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Protozoa Chapter 26.

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Presentation on theme: "Protozoa Chapter 26."— Presentation transcript:

1 Protozoa Chapter 26

2 Characteristics of Protists
Have nucleus i.e. eukaryote Lack tissue differentiation Unicellular Move independently Ocean, fresh water, crawl in soil (some water) Heterotrophic Food vacuoles break down particles Both free-living and parasitic Zooplankton - Primary source of energy for organisms in ecosystem

3 Reproduction Asexually Sexually – conjugation
binary fission – produce one identical organisms multiple fission – produce several identical organisms Sexually – conjugation

4 Binary fission

5 Multiple fission

6 Conjugation Paramecia pair up
Macronuclei disntegrate & micronuclei undergo meiosis All but one micronuclei disintegrates. It undergoes mitosis. Each paramecium exchange 1 micronuclei Micronuclei fuse Paramecia separate and marconucleus re-form

7 Adaptations Eyespot – localized region of pigment that detects light variations in the environment Cyst – a hardened external covering that stops all metabolic activity when organism is outside of host to survive in harsh environments e.g. nutrient deficient, drought, decrease oxygen, or pH/temp changes

8 4 phyla – named for type of movement (locomotion)
1. Ciliophora Ciliates 2. Sporazoa sporozoans Plasmodium Zoothamnium

9 phyla cont’ 3. Zoomastigina 4. Sarcodina Zooglagellates sarcodines
Amoeba proteus Trichomonas vaginalis

10 Phylum Sarcodina Movement:Pseudopodia – “false feet” - cytoplasmic extensions Ex: Amoebas inhabit fresh/salt water, and soil Endoplasm – inner portion of the cytoplasm Ectoplasm – outer layer Ameboid movement powered by Cytoplasmic streaming – internal flowing of a cell’s cytoplasm

11 Eating (heterotophic)
Phagocytosis – engulf other protists Endocytosis – when membrane surrounds and pinches together into food vacuole Exocytosis – when undigested food exits the cell Contractile vacuole – organelle that expels fluid from cell b/c hypertonic to environment *remember – water moves from high concentration to lower – hypertonic is high solute concentration relative to environment

12 Amoeba

13 Amoeba

14 Movement & eating BEST one -

15 Variations Foraminifera – ancient, live in oceans with shelled protective covering – tests Radiolarians – ancient, live in shallow waters Tests sink to bottom and build up layers of sediment E.g. White Cliffs of Dover, England

16 White Cliffs of Dover, England

17 300 foot cliffs made from tests of foraminifera and radiolarians

18 FYI Sediment can accumulate as slowly as 0.1 millimeter (0.04 inch) per 1,000 years (in the middle of the ocean where only wind-blown material is deposited) to as fast as 1 meter (3.25 feet) per year along continental margins. More typical deep-sea rates are on the order of several centimeters per 1,000 years.

19 Foraminifera/Radiolarians

20 Human disease Amebic dysentery – sometimes fatal
Enters from contaminated food and water Enzymes break down intestinal wall

21 Phylum Ciliophora Movement – cilia
ex: paramecium lives in fresh/salt water ponds & slow moving streams Eat: bacteria & algae Reproduce: Asexual – binary fission followed by sexual – conjugation – offspring genetically different (page 515)

22 Paramecia


24 Contractile vacuole operation

25 Food vacuole

26 Phylum Zoomastigina Movement: flagella in lakes & ponds
Ex: Giardia lamblia Eat small organisms Live in blood of fish, amphibians reptiles, birds, & mammals carried by bloodsucking insects from host to host

27 Disease Trypanosomiasis – parasitic Chagas’ disease - parasitic
African “sleeping sickness” Transmitted by tsetse fly Chagas’ disease - parasitic Transmitted by “kissing bug” Leishmaniasis – parasitic Can be fatal Transmitted by sand flies Giardiasis – parasitic Transmitted by animal feces in contaminated water

28 Phylum Sporazoa Movement: only as juvenile Ex: Plasmodium

29 Disease Malaria – Transmitted by mosquito
Causes fever, fatigue, thirst, anemia, and death Occurs in cycle Problem treating b/c mosquitoes developed resistance to quinine Afflicts 500,000,000 people per year Kills 2,700,000 million per year page 518 life cycle

30 analogies _______: _________:: _______: ______ disease cause

31 Phylum Common name Locomotion Nutrition Rep genre Sarcodina Sarcodines Pseudopodia Heterotrophic Amoeba Ciliophora Ciliates Cilia Paramecium Zoomastigina Zooflagellates Flagella Trypanosoma Giardia Sporozoa Sporozoans Only in young Plasmodium

