Presentation on theme: "Karel PARDAENS, PhD Bloemfontein,"— Presentation transcript:
1Karel PARDAENS, PhD Bloemfontein, 03-10-2009 TRAINING & RECOVERY for elite athletes Illus(trat)ions of the quest to speed up natureKarel PARDAENS, PhDBloemfontein,
2TRAINING & RECOVERY PART 1. Recovery: what’s in a name? PART 2. Long-term recovery - periodisation - relative rest periods - absolute rest periodsPART 3. Short-term recovery - modalities - sleepPART 4. Concluding remarks: is it possible to expedite a natural process other than with rest?
3Supercompensation: the most fundamental training principle (Busso et al 2002)Training (session or period)HomeostasisSupercompensationEFFORTRESTFatigue Muscle damage Metabolic acidosis Muscle cramps Pain‘RECOVERY’
4Supercompensation: the most fundamental training principle (Busso et al 2002)TrainingSupercompensation‘RECOVERY’
6Supercompensation: the most fundamental training principle Most fundamental, but most difficult to quantify !!‘Sport is an art’Fatigue, pain, muscle soreness, thirst, hunger,… at the end of exercise: - how far do you need to go? - when is the time for another training session? - how much time for tapering-off? - when will the athlete be at its best?
7“Common to everyone, a mystery to science” Fatigue“Common to everyone, a mystery to science”
8Fatigue: what’s in a name? Central vs. peripheral fatigueGeneral vs. local fatigue: - decline of overall performance - decline of a certain system’s function: - cardiorespiratory system - neurological system (peripheral nerves, CNS, ANS) - endocrinological system (hormonal) - metabolic system (substrate availability) - gastrointestinal system (e.g. stomach problems) - musculoskeletal system (muscle damage, soreness,…)
10Fatigue & Recovery‘Recovery’ = much more than ‘recovery from muscular fatigue’!Cfr. all bodily systemsCfr. chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), overtraining syndrome (OTS): ‘fatigue’ can ‘accumulate’!Distinction (for the purpose of this presentation): → ‘chronic fatigue’ vs. ‘acute fatigue’ → ‘long-term recovery’ vs. ‘short-term recovery’
11Long-term recovery1Empirical necessity (cfr. performance declines / ameliorates) cfr. nature, e.g. seasons (relative) rest periods are bio-logicalAll biological beings are subject to diurnal and circannual variationImpossible to be ‘in shape’ whole year long
12Long-term recovery2Periodisation = dividing training process into periods & mesocycles - preparation period, competition period, transition period - mesocycles of 2-6 weeks, incl.: (1) a load & rest phase (physical training) (2) a certain training ‘content’ = variation of the training frequency & intensity & time (volume) (F.I.T.) over the year = (relative) rest of (a part of) the body = variation of the physical demand by manipulating: - the (physical) F.I.T.-variables - the technical skills training - the tactical training
13Long-term recovery3 (Fry et al 1992) Note: Overtraining vs. overreaching !
14Long-term recovery4Relative rest period = - stress other metabolic systems (e.g. aerobic vs. anaerobic // FT- vs. ST-fibers) (e.g. resistance training for a cyclist) - stress other muscles (e.g. tennis for a soccer player) - other coördination (e.g. MTB for a skater) - less stress on the body (training less & less intensive) (e.g. swimming 3 x/wk instead of 2 x/day)Absolute rest period = no sport activitiesMental & physical: ‘recharging batteries’
17Short-term recovery1Barnett A, Using recovery modalities between training sessions in elite athletes: does it help?, Sports Med 36: : 2006Most studies are based on (almost) untrained subjects ↔ elite athletes ! e.g. ‘repeated-bout effect’: prior training attenuates DOMS, muscle injury (CK), and loss of strength up to 6 (!!) months later“Biochemical, physiological or immunological markers that consistently detect an imbalance between training and recovery resulting in future performance decrements have yet to be indentified” (p.786)Main question = “is any the modalities more effective than rest?” (by enabling to tolerate greater training loads, or by augmenting the performance-enhancing effect of training at a given load?)
