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Protozoa Chapter 26. Characteristics of Protists  Have nucleus i.e. eukaryote  Lack tissue differentiation  Unicellular  Move independently Ocean,

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Presentation on theme: "Protozoa Chapter 26. Characteristics of Protists  Have nucleus i.e. eukaryote  Lack tissue differentiation  Unicellular  Move independently Ocean,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Protozoa Chapter 26

2 Characteristics of Protists  Have nucleus i.e. eukaryote  Lack tissue differentiation  Unicellular  Move independently Ocean, fresh water, crawl in soil (some water) Ocean, fresh water, crawl in soil (some water)  Heterotrophic Food vacuoles break down particles Food vacuoles break down particles  Both free-living and parasitic  Zooplankton - Primary source of energy for organisms in ecosystem

3 Reproduction  Asexually binary fission – produce one identical organisms binary fission – produce one identical organisms multiple fission – produce several identical organisms multiple fission – produce several identical organisms  Sexually – conjugation

4 Binary fission

5 Multiple fission

6 Conjugation 1.Paramecia pair up 2.Macronuclei disntegrate & micronuclei undergo meiosis 3.All but one micronuclei disintegrates. It undergoes mitosis. 4.Each paramecium exchange 1 micronuclei 5.Micronuclei fuse 6.Paramecia separate and marconucleus re-form

7 Adaptations  Eyespot – localized region of pigment that detects light variations in the environment  Cyst – a hardened external covering that stops all metabolic activity when organism is outside of host to survive in harsh environments e.g. nutrient deficient, drought, decrease oxygen, or pH/temp changes e.g. nutrient deficient, drought, decrease oxygen, or pH/temp changes

8 4 phyla – named for type of movement (locomotion) 1. Ciliophora Ciliates Ciliates Zoothamnium 2. Sporazoa sporozoans sporozoans Plasmodium

9 phyla cont’ 3. Zoomastigina Zooglagellates Zooglagellates 4. Sarcodina sarcodines sarcodines Trichomonas vaginalis Amoeba proteus

10 Phylum Sarcodina  Movement:Pseudopodia – “false feet” - cytoplasmic extensions  Ex: Amoebas inhabit fresh/salt water, and soil  Endoplasm – inner portion of the cytoplasm  Ectoplasm – outer layer  Ameboid movement powered by Cytoplasmic streaming – internal flowing of a cell’s cytoplasm

11 Eating (heterotophic)  Phagocytosis – engulf other protists  Endocytosis – when membrane surrounds and pinches together into food vacuole  Exocytosis – when undigested food exits the cell  Contractile vacuole – organelle that expels fluid from cell b/c hypertonic to environment  *remember – water moves from high concentration to lower – hypertonic is high solute concentration relative to environment

12 Amoeba

13 Amoeba

14 Movement & eating  BEST one - videos.de/videos.php?lang=en&id=amoeba&PHP SESSID=d48af6fdb76a70938e775b3af8bb2d7b videos.de/videos.php?lang=en&id=amoeba&PHP SESSID=d48af6fdb76a70938e775b3af8bb2d7bhttp://www.mikrofauna- videos.de/videos.php?lang=en&id=amoeba&PHP SESSID=d48af6fdb76a70938e775b3af8bb2d7b  /chap09/lesson_protista/Amoeba%20Move.html /chap09/lesson_protista/Amoeba%20Move.html /chap09/lesson_protista/Amoeba%20Move.html  uk.net/coppermine/displayimage.php?album=82& pos=0 uk.net/coppermine/displayimage.php?album=82& pos=0 uk.net/coppermine/displayimage.php?album=82& pos=0

15 Variations  Foraminifera – ancient, live in oceans with shelled protective covering – tests  Radiolarians – ancient, live in shallow waters  Tests sink to bottom and build up layers of sediment E.g. White Cliffs of Dover, England E.g. White Cliffs of Dover, England

16 White Cliffs of Dover, England

17 300 foot cliffs made from tests of foraminifera and radiolarians

18 FYI  Sediment can accumulate as slowly as 0.1 millimeter (0.04 inch) per 1,000 years (in the middle of the ocean where only wind- blown material is deposited) to as fast as 1 meter (3.25 feet) per year along continental margins. More typical deep- sea rates are on the order of several centimeters per 1,000 years.

