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Microbial Reproductive Modes Fungal Reproduction Week 12, PMB 220 J. Taylor.

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Presentation on theme: "Microbial Reproductive Modes Fungal Reproduction Week 12, PMB 220 J. Taylor."— Presentation transcript:

1 Microbial Reproductive Modes Fungal Reproduction Week 12, PMB 220 J. Taylor

2 The cost of sex is two-fold. Clonal progeny have twice as many parental genes.

3 Lewis Carroll John Tenniel (illus) The Value of Sex? The Red Queen Hypothesis. "Now, here, you see, it takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place."

4 The Value of Sex? Muller’s Ratchet H. Muller, 1964

5 Goddard, Godfray Burt Nature 434:

6 Goddard, Godfray Burt Nature 434:

7 Goddard, Godfray Burt Nature 434: Benign environment Harsh environment

8 Aydin Örstan Sex is nearly ubiquitous. Only the bdelloid rotifers have been claimed to be an old asexual group.

9 Numbers of Species of Fungi Ascomycota32, % Lichenized fungi13, % Basidiomycota22, % Chytridiomycota7931.0% Zygomycota1,0561.5% Mitosporic fungi14, % Dictionary of the Fungi, Hawksworth et al. 1996

10 What is a species? How do they reproduce?

11 Determining the reproductive mode of Microbes: Recombination v. clonality

12 Clonal: Association of Alleles.

13 Recombining: Lack of Association

14 Testing for reproductive mode.

15 Tree Length Test

16 Compter sex: Resampling without replacement.

17 Tree Length Test

18 Index of Association

19 Distance matrix

20 IA

21 Gene Genealogy Concordance

22 Computer sex: Shuffling variable nucleotides among genes.

23 Aspergillus flavus

24 You have to know the species before you can study reproductive mode.

25 Example: Coccidioides immitis Vasso Koufopanou Austin Burt Mat Fisher

26 Distribution of Coccidioides immitis Rippon, 1988

27 Phylogenetic Species in C. immitis

28 Finding Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Agarose and SSCP gels of PCR products

29 Coccidioides immitis: multilocus genotypes as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)

30 Parsimony analysis: Consensus of 62 most parsimonious trees.

31

32 Test of association of alleles: Index of Association

33 Phylogenetic Species in C. immitis

34 California Coccidioides Fisher et al. 2000

35 Likelihood ratio tests Kishino-Hasegawa Two different topologies Shimodaira-Hasagawa Multiple topologies

36 Lichens Trebouxia and Letharia Scott Kroken

37 Question: Are there two species of Letharia, one sexual and the other not? Letharia columbiana Letharia vulpina

38 always produces soredia apothecia are rare Letharia columbiana always produces apothecia sometimes produces isidia Are they a “species pair” and how do they reproduce?

39 Distribution of Letharia species Xerox PARC map

40 Thomas Nash Apothecia, filled with meiotic ascospores Soredia, algal cells wrapped in hyphae Sexual Asexual

41 6 species suggested Kroken and Taylor Mycologia 93:38-53

42 Question: does the lichen outbreed or inbreed?

43 Paternity analysis of lichen apothecia Fertilization Spermagonium-- produces spermatia Trichogyne-- fuses with spermatium

44 Parent and progeny

45 Letharia “lupina” paternity analysis All 36 apothecia in both species are the result of outcrossing ‘lupina’ locus CS EarI ‘lupina’ ITS 1F/ 2 SacI Mom1 and 7 kidsMom2 and 6 kids Mom1 and 7 kids Kroken and Taylor 2001 Fungal Genetics & Biology 34:83-92

46 Outbreeding and separate fertilizations

47 Dispersal of Letharia vulpina with its alga Xerox PARC map Högberg et al Molecular Ecology 11:

48 Recombining: North American sorediate Recombining: North American apotheciate Clonal: European and North African sorediate Letharia species Recombining and Clonal in Letharia

49

50 Daubin et al Science 301:

51 More polymorphism? Microsatellites or Short Tandem Repeats

52 Molecular markers- Microsatellites Dinucleotide repeats randomly dispersed through the genome ctgcgtgtgacatACACACACACACACActgtatgtgatc Highly polymorphic and multialleleic due to polymerase slippage during strand replication Cocci_1 ctgcgtgtgacatACACACACACACACA ctgtatgt Cocci_2 ctgcgtgtgacatACACACACACACACACA------ctgtatgt Cocci_3 ctgcgtgtgacatACACACACACACACACACA----ctgtatgt Cocci_4 ctgcgtgtgacatACACACACACACACACACACACActgtatgt

53 Microsatellites

54 Microsatellite distance Flanking-sequence distance These trees have the same topology (Kishino-Hasegawa test non-significant) THE MICROSATELLITE MARKERS ARE GOOD (Fisher et al. Mol. Biol. Evol. 2000)

55 California - Coccidioides immitis Rixford and Gilchrist 1896 non-California - Coccidioides posadasii after Alejandro Posadas Renaming the species

56 All populations

57 Arizona

58 Texas/ South America

59 North America/ Mexico C. immitis ( ) and C. posadasii ( ) show isolation by distance... r = r = 0.694**

60 r = r = 0.694**...but NOT if South American isolates (all C. posadasii) are included…

61 S. American isolates contain 6% of the variation found in N. America 28% of loci are in linkage disequlibrium (7% in N. America) This is a bottlenecked population …and is descended from the TEXAS population of Coccidioides posadasii

62 Genetic dating show that South American populations were founded from those in North America between 9, ,000 BP (the Pleistocene)

63 Migration of Homo sapiens into South America by 10,000 BC Jared Diamond ‘Guns, Germs and Steel’, 1997

64 How did non-CA C. immitis arrive in South America? Host-pathogen dispersal: 9,000 year old bones of Bison antiquus from Nebraska contain C. immitis spherules. Demonstrates potential for long-distance dispersal with a host Human infections are viable for more than 12 years Ancient Amerindian middens contain high concentrations of C. immitis Documented invasion of South America by the Amerindians 12,500 yrs bp.

65 Does the present distribution of C. posadasii reflect the co-dispersal of a host and its pathogen?

66 Recombining Clonal (C. posadasii in Latin Amer?) Recombining and Clonal in Coccidioides

67

68 Daubin et al Science 301: Fig 1

69 Daubin et al Science 301: Fig 2

70 Daubin et al Science 301: Fig 3


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