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Unit 2 1.  Jonathan Katz “it is the freest community in America”  How should it be governed or regulated? ◦ Debates over pornography ◦ Selling illegal.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 2 1.  Jonathan Katz “it is the freest community in America”  How should it be governed or regulated? ◦ Debates over pornography ◦ Selling illegal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 2 1

2  Jonathan Katz “it is the freest community in America”  How should it be governed or regulated? ◦ Debates over pornography ◦ Selling illegal drugs ◦ Web sites advocating illicit activities  Many users want tighter, centralized controls  Some (libertarians) says the internet thrives because there is no central governing authority 2

3  Late 1950s – US Department of Defense was concerned about need for survivable communications system  1961 Paul Baran developed packet switching (break message into fixed size packages labeled with source and destination address then passed from node to node in network)  1971 Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) gave grants to universities and corporations to establish communications network 3

4  Electronic Mail soon became another function  Early 80s subdivided into ARPANET and Milnet; interaction between the 2 became known as the Internet  Late 80s National Science Foundation linked research universities and government researchers 4

5 Early 90s the Internet became available to corporate users and providers In 1993 had 29% of Internet usage being corporate users Commercial use is now the majority Users of Internet – 1983 – 500 – 2000 – 200 million – 2005 – 1 billion (approx. 15% of world population) – 2009 – 1.7 billion (approx. 25%) View Youtube video – “Did You Know”

6 Uses existing telephone network TCP/IP allows computers to communicate with each other IP establishes the unique numeric address – Explain nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn (0-255) TCP enables communications, breaks data into packets Routers use IP address to determine how to send the packet and to where 6

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9  When packet arrives at router, the router looks at IP address to see if knows where to send it by looking at its routing table ◦ If it exists in the table it knows where to send it ◦ If not, it sends it along a default path to the next router in the backbone hierarchy 9

10 1. Openness – main strength, users become producers of technology 2. Asynchronous – no need for coordination between sender and receiver 3. Permits many-to-many format of coordination 4. Distributed format where data can take many routes to it destination  Because it is a decentralized packet-based network it is difficult to censor 10

11 Contributed to Internet’s popularity Collection of multimedia documents that can be easily accessed HTML and use of tags to create documents Last 3 letters represent “top level” identification (.com.edu.gov) Hyperlinks – link to other documents Servers store documents, video, music, etc Vast tangled network Search engines help locate information 11

12 Trade that occurs on the Internet Benefits 1.Browse and shop anytime 2.Low-cost/overhead for the business 3.Ability to advertize to each individual customer 4 digital business models – B2C - Amazon – C2B - Priceline – B2B – ecommerce between 2 businesses – C2C - eBay 12

13  Portal – gateways to web, contains information like weather, stocks, news, sports, and links to many places 13

14 Web has new façade thanks to social networking sites such as: – MySpace – Facebook – LinkedIn – Twitter Users create their own personal space sharing personal data and allow friends and family to follow their life via postings 14

15  MySpace ◦ Began in 2004 ◦ Based on features of predecessor called Friendster ◦ Pioneer in social networking ◦ Most popular social network in US ◦ Averages over 70 million unique visitors per month in

16 Facebook – Began in 2004 – Began an a social network exclusively for Harvard students – Expanded to include all college and now anyone with an address – Most formidable competitor to MySpace – Fastest growing demographic -users older than 30 – Most popular social network worldwide – Averages over 275 million unique visitors per month in

17 LinkedIn – Began in 2002 – Social network for careers and colleagues Twitter – Quickly becoming social phenomenon – Post short text messages known as tweets – Read by anyone who subscribes to a person’s twittering service – Over 105 million registered users (April 2010) – New users are signing up about 300,000 per day – 180 million unique visitors per month 17

18  Facebook and MySpace allow marketers to purchase targeted ads based on data shared by users  Advertisements on Facebook page ◦ Living location ◦ Favorite Football Team ◦ Year graduated 18

19  Same factors that make social networking sites popular also make them difficult to control ◦ Challenge to guard against illegal activities  Sexting  Dissemination of child pornography  Protect users from online predators  Cyberbullying ◦ Communications Decency Act gives online service providers fairly broad immunity from defamation and other offenses perpetrated by users 19

20  E-commerce –vendors and consumers are victimized by fraud and attacks by hackers  Lessig doesn’t think law, the market, code, or social norms can fix these problems  Spam uses resources  Sale of personally identifiable data to a third party

21 Spam –who/what can stop it – The marketplace – Government – Bottom-up approach – shifting control from the state to the individual to filter Lessig fears that a school or workplace will use their standards on unsuspecting users The question: Should control of the Internet be in the hands of private parties or should it be a top-down approach? 21

22  Must be bodies that maintain technical standards, domain names, and IP addresses  2 main policy groups ◦ World Wide Web Consortium - international standards setting body ◦ Internet Engineering Task Force – develops technical standards such as protocols  ICANN governs Domain Name System 22

23  Domain names introduced to maintain some order (6 originally) ◦.com ◦.net ◦.org ◦.edu ◦.gov ◦.mil  ICANN recently created several new ones ◦.aero ◦.coop ◦.biz ◦.name ◦.info ◦ pro 23 Cybersquatting issues are covered in Chapter 4

24  Can we trust the Internet to regulate itself?  Who maintains the level playing field? ◦ Countries?  Do we use: ◦ Laws ◦ Code ◦ The marketplace ◦ Norms 24


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