19 Foraminifera/Radiolarians

20 Human disease  Amebic dysentery – sometimes fatal Enters from contaminated food and water Enters from contaminated food and water Enzymes break down intestinal wall Enzymes break down intestinal wall

21 Phylum Ciliophora  Movement – cilia  ex: paramecium lives in fresh/salt water ponds & slow moving streams  Eat: bacteria & algae  Reproduce: Asexual – binary fission followed by sexual – conjugation – offspring genetically different (page 515)

22 Paramecia

23

24 Contractile vacuole operation

25 Food vacuole

26 Phylum Zoomastigina  Movement: flagella in lakes & ponds  Ex: Giardia lamblia  Eat small organisms  Live in blood of fish, amphibians reptiles, birds, & mammals carried by bloodsucking insects from host to host

27 Disease  Trypanosomiasis – parasitic African “sleeping sickness” African “sleeping sickness” Transmitted by tsetse fly Transmitted by tsetse fly  Chagas’ disease - parasitic Transmitted by “kissing bug” Transmitted by “kissing bug”  Leishmaniasis – parasitic Can be fatal Can be fatal Transmitted by sand flies Transmitted by sand flies  Giardiasis – parasitic Transmitted by animal feces in contaminated water Transmitted by animal feces in contaminated water

28 Phylum Sporazoa  Movement: only as juvenile  Ex: Plasmodium

29 Disease  Malaria – Transmitted by mosquito Transmitted by mosquito Causes fever, fatigue, thirst, anemia, and death Causes fever, fatigue, thirst, anemia, and death Occurs in cycle Occurs in cycle Problem treating b/c mosquitoes developed resistance to quinine Problem treating b/c mosquitoes developed resistance to quinine Afflicts 500,000,000 people per year Afflicts 500,000,000 people per year Kills 2,700,000 million per year Kills 2,700,000 million per year page 518 life cycle page 518 life cycle

30 analogies  _______: _________:: _______: ______ disease cause disease cause  _______: _________:: _______: ______

31 Phylum Common name LocomotionNutrition Rep genre SarcodinaSarcodinesPseudopodiaHeterotrophicAmoeba CiliophoraCiliatesCiliaHeterotrophicParamecium ZoomastiginaZooflagellatesFlagellaHeterotrophicTrypanosomaGiardia SporozoaSporozoans Only in young HeterotrophicPlasmodium

32 Algae Chapter 27

33 Characteristics  Eukaryote  Autotrophic (differ from other protozoans) Have chloroplasts Have chloroplasts  Unicellular and/or multicellular  Lack tissue differentiation

34 4 types of algae based on body structure (thallus) 1. Unicellular – aquatic – ex: phytoplankton Base of food chain Base of food chain Produce oxygen Produce oxygen 1. Colonial - ex. Volvox Many cells grouped & working Many cells grouped & working together together

35 4 types of algae cont’ 3. Filamentous – ex. Spirogyra Some anchor to ocean floor Some anchor to ocean floor 4. Multicellular – ex. Macrocystis - giant kelp These are most like plants (see pictures next slide) These are most like plants (see pictures next slide)

36 Giant Kelp - Macrocystis

37 Classification  7 phyla based on: Color Color Chlorophyll type Chlorophyll type Pigments absorb differing wavelengths of light so gives them their characteristic color- green brown redPigments absorb differing wavelengths of light so gives them their characteristic color- green brown red Food-storage Food-storage Cell wall composition Cell wall composition

38 Reproduction with unicellular algae  Asexually – mitosis produces haploids + and – gametes called zoospores + and – gametes called zoospores  Sexually – when + and – join to form diploid zygote – zygospore – meiosis (page 528)

39

40 Reproduction in multicellular algae  Complex  Page 528

41 Ulva – sea lettuce  Gametophyte – haploid gamete-producing phase  Sporophyte – diploid spore-producing phase  Page 529

42 Phylum Bacillariophyta  Diatoms – cell wall called shells, have 2 pieces (like box with lid)  Diatomaceous earth – dead diatoms sink & form sediment used in commercial products like: detergents, paint removers, fertilizers, insulators, & toothpaste used in commercial products like: detergents, paint removers, fertilizers, insulators, & toothpaste

43 Phylum Dinoflagellata  Unicellular, photosynthetic  Red tide – population explosion

44 Phylum Euglenophyta Euglena – unicellular with flagella Plantlike b/c photosynthetic Plantlike b/c photosynthetic Animal-like b/c lack cell wall Animal-like b/c lack cell wall