18When talking about ‘recovery’… Recovery of performance (clinical) vs. Recovery of underlying parameters (subclinical) e.g. blood lactate, CKs,…
19Short-term recovery2: massage According to studies: - no effect on muscle blood flow - no effect on blood lactate removal - no effect on muscle strength recovery - slight effect on DOMS sensation → risk of overdoing !May even cause further trauma (upon tissue damage from exercise)Massage sessions may have important mental effects (cfr. e.g. cyclists during TdF)
20Short-term recovery3: active recovery I.e. ‘cool-down’Well-established effect on blood lactate removal (cfr. ‘lactate shuttle’)HOWEVER: lactate is not a valid indicator of recovery quality !Might reduce muscle damage (cfr. CKs)No significant effect on performance after 4hMay even be detrimental to rapid glycogen resynthesis
21NOTE: ‘regeneration training’ <Niveau> <Sporttak> <Discipline> <Module> <Vak>NOTE: ‘regeneration training’Bodybuilders: “feeder workouts” (Croskery 1995)Very light AND very short training sessions may promote recovery from heavy training sessions → cfr. hormonal response to exercise e.g. walking day after a marathon
22Short-term recovery4: cryotherapy I.e. cold water immersionMight be appropriate after activities that cause some level of traumatic injury e.g. team contact sports or martial artsHowever: only analgesic effect, no effect on DOMSMost recent research: “probably negative effects on training adaptation” (suppression of supercompensation)(Busso 2003)
23Short-term recovery5: contrast T° water immersion i.e. alternating immersion in warm-to-hot and cold waterMight enhance post-match CK clearance (study in rugby)However: mechanism=???Popular but probably no effect on performance after 4h
24Short-term recovery6: hyperbaric oxygen therapy i.e. exposure to whole-body pressure >1 atmosphere while breathing 100% oxygenMight increase rate of recovery from soft tissue injury by several mechanismsHowever: no (consistent) results both with regard to tissue injury markers and to performance measuresAdditional barriers: - cost of equipment & qualified personnel - risk of oxygen toxicity
25Short-term recovery7: NSAID NSAID = non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugsInhibiting cyclo-oxygenase (COX) , enzyme involved in synthesis of prostaglandins, modulators of inflammationBio-logical role of inflammation in muscle repair !!!!!!!Use of NSAIDs over extended periods might have detrimental effect on adaptation to training !!
26Short-term recovery8: compression garments 3 varieties: 1) for prevention/treatment of deep vein thrombosis 2) sleeves worn over limbs/joints to provide support or reduce swelling 3) elastic tights and tops worn as exercise clothingVery popularMechanisms: - recovery blood lactate removal - less increase in plasma CK - decreased perceived soreness - reduced swelling - faster recovery of force productionHowever: no evidence of improved recovery on performance to date! (cfr. also Duffield et al 2008 & 2009, Davies et al 2009)
27Short-term recovery9: stretching Possible functions: 1) increase ROM around joints: + (by various modes of stretching) (Mahieu et al 2007) 2) performance-enhancing effect: +/- (dependent on mode of exercise & stretching) (e.g. Kokkonen et al 2007: +) 3) injury prevention: ?/+ (Woods et al 2007: +) 4) facilitating recovery: ?/-Possible mechanism: dispersion of oedema? may not be a desirable goal! also no preventative effect on DOMS (Herbert & de Noronha 2007)Conclusion: no apparent short- or long-term benefit from stretching as a recovery modality
28NOTE: muscle cramps & fasciculations I.e. unvoluntary contractions of (part of) the muscleFasciculations: may be a sign of recoveryIn those times: muscles more prone to crampsMuscle cramps: - associated with (physical) fatigue - additional influence of: - training status - caffeine - Mg2+ - mental stress - sleepBalance stress/recovery ! → AND: both stress and recovery: determined by body and mindTRAINING = continuous search for an optimal equilibrium
29Short-term recovery10: electromyostimulation involves transmission of electrical impulses via surface electrodes to peripherally stimulated motor neurons eliciting muscular contractionsMechanism: increased blood flow → ‘muscle pump effect’ → enhance tissue repairFew studies: no improvement of recovery process
30Short-term recovery11: sleep Most explicit mode of restBetter than e.g. shopping ! “A good athlete is a lazy one”Better than e.g. watching TV? Cfr. neurogenesis during sleepPractice of elite/professional athletes (whether or not on training camp): - napping during afternoon - extensive nighttime sleep (cfr. study in Belgian female elite runners)
31Short-term recovery12: rehydration & glycogen resynthesis If appropriate volume & sodium content → fluid balance & plasma volume can be restored <4 hrsUnlikely that currently used recovery modalities would compromise rehydrationRapid glycogen resynthesis: especially important if >1 training sessions/day !CHO stores can be restored <24 hrs ↔ between sessions1.2 g/kg/hr at regular intervals up to 5 hrs post-exercise !
32NOTE: antioxidant supplementation <Niveau> <Sporttak> <Discipline> <Module> <Vak>NOTE: antioxidant supplementationUnaccostumed (eccentric) exercise → inflammatory response → ROS (free radical production) → oxidative stress upon tissue → secondary damageNB: exact nature of relationship between ROS production, exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) & soreness is unclear“Vitamin C & E (as well as HMB & proteins) before & after exercise appears to provide a prophylactic effect in reducing EIMD” (Howatson & van Someren 2008)“Effects are only exhibited when nutritional status is deficient. There are no convincing effects of supplementation in well-trained athletes.” (Margaritis & Rousseau 2008)
33To conclude…1The most effective recovery ‘method’ is: 1) eating NSAIDs like candy 2) sleeping 10 hrs a day 3) a relative rest period 4) a massage by a beautiful masseuse 5) chatting on Facebook 6) going on holiday for 3 weeks without sports equipmentLong-term vs. short-term recovery; rest/recovery = much more than sleep
34To conclude…2You know that recovery is complete when: 1) muscle cramps disappear 2) the interest in training arises 3) blood lactate levels fall to zero 4) fasciculations appear 5) the coach says so 6) DOMS no longer existsRecovery = much more than lactate removal and/or getting rid of muscular fatigue; recovery/supercompensation is difficult to quantify: it is the art of training !