Presentation on theme: "CASARA CIVIL AIR SEARCH AND RESCUE ASSOCIATION PILOT TRAINING COURSE Phase 2 Search Procedures."— Presentation transcript:
CASARA CIVIL AIR SEARCH AND RESCUE ASSOCIATION PILOT TRAINING COURSE Phase 2 Search Procedures
GEOREF System rectangles of 1 degree of latitude and longitude identified by a two-letter symbol each rectangle is divided into four identified by numbers 1-4 starting at upper left hand corner then each box is again sub- divided by 4 with letters a-d
CASARA Maps using the GEOREF system rough in the boundaries with a pencil study the area for terrain features draw search patterns on map identify possible check-points check the height of the terrain, mark on map
CASARA Search Planning Methods Search planning can be done either manually or by computer The two manual methods are: Canadian Search Area Definition (CSAD) Mountain VFR (MVFR) Method The computer method is: Search HQ which is being used by Search Coordinators in some provinces and territories
CASARA Canadian Search Area Definition (CSAD) Method Two probability areas are computed as follows AREA 1- a rectangle 10 nautical miles (NM) each side of the track, beginning 10 NM before LKP and extending 10 NM beyond the destination. AREA 2- a rectangle 15 NM each side of the track, beginning at LKP and extending 15 NM beyond destination. Area 2 includes the overlapping portion of Area 1.
CASARA Canadian Search Area Definition
CASARA Mountain Visual Flight Rules (MVFR) Method AREA 1- An area 5 NM each side of the track, beginning 5 NM before LKP and extending 5 NM beyond destination. AREA 2- An area 10 NM each side of the track, beginning 10 NM before LKP and extending 10 NM beyond destination.
CASARA Search Patterns coverage 1st search - day 1500 and 3nm, night 3000ft and 5nm visibility 2nd search ft and 1nm visibility 3rd search - 500ft and 1/2nm visibility ELT - 1st search 10,000ft 30nm reception 2nd search 5000ft 15nm reception
CASARA Search Patterns Track Crawl search crew flies to LKP and begins to fly a track parallel to the intended flight route: see page 3.2 in handbook (illus.1) distance = visibility distance search crew flies to LKP and along intended flight route to destination then re-track with given visibility distance (illus.2) page 3.2
CASARA Search Patterns Track Crawl searching during turns is very important, otherwise areas will not be searched unless tasked with turns outside the assigned area careful on the search assigned, parallel or following the intended route
CASARA Track Crawl (illus. 1) Destination LKP 3nm visibility 3 miles
CASARA Track Crawl (illus. 2) Destination 6nm LKP 3nm
CASARA Search Patterns Creeping Line Ahead after being briefed on the area to be searched, altitude to be flown, visibility distance, commence search point and direction of flight, search crew proceeds to the Commence Search Point (CSP) track spacing will be twice the visibility distance
CASARA Search Patterns Creeping Line Ahead the Creeping Line Ahead is flown parallel to the shortest side of the search area the search track is plotted one visibility distance from the search area boundary for example, if the search requested is 500 and 1/2 nm then the 1st line is drawn at 1/2 nm from edge of block then the rest are drawn at 1 nm
CASARA Creeping Line Ahead CSP 2v boundary search area 1v flight planned track
CASARA Search Patterns Parallel Track the Parallel Track is flown parallel to the longest side of the search area the search track is plotted one visibility distance from the search area boundary for example, if the search requested is 500 and 1/2 nm then the 1st line is drawn at 1/2 nm from edge of block then the rest are drawn at 1 nm
CASARA Search Patterns Expanding Square you need LKP, altitude to be flown and visibility distance fly lines at right angles to each other with a track spacing of two vis distances, increasing by twice the visibility assess the drift and apply correction before the search starts fly the cardinal headings
CASARA Search Patterns Expanding Square accurate navigation is mandatory when utilizing the expanding square draw a run in line prior to LKP to establish heading, airspeed, and altitude with the spotters searching this is also a difficult search to fly due to the tight turns at the beginning of the search
CASARA Expanding Square commence search point (CSP) LKP 4v 6v 4v 6v 8v v = visibility distance 2v
CASARA Search Patterns Sector Search used when the LKP is established with a high degree of accuracy and the search area is small when persons are lost in bushland and they are in a small area on completion of an ELT homing when the source of the signal cannot be readily seen
CASARA Search Patterns Sector Search you will need LKP, altitude to be flown and visibility distances fly to the LKP or CSP (commence search point) fly lines radiating from the centre every 60 degrees for 2nd coverage rotate the search pattern 30 degrees left or right (illus. 3.5)
CASARA Sector Search LKP csp 2nd search
CASARA Search Patterns Contour Search plot the area, study the topography, check the weather, proceed to the area, check out the area, cross 1000ft above the highest peak, check the weather again, plan your search, plot an escape route, note all prominent features (3.6 handbook)
CASARA Contour Search Patterns are flown left or right hand turns based on aircraft requirements and the terrain to be searched.