45 Protozoa Images  ation.html ation.html ation.html

46 Protista Quiz  ments/Zoo/Protista.htm ments/Zoo/Protista.htm ments/Zoo/Protista.htm

47 Slime molds  Eukaryote  Multicellular  heterotrophic  Fungus-like  Usually red, viscous mass  Live in damp soil, rotting logs, decaying leaves  Ameboid movement “ooze”  Eat by phagocytosis

48 Water molds  Fungus-like with branching filaments  Aquatic, soil and parasitic  Blight – disease causes decay of plant Irish potato famine Irish potato famine

49 Review  Animal-like protists amoeba & paramecium amoeba & paramecium  Plant-like protists Spirogyra & volvox Spirogyra & volvox

50 Review analogies  _______: _________:: _______: ______ disease cause disease cause  _______: _________:: _______: ______

51 Kingdom Fungi Chapter 28

52 Mycology - the study of fungi

53

54 Characteristics  Eukaryotic  Nonphotosynthetic – no chlorophyll  Multicellular  Heterotrophic – breaks down decaying plant & animal matter THEN absorbs it  Most are molds or yeasts

55  Molds – grows on old bread  Yeasts – microorganisms make bread rise  Chitin – in cell walls of hyphae found in insects’ exoskeleton  IMPORTANT recycler of organic matter in nature!

56 Structures  Hyphae - mass of filaments of cells  Mycelium – forms the hyphae the part we don’t see

57 Reproduction

58 Asexual  when hyphae break off and start growing on their own Sporangia – spores produced in special hyphae called sporangiospores – spores with enclosed sac Sporangia – spores produced in special hyphae called sporangiospores – spores with enclosed sac Conidia – spores without sac Conidia – spores without sac Fragmentation – hypha shatter – spores released Fragmentation – hypha shatter – spores released Budding – in yeast when pinches off piece of cell Budding – in yeast when pinches off piece of cell

59 Sexual  Fusion occurs when hyphae of differing mating types (+ or -) meet  Produce spores

60 Evolution  Evolved from prokaryotes

61 Classification  Classified by structure & reproduction  Phylum basidiomycota  Phylum ascomycota  Lichens

62 Phylum Zygomycota  Bread fungus  Rhizoids – anchor (root) in bread Breaks down nutrients in bread for absorption Breaks down nutrients in bread for absorption (page 546 diagram) (page 546 diagram)

63 Phylum Basidiomycota  Also called club fungus  Mushrooms are basidiocarps Stalk or stem Stalk or stem cap cap Gills Gills Dikaryotic basidia Dikaryotic basidia

64 Phylum Ascomycota  Parasitic “sac fungi” live in salt/fresh water & land

65 Infections & Diseases  Athlete’s foot or Ringworm – infect skin, hair, nails & tissues  Vaginal yeast infections  Tinea cruris (jock itch)  histoplasmosis

66 Good fungi  Penicillin  Antibiotics – cephalosporium & rhizopus  Cheese, beer, wine, soy products, breads  Not to mention my favorite: mushrooms!

67 Overview of Fungi  online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?objID=BI O304 online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?objID=BI O304 online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?objID=BI O304

68  online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?objID=BI O704 online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?objID=BI O704 online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?objID=BI O704

69  online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?objID=BI O604 online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?objID=BI O604 online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?objID=BI O604

70 Lichens

71  Lichens are unusual creatures. A lichen is not a single organism the way most other living things are, but rather  Lichens are a combination of two organisms which live together intimately. composed of fungal filaments, but living with filaments (algal cells) composed of fungal filaments, but living with filaments (algal cells) green alga or a cyanobacterium.green alga or a cyanobacterium.

72

73 References           ges/DSC01832-Radiolarians.jpg ges/DSC01832-Radiolarians.jpg ges/DSC01832-Radiolarians.jpg  A.gif A.gif A.gif  dovercliffs.jpg dovercliffs.jpg dovercliffs.jpg       Protists/grnalgafillc_2.gif Protists/grnalgafillc_2.gif Protists/grnalgafillc_2.gif     

74 References cont’   lucas.com/photo/peru/manu_biosphere/manu_macro/fungus_2.jpg lucas.com/photo/peru/manu_biosphere/manu_macro/fungus_2.jpg lucas.com/photo/peru/manu_biosphere/manu_macro/fungus_2.jpg  num7.jpg num7.jpg num7.jpg   jpg jpg jpg    


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