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1 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

2 ORIGINS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

3 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University How Did We Get Here?  How did the colonists come to the brink of war in 1775?  In 1763 they were celebrating military victory with Britain, and now, only twelve years later, were heading into a fateful war against Britain.  When did resistance become rebellion, and when did rebellion become revolution?

4 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Fallout From the French & Indian War.  Pontiac’s Rebellion  Halting Westward Expansion, 1763  Asserting British Authority -Proclamation Line of October 1763 **Closed off the Appalachians to colonial settlements *War Debts = Taxation spurs American Resistance -Taxed colonies to pay for the army in America = upset English colonists King George III

5 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University GPA Race  6B = 85.2%  7B = 81.9%  8B = 87.2%  Get your homework turned in! Past due assignments will be accepted through 10/22/14.

6 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University War vs. Battle  What is a war?  What is a battle?

7 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Thesis Statement Help * tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion.  is a road map for the paper; in other words, it tells the reader what to expect from the rest of the paper.  directly answers the question asked of you. A thesis is an interpretation of a question or subject, not the subject itself. The subject, or topic, of an essay might be World War II or Moby Dick; a thesis must then offer a way to understand the war or the novel.  makes a claim that others might dispute.  is usually a single sentence somewhere in your first paragraph that presents your argument to the reader. The rest of the paper, the body of the essay, gathers and organizes evidence that will persuade the reader of the logic of your interpretation.

8 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Primary and Secondary Sources  Primary Sources—A primary source is a document or physical object which was written or created during the time under study. E.G. diaries, newspaper articles, posters from the era, etc.  Secondary Sources--a secondary source of information is one that was created later by someone who did not experience first-hand or participate in the events or conditions you’re researching. E.G. A history textbook.

9 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University A brief review…  Describe the economic conditions and provide one example of how they affected the conduct of warfare. – Economic situation of Great Britain before and during the Revolutionary War. – Economic situation of the colonies before and during the Revolutionary War.  Describe the changes in the structure of the military. – Prior to the American Revolution

10 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Parliament Acts; Colonies React 1. Currency & Sugar Acts, The Quartering Act, The Stamp Act Crisis (1765) and the Declaratory Acts & 1 st Quartering Act 4.The Boston Massacre, Boston Tea Party Intolerable Acts nd Quartering Act 8. Lexington & Concord 1775

11 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University The Stamp Act  March 22, 1765  “AN ACT for granting and applying certain stamp duties, and other duties, in the British colonies and plantations in America, towards further defraying the expenses of defending, protecting, and securing the same; and for amending such parts of the several acts of parliament relating to the trade and revenues of the said colonies and plantations, as direct the manner of determining and recovering the penalties and forfeitures therein mentioned.”  “For every skin or piece of vellum or parchment, or sheet or piece of paper, on which shall be engrossed, written, or printed, any….

12 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

13 Illus. in: The Pennsylvania Journal and Weekly Advertiser, 1765 October 24.

14 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University BOSTON MASSACRE, 1770

15 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University John Adams: Boston Massacre Scene  Guiding questions/prompts: – Explain what you believe happened. – What evidence do you have to back up your ideas?

16 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University John Adams: The Soldiers’ Case  Guiding questions/prompts: – What is the soldiers’ testimony? – Do you believe their testimony? Why/Why not?

17 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University The Trial  Answer the following: “After watching the British soldiers’ trial, did your opinion change from what you wrote previously?”

18 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Boston Massacre: March 5, 1770  Event triggered by a wig maker’s apprentice, Edward Garrick  Garrick insulted a British officer and was struck in the head by a British soldier  This British soldier became the focus of a growing mob  Several hours later, the British soldier calls in reinforcements  Shots fired: 5 dead, many injured

19 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

20 The Origins of the American Revolution The Boston Tea Party, 1773 * On 12/16/1773—Angered by the Tea Acts, American patriots (disguised as Mohawk Indians) dump £9,000 of East India Company tea into the Boston harbor. This is over $1 million dollars today if adjusted for inflation.

21 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Coercive or Intolerable Acts The Boston Port Act, March 1774  Closed the port of Boston until damages from the Boston Tea Party were paid for. The Massachusetts Bay Regulating Act May 1774  annulled the Massachusetts’ Colony charter, giving the British Governor complete control of the town meetings, and the colonial legislature

22 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University John Adams: Tarring and Feathering  Framing questions/prompts – Do you approve of brutal and violent action to enforce a principle? Why/Why not?

23 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Warm up—5 minutes  Why is the version of history you often hear inaccurate AND boring? Write…

24 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University KING GEORGE III “Blows must decide whether they are to be subject to this country or independent”

25 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Colonial Resistance  Creation of the Continental Congress – A unifying National political organization for the 13 independent English colonies 1 st Cont. Cong. = decide if Colonies should unite w/ Mass. 2 nd Cont. Congress = Establish a military At the local level, The Sons of Liberty and Committees of Correspondence formed a shadow government The Sons of Liberty evolved into (1) network of committees for correspondence and safety; (2) coordinated opposition to England; (3) prevented colonial anarchy; and (3) promoted terrorism against the English and their colonial loyalists

26 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University The Revolutionary War ( ): Belligerents  The Colonies/The United States  France  England  Hessians (Germans)  Indian allies

27 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University War Begins, 1775  Lexington & Concord (April 19, 1775)  Capture of Fort Ticonderoga by Americans (May 10, 1775)  Battle of Bunker (Breed’s) Hill (June 17, 1775)  Henry Knox brings cannons from Ticonderoga to Boston (early March 1776)  British leave Boston (March 1776)

28 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

29 LEXINGTON/CONCORD Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

30 Before Lex. & Concord  General Gage-British Commander in Chief * Anticipated fight with the colonies  Received secret instructions to restore royal rule  aided by Dr. Benjamin Church (Spy)- Revolutionary inner circle member who told Gage about – Colonist buildup military supplies in Concord  LTC Francis Smith dispatched to Concord to destroy military supplies of the colonist

31 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Strategic Balance cont.  MAJ Pitcairn (British) advanced to Lexington- 70 Militiamen in martial array  Eight Americans died – Ten wounded  Concord Skirmish –casualties on both sides  Lexington and Concord-5 minutes of battle – but the militia turns out and attacks the British on their way back to Boston

32 LEXINGTON/CONCORD Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

33 BRITISH RETREAT Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

34 BRITISH RETREAT Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

35 War Begins  British Advantages – Industrial powerhouse – Huge army and navy – Manpower and supplies  Colonial Advantages – Belief in the “divine” cause of their conflict – Belief in Liberty – Knowledge of Land – George Washington “…You are fighting for the blessings of liberty…”

36 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University War Begins  England’s disadvantages – Fighting on the other side of the globe – Poor leadership – Many English citizens don’t support the war effort – Problems recruiting troops: impressment and hiring mercenaries (Hessians) – Not strategy The English strategy fluctuates between annihilation and reassimilation

37 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University The Militia’s War  Ethan Allen & Benedict Arnold at Ticonderoga and Crown Point – “Green Mountain Boys” take the forts  Bunker Hill(Breeds Hill) –1,000 of 2,500 British soldiers are casualties  Col. Knox and militiamen move captured cannons from Ft. Ticon. to Boston’s Dorchester Heights With guns trained on Boston Harbor, the British evacuate the city

38 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Fort Ticonderoga

39 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

40 BOSTON

41 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Battle of Bunker (Breed’s) Hill

42 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Colonel Henry Knox

43 Copyright 2013 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

44

45 SIEGE OF BOSTON


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