Presentation on theme: "The Origins of Global Independence: 1450 – 1750 C.E. By: Jessica Caine, Aubrei Estrada, Victoria Huber, and Jenny Peña."— Presentation transcript:
The Origins of Global Independence: 1450 – 1750 C.E. By: Jessica Caine, Aubrei Estrada, Victoria Huber, and Jenny Peña
Colonial Administrations North America More independent from the crown. Forced Native Americans to migrate and leave their land. Established permanent colonies. Didn’t employ natives as laborers. Used sneaky treaties to trick natives into giving up their land. Their reasoning was that they were using land whereas natives weren’t using the full potential of the land. Ruled by Great Britain and France Wheat, Tobacco, Fur, Cotton South America Crown had considerable power over South Viceroys supervise the colonies. Audiencias check Viceroys power. Natives wiped out by disease and warfare. Took over existing empires Ruled by Spain and Portugal SILVER!!! Converted natives to Christianity Racial Mixing ex: Mestizos and Mulattos
Labor Systems in the Americas HaciendaEncomiendaAfrican Slave TradeIndentured Servitude Large estates in Latin America Provided food for inhabitants as well as for sale Type of American feudal system Gave peninsulares land and native workers In return peninsulares had to offer protection and Christianity Worsened native status Africans were captured, put on ships, chained together and taken to the Americas Middle Passage known for harsh conditions and 50% death rate. Survivors auctioned of and forced to work on plantations as well as mines. 16 million taken from Africa Unemployed, orphans, political prisoners, and criminals Seeking new start in life 17 th & 18 th century Possibility of gaining independence after 4-7 years
Slave Systems and Trade Atlantic Slave TradeTriangular TradeSlavery in AfricaIslamic Slave Trade Started with Portuguese in 1441 with 12 slaves. Purchase became the way to get slaves versus capturing Slaves traded from Africa to Portugal, Portuguese Island Colonies, and Spain Boomed in 1600’s Slaves came from western coast of Africa through slave raiding ports. Slaves taken to American plantations and mines. In return for slaves traders bought products to sell in Europe Slavery was common in Africa Slaves were war captives, criminals, and exiled individuals Individuals had no rights Most slaves were cultivators, soldiers, administrators, and advisors. In Africa, wealth measured by laborers not land Slaves became part of the kinship groups Muslim merchants bought African slaves to sell. Trade went throughout Mediterranean Basin, South West Asia, India, South East Asia and China Due to insufficient supplies of slaves merchants conducted slave raids
Development of Empires Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) - Restored native rule to China after the collapse of the Yuan Dynasty. - Huang Wu developed a tightly centralized state. Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) – Ruled by foreigners from Manchuria – Centralized state – Establishment through Manchu military prowess and Chinese support. Songhay Empire (1464-1591) - Took the place of the weakened Mali Empire - Sunni Ali expanded Songhay through the conquest of neighboring lands.
The Consolidation of Sovereign States (1600’s) - Charles V couldn’t establish a unified state - Monarchs of England, France, and Spain boosted economies by using taxes, fines, and fees. - Monarchs and states power was fueled by religious tensions American Empires (1519-1533) - Wiped out natives were replaced and outnumbered by slaves and Europeans due to diseases and advanced weapons. - The America’s were intended to use primarily for raw materials versus colonial administration.
Do you know your empires? Europe - England created constitutional monarchies. Political power laid in the hand of a legislature. Women had more freedoms and influenced politics. - France was an absolute monarchy founded by Louis XIV. Tightly centralized. Nobles were in control of the monarchy and ministers carried out the ruling of the Kingdom. To improve economics France abolished internal tariffs and encouraged exports while also improving foundations for the government. - Russia created an absolute monarchy as well. Russia’s tightly centralized rule led to increased tensions between the government and people. Russia Feudal lords battled over who should rule the empire this was called the Time of Trouble. Catherine the Great focused greatly on helping oppressed serfs.
Ottoman & Mughal Empire – Absolute monarchy under Mehmed the Conqueror. – Ghazi religious warriors and Janissary troops – Under Akbar, absolutist government and religious tolerance. – Both empires relied on an agricultural based society. Surpluses were sold to fund armies and governments. Long distance trade. – Diverse religions throughout empires. – Women had considerable influence on politics. Though they didn’t rule, often the rulers would consult them on matters. – Ex: Suleyman the Magnificent and Hurrem Sultana aka Roxelana
Africa – Expansion by effective military & navy – Governors oversaw provinces – Political success based on powerful military – Kings rule over all people – Slaves served as administers and soldiers – Slaves incorporated into family clan groups – Women left to practice polygamy and do men’s jobs due to the absence of men because of the slave trade – Conversion to merchant religions such as Christianity and Islam to better their trading relationships.