32 Algae Chapter 27

33 Characteristics Eukaryote Autotrophic (differ from other protozoans)
Have chloroplasts Unicellular and/or multicellular Lack tissue differentiation

34 4 types of algae based on body structure (thallus)
Unicellular – aquatic – ex: phytoplankton Base of food chain Produce oxygen Colonial - ex. Volvox Many cells grouped & working together

35 4 types of algae cont’ 3. Filamentous – ex. Spirogyra
Some anchor to ocean floor 4. Multicellular – ex. Macrocystis - giant kelp These are most like plants (see pictures next slide)

36 Giant Kelp - Macrocystis

37 Classification 7 phyla based on: Color Chlorophyll type Food-storage
Pigments absorb differing wavelengths of light so gives them their characteristic color- green brown red Food-storage Cell wall composition

38 Reproduction with unicellular algae
Asexually – mitosis produces haploids + and – gametes called zoospores Sexually – when + and – join to form diploid zygote – zygospore – meiosis (page 528)


40 Reproduction in multicellular algae
Complex Page 528

41 Ulva – sea lettuce Gametophyte – haploid gamete-producing phase
Sporophyte – diploid spore-producing phase Page 529

42 Phylum Bacillariophyta
Diatoms – cell wall called shells, have 2 pieces (like box with lid) Diatomaceous earth – dead diatoms sink & form sediment used in commercial products like: detergents, paint removers, fertilizers, insulators, & toothpaste

43 Phylum Dinoflagellata
Unicellular, photosynthetic Red tide – population explosion

44 Phylum Euglenophyta Euglena – unicellular with flagella
Plantlike b/c photosynthetic Animal-like b/c lack cell wall

45 Protozoa Images

46 Protista Quiz

47 Slime molds Eukaryote Multicellular heterotrophic Fungus-like
Usually red, viscous mass Live in damp soil, rotting logs, decaying leaves Ameboid movement “ooze” Eat by phagocytosis

48 Water molds Fungus-like with branching filaments
Aquatic, soil and parasitic Blight – disease causes decay of plant Irish potato famine

49 Review Animal-like protists Plant-like protists amoeba & paramecium
Spirogyra & volvox

50 Review analogies _______: _________:: _______: ______ disease cause

51 Kingdom Fungi Chapter 28

52 Mycology - the study of fungi


54 Characteristics Eukaryotic Nonphotosynthetic – no chlorophyll
Multicellular Heterotrophic – breaks down decaying plant & animal matter THEN absorbs it Most are molds or yeasts

55 Molds – grows on old bread
Yeasts – microorganisms make bread rise Chitin – in cell walls of hyphae found in insects’ exoskeleton IMPORTANT recycler of organic matter in nature!

56 Structures Hyphae - mass of filaments of cells
Mycelium – forms the hyphae the part we don’t see

57 Reproduction

58 Asexual when hyphae break off and start growing on their own
Sporangia – spores produced in special hyphae called sporangiospores – spores with enclosed sac Conidia – spores without sac Fragmentation – hypha shatter – spores released Budding – in yeast when pinches off piece of cell

59 Sexual Fusion occurs when hyphae of differing mating types (+ or -) meet Produce spores

60 Evolution Evolved from prokaryotes

61 Classification Classified by structure & reproduction
Phylum basidiomycota Phylum ascomycota Lichens

62 Phylum Zygomycota Bread fungus Rhizoids – anchor (root) in bread
Breaks down nutrients in bread for absorption (page 546 diagram)

63 Phylum Basidiomycota Also called club fungus
Mushrooms are basidiocarps Stalk or stem cap Gills Dikaryotic basidia

64 Phylum Ascomycota Parasitic “sac fungi” live in salt/fresh water & land

65 Infections & Diseases Athlete’s foot or Ringworm – infect skin, hair, nails & tissues Vaginal yeast infections Tinea cruris (jock itch) histoplasmosis

66 Good fungi Penicillin Antibiotics – cephalosporium & rhizopus
Cheese, beer, wine, soy products, breads Not to mention my favorite: mushrooms!

67 Overview of Fungi



70 Lichens

71 Lichens are unusual creatures
Lichens are unusual creatures. A lichen is not a single organism the way most other living things are, but rather Lichens are a combination of two organisms which live together intimately. composed of fungal filaments, but living with filaments (algal cells) green alga or a cyanobacterium.


73 References

74 References cont’

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