CASARA Coast Crawl or Shoreline Search Similar to a Contour Search, follow the contour of a shore line or coast line The altitude flown, distance from shore and visibility distance will depend on the terrain The above tasking information should come from Search Headquarters or JRCC but if left to the discretion of the pilot should be flown at an operationally safe altitude and distance from shore
CASARA Search Pattern Choice If you are operating as a lone aircraft such as on a missing person search, you may have to decide which pattern best fits the search situation For a small area, a Sector Search works well giving numerous passes and different angles to spot from Track Crawl, Parallel Track and Creeping Line Ahead work well for larger areas such as a search for an overdue aircraft
CASARA Search Pattern Choice ELT searches for a missing or overdue aircraft, without ELT signal heard, can be searched well with a Parallel Track at a high altitude for better signal coverage An ELT hit, with coordinates given, can be searched well with an Expanding Square until the ELT is heard, then ELT homing should take place
CASARA ELT Homings use either aircraft or ground homer set frequency, DF mode, SENS minimum, Vol at 12 o’clock turn SENS up until meter needle goes left or right and signal is audible left to right needle swing is normal when flying. Follow heading that keep swings equal the ELT homer is most accurate when the aircraft is in straight and level flight
CASARA ELT Homings as volume increases and/or needle becomes too sensitive, decrease SENS. Slight left-right swing and audible signal is enough. the closer the target, the more rapidly volume and sensitivity increase. to evaluate the quality of the bearing, turn a full circle. If the needle centres more than twice 180 degrees apart, fly a circle, keeping needle either left or right constantly
CASARA Location of Search Object Contact JRCC/Searchmaster/CASARA Search Coordinator or On-Scene Commander use radio frequency assigned relay through nearest FSS or ATC unit provide a Notice of Crash Location (NOCL) message
CASARA AURAL NULL PROCEDURE “A” In the event that your homer is not working, you must know Aural Null methods, “A”, and “B”. The only equipment you need is: –VHF receiver –clock –map –pen
CASARA Beware of a difference of signal reception on the nose of the search aircraft, as compared to the signal off of the tail. Signal strength may vary enough between the two so as to make the results inaccurate. If this occurs it is recommended that readings be taken off of the nose. It will mean flying out of the signal, then making a 180 degree turn and coming back on the same track. When flying back towards the signal, take your readings once the signal is heard again.
CASARA When signal detected: Pinpoint your position on map Descend to minimum reception altitude Disable squelch if possible and adjust radio volume to minimum reception Fly a constant heading and draw a track made good on the map Once signal is lost, do a 180º turn and mark the spot (A) where the signal is acquired Maintain constant altitude and volume setting at all times
CASARA When signal fades out Fly across the same track and pinpoint position of fade out (B), do another 180º Calculate mid-point of track made good (C) From this mid-point plot at 90 degrees, a new desired track which extends on both sides of track made good Return to mid point and fly either direction to make good, the new track
CASARA When signal strength fades out, plot this point on your map (D) –Reverse course, signal will build and then fade. Plot point at which signal fades (E) In theory, the ELT should be located at the mid point of the second track
CASARA D C B A E
CASARA AURAL NULL PROCEDURE “B” This method has both an advantage, and disadvantage: –ADVANTAGE: It is faster than Procedure “A” –DISADVANTAGE: It requires sufficient cockpit space to adequately plot the information Requires: –VHF receiver - pen- dividers –map - ruler triangle
CASARA Position of the aircraft is plotted as soon as the signal is heard Continue on same heading for a short distance Turn 90 0 either left or right, and proceed until the signal fades. Note this position Turn aircraft and again plot where the signal is heard, and where it fades
CASARA Approximate position of ELT is plotted by: –drawing chord lines between each set of “signal heard” and “signal fades” positions –Drawing perpendicular bisectors of each chord Aircraft proceeds to the point where the perpendicular bisectors intersect. The ELT should be there
CASARA Extreme radius of signal Beware of a difference of signal reception on the nose of the search aircraft, as compared to the signal off of the tail. Signal strength may vary enough between the two so as to make the results inaccurate. If this occurs it is recommended that readings be taken off of the nose. It will mean flying out of the signal, the making a 180 degree turn and coming back on the same track. When flying back towards the signal, take your readings once the signal is heard again.