3GEOREF System rectangles of 1 degree of latitude and longitude identified by a two-letter symboleach rectangle is divided into fouridentified by numbers 1-4 starting at upper left hand corner then each box is again sub-divided by 4 with letters a-d
5Maps using the GEOREF system rough in the boundaries with a pencil study the area for terrain featuresdraw search patterns on mapidentify possible check-pointscheck the height of the terrain, mark on map
6Search Planning Methods Search planning can be done either manually or by computerThe two manual methods are:Canadian Search Area Definition (CSAD)Mountain VFR (MVFR) MethodThe computer method is:Search HQ which is being used by Search Coordinators in some provinces and territoriesMinimax is used for marine distress incidents and is based on the US National SAR Manual.The CSAD and MVFR methods establish two probability areas, in descending order of priority. These methods are designed for searches over land. They require knowing the LKP, intended route, and intended destination. They utilize three planning sequences1. Initial search to include a track crawl, ELT search and Co-operative Survivor2. Comprehensive search of Area 13. Comprehensive search of Area 2The SARP and CASP programs are available through the US Coast Guard Rescue Coordination Centers in New York and Seattle. RCC contacts the appropriate center for use of these programs. SARP is usually used to determine a single search area, and the incident position can be readily defined. CASP uses simulation methods and is used when the incident position is vague.
7Canadian Search Area Definition (CSAD) Method Two probability areas are computed as followsAREA 1- a rectangle 10 nautical miles (NM) each side of the track, beginning 10 NM before LKP and extending 10 NM beyond the destination.AREA 2- a rectangle 15 NM each side of the track, beginning at LKP and extending 15 NM beyond destination. Area 2 includes the overlapping portion of Area 1.Where there is an enroute turning point of greater than 20 degrees, the outside boundary of each area is an arc. Using the turning point as center the radius is 10 NM for area 1 and 15 NM for area 2.
9Mountain Visual Flight Rules (MVFR) Method AREA 1- An area 5 NM each side of the track, beginning 5 NM before LKP and extending 5 NM beyond destination.AREA 2- An area 10 NM each side of the track, beginning 10 NM before LKP and extending 10 NM beyond destination.
13Search Patternscoverage st search - day 1500 and 3nm, night 3000ft and 5nm visibility2nd search ft and 1nm visibility3rd search - 500ft and 1/2nm visibilityELT - 1st search 10,000ft 30nm reception2nd search 5000ft 15nm reception
14Search Patterns Track Crawl search crew flies to LKP and begins to fly a track parallel to the intended flight route: see page 3.2 in handbook (illus.1) distance = visibility distancesearch crew flies to LKP and along intended flight route to destination then re-track with given visibility distance (illus.2) page 3.2
15Search Patterns Track Crawl searching during turns is very important, otherwise areas will not be searched unless tasked with turns outside the assigned areacareful on the search assigned, parallel or following the intended route
16Track Crawl (illus. 1)LKPDestination3nmvisibility 3 miles
18Search Patterns Creeping Line Ahead after being briefed on the area to be searched, altitude to be flown, visibility distance, commence search point and direction of flight, search crew proceeds to the Commence Search Point (CSP)track spacing will be twice the visibility distance
19Search Patterns Creeping Line Ahead the Creeping Line Ahead is flown parallel to the shortest side of the search areathe search track is plotted one visibility distance from the search area boundaryfor example, if the search requested is 500 and 1/2 nm then the 1st line is drawn at 1/2 nm from edge of block then the rest are drawn at 1 nm
20Creeping Line Ahead 2v boundary search area 1v CSP flight planned trackCSP
21Search Patterns Parallel Track the Parallel Track is flown parallel to the longest side of the search areathe search track is plotted one visibility distance from the search area boundaryfor example, if the search requested is 500 and 1/2 nm then the 1st line is drawn at 1/2 nm from edge of block then the rest are drawn at 1 nm
23Search Patterns Expanding Square you need LKP, altitude to be flown and visibility distancefly lines at right angles to each other with a track spacing of two vis distances, increasing by twice the visibilityassess the drift and apply correction before the search startsfly the cardinal headings
24Search Patterns Expanding Square accurate navigation is mandatory when utilizing the expanding squaredraw a run in line prior to LKP to establish heading, airspeed, and altitude with the spotters searchingthis is also a difficult search to fly due to the tight turns at the beginning of the search
25Expanding Square 8v 4v commence search point (CSP) 4v 6v 8v 2v LKP 6v v = visibility distance
26Search Patterns Sector Search used when the LKP is established with a high degree of accuracy and the search area is smallwhen persons are lost in bushland and they are in a small areaon completion of an ELT homing when the source of the signal cannot be readily seen
27Search Patterns Sector Search you will need LKP, altitude to be flown and visibility distancesfly to the LKP or CSP (commence search point)fly lines radiating from the centre every 60 degreesfor 2nd coverage rotate the search pattern 30 degrees left or right (illus. 3.5)
29Search Patterns Contour Search plot the area, study the topography, check the weather, proceed to the area, check out the area, cross 1000ft above the highest peak, check the weather again, plan your search, plot an escape route, note all prominent features (3.6 handbook)use 3.6 of the casara handbook, explain this is rarely used, stress mountain wave and rotor clouds on the leeward side
30Contour Search Patterns are flown left or right hand turns based on aircraft requirements and the terrain to be searched.