East Asia -Centralized Government under Ming and Qing rule - Restored civil service exams, beauracrats were from all social classes - Ming dynasty employed eunuchs and got rid of Mongol influence - During this time patriarchal authority became tighter than ever before due to increasing emphasis on Filial Piety - social classes: beauracrats, gentry, peasants, artisans, workers, merchants and mean people -Government favored political stability over technological inovations - 12 -16 th century shoguns ruled Japan but during the 16 th century Japan was in a civil war -Ieyasu established military government known as the Tokugawa bakufu, this ended the civil war -Tokugawa shoguns kept an eye on the daimyo by instituting “alternate attendance”, the bakufu also had to approve the daimyo’s marriage alliances - Tokugawa shoguns closely monitored relations between Japan and the outside world, Nagasaki, the southern port city of Japan, was the only place foreigners could trade - Population growth in Japan led to practices like infanticide, abortion, late marriages and contraception
Ch Ch Ch Changes! International trade by sea - Global trade due to exploration Sternpost Rudder - Increased maneuverability Lateen sails - Could catch winds from side and behind The Astrolobe - Measure latitude The magnetic compass - Uhm duh.
GUNS - Unfair advantage to natives - Fueled African Slave Trade Trading without the “middle man” - Boosted profit American Crops - led to population growth and economic growth Enlightenment Ideals - focused on mankind versus government - influenced writers of the Constitution Three-Masted Caravels - Could hold large cargo and make longer journeys Cross staff -Portuguese instrument of measuring latitude
Demographic and Environmental Changes! (what?!)
Cultural and Intellectual Developments African-Americans synchronized their religion with Christianity Slaves introduced hybrid cuisines -African okra + American vegetables = gumbo African culture influenced European people in the Americans European culture overwhelmed natives China & Japan isolated itself from other countries Peter The Great tried to westernize Russia – Clothing and military Ottomans encouraged the arts. Mughals were religiously tolerant under the reign of Akbar. Nuclear family in Europe stressed “love” between spouses.
New Religions Sikhism - A syncretic blend between Hinduism and Islam supported by Akbar the Great Protestantism - 16 th century European movement during which Martin Luther, John Calvin and others broke away from the Catholic church.
Zen Buddhism - The development of Chan Buddhism, also known as Zen Buddhism in Japan, focused on intuition, moments of clarity, and sudden flashes of insight; the connection to Daoism is evident. Vodun - Syncretic religion that focused on worshipping many spirits. Practiced by African slaves and Haiti
Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment Due to the Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation many Europeans started to question Aristotle's theory of Earth being the center of the universe. - Nicholas Copernicus developed a theory that that Earth and other “planets” revolved around the Sun. - Galileo published Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief Systems of the World which showed evidence and theories contradicting the Roman Catholic Church’s Ptolemaic model The Enlightenment period focused on the role of mankind versus the government. - The Social Contract was to developed to meet social and economic needs of people being governed. - Important Enlightenment people: Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Jean- Jacques Rousseau, Voltaire, Montesquieu
Developments and Exchanges in the Arts Mughal - Art is shown through architecture in capital cities. (ex. Istanbul and Isfahan) - Taj Mahal was an exquisite marble mosque and tomb designed by Shah Jahah symbolizing the day when Allah would cause the dead to rise. The Americas -In North America the mound building people built giant earthen mounds. - The Incas and Aztecs had ceremonial temples. - When Europeans arrived in the Americas they built cathedrals.
Russia’s Interactions Ottoman - Late 1700’s Russia became a threat to the Ottoman empire’s survival. Russia took over Ottoman lands that weren’t defended well. Greece and Serbia gained independence from the Ottomans. China - The building of Trans-Siberian railroads encouraged Russia to interact with Manchuria. Russia expanded into North China Eastern Europe Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Greece became new nations. They followed Russia by abolishing serfdom. They industrialized less than Russia Western Europe - Peter the Great westernized Russia. He went on a tour to western Europe to learn about the culture. He built the first navy. He made Russians wear western clothes and reformed the military. He also created a civil service system. He westernized technology as well.
Periodization? Changes/Breaks - Discovery of the new world causes global interactions, i.e., larger exchanging of crops, ideas, people and religion. - Demand for slaves increased. - New Ethnicities - Age of Exploration - Global westernization Continuities – Trade important to everyone’s economy – Exchange of Ideas – Religions continue to spread, i.e., Christianity and Islam – Africans continued to worship their Gods
Why did Europe become the world’s dominating Power? Geographically Lucky Just a Phase? People were forced to innovate, e.g., water pumps in European mines not Chinese. European mind-set was to learn and explore things Europe turned to migrating while China turned to killing people.