATION: POLLEN LANDS ON STIGMA, FORMS TUBE DOWN STYLE FERTILIZATION: POLLEN JOINS WITH EGG IN OVARY CREATING ZYGOTE EMBYRO DEVELOPS INTO SEED, OVARY INTO FRUIT a. FRUIT: RIPENED, ENLARGED PLANT OVARY b. FRUITS EATEN BY ANIMALS, DISPERSING SEEDS IN THEIR WASTE 15

16 .. C. TYPES OF ANGIOSPERMS: CLASSIFIED BY COTYLEDONS (SEED LEAVES) MONOCOTS: HAVE ONE EMBYRONIC SEED LEAF a. ANGIOSPERMS WITH PARALLEL LEAF VEINS, SCATTERED F.V. BUNDLES b. INCLUDE GRASSES, CORN DICOTS: HAVE TWO SEED LEAVES, MORE COMPLEX a. DICOTS HAVE BRANCHED LEAF VEINS, CIRCULAR F.V. BUNDLES b. INCLUDES BEANS, TREES 16

17 IV. TROPISMS: STIMULATES PLANTS POSITIVELY OR NEGATIVELY.. A. THIGMOTROPISM: A RESPONSE TOWARD OR AWAY FROM TOUCH.. B. CHEMOTROPISM: TOWARD OR AWAY FROM CHEMICALS.. C. PHOTOTROPISM: REACTION TO LIGHT (LEAVES POSITIVE, ROOTS NEGATIVE).. D. GEOTROPISM: REACTION TO GRAVITY (STEM NEAGTIVE, ROOTS POSITIVE).. E. HYDROTROPISM: REACTION TO WATER 17

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