31Coast Crawl or Shoreline Search Similar to a Contour Search, follow the contour of a shore line or coast lineThe altitude flown, distance from shore and visibility distance will depend on the terrainThe above tasking information should come from Search Headquarters or JRCC but if left to the discretion of the pilot should be flown at an operationally safe altitude and distance from shore
32Search Pattern ChoiceIf you are operating as a lone aircraft such as on a missing person search, you may have to decide which pattern best fits the search situationFor a small area, a Sector Search works well giving numerous passes and different angles to spot fromTrack Crawl, Parallel Track and Creeping Line Ahead work well for larger areas such as a search for an overdue aircraft
33Search Pattern ChoiceELT searches for a missing or overdue aircraft, without ELT signal heard, can be searched well with a Parallel Track at a high altitude for better signal coverageAn ELT hit, with coordinates given, can be searched well with an Expanding Square until the ELT is heard, then ELT homing should take place
34ELT Homings use either aircraft or ground homer set frequency, DF mode, SENS minimum, Vol at 12 o’clockturn SENS up until meter needle goes left or right and signal is audibleleft to right needle swing is normal when flying. Follow heading that keep swings equalthe ELT homer is most accurate when the aircraft is in straight and level flight
35ELT Homingsas volume increases and/or needle becomes too sensitive, decrease SENS. Slight left-right swing and audible signal is enough.the closer the target, the more rapidly volume and sensitivity increase.to evaluate the quality of the bearing, turn a full circle. If the needle centres more than twice 180 degrees apart, fly a circle, keeping needle either left or right constantly
36Location of Search Object Contact JRCC/Searchmaster/CASARA Search Coordinator or On-Scene Commanderuse radio frequency assignedrelay through nearest FSS or ATC unitprovide a Notice of Crash Location (NOCL) message
37AURAL NULL PROCEDURE “A” In the event that your homer is not working, you must know Aural Null methods, “A”, and “B”.The only equipment you need is:VHF receiverclockmappen
38Beware of a difference of signal reception on the nose of the search aircraft, as compared to the signal off of the tail. Signal strength may vary enough between the two so as to make the results inaccurate. If this occurs it is recommended that readings be taken off of the nose. It will mean flying out of the signal, then making a 180 degree turn and coming back on the same track. When flying back towards the signal, take your readings once the signal is heard again.
39When signal detected: Pinpoint your position on map Descend to minimum reception altitudeDisable squelch if possible and adjust radio volume to minimum receptionFly a constant heading and draw a track made good on the mapOnce signal is lost, do a 180º turn and mark the spot (A) where the signal is acquiredMaintain constant altitude and volume setting at all times
40When signal fades outFly across the same track and pinpoint position of fade out (B), do another 180ºCalculate mid-point of track made good (C)From this mid-point plot at 90 degrees, a new desired track which extends on both sides of track made goodReturn to mid point and fly either direction to make good, the new track
41When signal strength fades out, plot this point on your map (D) Reverse course, signal will build and then fade. Plot point at which signal fades (E)In theory, the ELT should be located at the mid point of the second track
43AURAL NULL PROCEDURE “B” This method has both an advantage, and disadvantage:ADVANTAGE: It is faster than Procedure “A”DISADVANTAGE: It requires sufficient cockpit space to adequately plot the informationRequires:VHF receiver - pen - dividersmap ruler triangle
44Position of the aircraft is plotted as soon as the signal is heard Continue on same heading for a short distanceTurn 900 either left or right, and proceed until the signal fades. Note this positionTurn aircraft 1800 and again plot where the signal is heard, and where it fades
45Approximate position of ELT is plotted by: drawing chord lines between each set of “signal heard” and “signal fades” positionsDrawing perpendicular bisectors of each chordAircraft proceeds to the point where the perpendicular bisectors intersect. The ELT should be there
46Extreme radius of signal Beware of a difference of signal reception on the nose of the search aircraft, as compared to the signal off of the tail. Signal strength may vary enough between the two so as to make the results inaccurate. If this occurs it is recommended that readings be taken off of the nose. It will mean flying out of the signal, the making a 180 degree turn and coming back on the same track. When flying back towards the signal, take your readings once the signal is heard again.