Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Economical Realism Avril Styrman. Economically Empiricist Realism in Axiomatic Ontology.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Economical Realism Avril Styrman. Economically Empiricist Realism in Axiomatic Ontology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Economical Realism Avril Styrman

2 Economically Empiricist Realism in Axiomatic Ontology

3 Economical Realism

4 The Role of Economy in Ontology?

5 Economy Prune out the unnecessary part of metaphysics from science

6 Economy Prune out the unnecessary part of metaphysics from science Sustain the necessary part of metaphysics: only those interpretations are required which exist in any case, even if their existence is denied

7 Economy Prune out the unnecessary part of metaphysics from science Sustain the necessary part of metaphysics: only those interpretations are required which exist in any case, even if their existence is denied Pruning out the unnecessary metaphysics and identifying the necessary metaphysics has the possibility to accelerate the progress of science

8 Economy What happens if an interpretation exists but its existence is denied?

9 Economy What happens if an interpretation exists but its existence is denied? The result is uncriticized metaphysics that runs loose

10 Economy “Find a scientific man who proposes to get along without any metaphysics... and you have found one whose doctrines are thoroughly vitiated by the crude and uncriticized metaphysics with which they are packed… Every man of us has a metaphysics, and has to have one; and it will influence his life greatly. Far better, then, that that metaphysics should be criticized and not be allowed to run loose.” Charles Sanders Peirce, Collected Works of Charles Sanders Peirce 1.129

11 Economy Theories/interpretations A and B explain exactly the same thing

12 Economy Theories/interpretations A and B explain exactly the same thing What is the measure of fitness between A and B?

13 Economy Theories/interpretations A and B explain exactly the same thing What is the measure of fitness between A and B? The simplest interpretation is the best

14 Economy Theories/interpretations A and B explain exactly the same thing What is the measure of fitness between A and B? The simplest interpretation is the best Economy might be the only available objective judge, but only when A and B explain exactly the same thing

15 Economy The importance of economy should not be underestimated, because there exists a jungle of interpretations in science, that effectively muddifies science

16 Realism

17 Economy/simplicity can be achieved by identifying the anti-realist interpretations in science, and pruning them out as uneconomical alternatives compared to the realist interpretations

18 Realism Economy/simplicity can be achieved by identifying the anti-realist interpretations in science, and pruning them out as uneconomical alternatives compared to the realist interpretations Two main alternatives are the two competing groups of interrelated interpretations: realism and solipsism

19 Realism Example 1: economy judging between the generic forms of ontological realism and solipsism

20 Realism Example 1: economy judging between the generic forms of ontological realism and solipsism Example 2: economy judging between a realist interpretation and a solipsist intepretation in physics

21 Ontological Realism

22

23 Solipsism

24

25

26 Realism or Solipsism? The solipsist must in any case postulate a dichotomy that is operationally identical to ontological realism

27 Realism or Solipsism? Economy favours realism because solipsism is bothered with an unnecessary appendix: the universal mind

28 Realism or Solipsism? Is ecomomy a big deal? Why fuzz over it?

29 Realism or Solipsism? Is ecomomy a big deal? Why fuzz over it? Because the lack of economy is disastrous

30 Realism or Solipsism? Is ecomomy a big deal? Why fuzz over it? Because the lack of economy is disastrous “Accept one difficulty and the rest follows —a simple enough proceeding” Aristotle, Physics, bk.1, ch.2, 185a11-12

31 Realism or Solipsism? Is ecomomy a big deal? Why fuzz over it? Because the lack of economy is disastrous “Accept one difficulty and the rest follows —a simple enough proceeding” Aristotle, Physics, bk.1, ch.2, 185a11-12 “…far happier they than such as wallow helplessly in a rich mud of conceptions ” Charles Sanders Peirce, How to Make Our Ideas Clear, 1878

32 Realism vs. Solipsism in Physics

33 An example where the measurement results can be given a realist and a solipsist interpretation

34 Locality and Nonlocality What is the velocity of causal influences between spatially separated particulars?

35 Locality and Nonlocality What is the velocity of causal influences between spatially separated particulars? Earth - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Alpha Centauri

36 Locality and Nonlocality What is the velocity of causal influences between spatially separated particulars? Earth - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Alpha Centauri The speed of light: local Universe

37 Locality and Nonlocality What is the velocity of causal influences between spatially separated particulars? Earth - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Alpha Centauri The speed of light: local Universe Faster than light: nonlocal Universe

38 Locality and Nonlocality What is the velocity of causal influences between spatially separated particulars? Earth - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Alpha Centauri The speed of light: local Universe Faster than light: nonlocal Universe Instantaneous: nonlocal Universe

39 Nonlocality Tests

40 – J.A.W. van Houwelingen N. Gisin D. Salart, A. Baas and H. Zbinden. Spacelike separation in a Bell test assuming gravitationally induced collapses. Physical Review Letters, 100, 2008. – P. Grangier A. Aspect and G. Roger. Experimental tests of local realistic theories via Bell’s theorem. Physical Review Letters, 47: 460–463, 1981. – P. Grangier A. Aspect and G. Roger. Experimental realisation of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm gedankenexperiment: a new violation of Bell’s inequalities. Physical Review Letters, 49: 91–94, 1982.

41 Nonlocality Tests Particles a and b are in a singlet state in the source.

42 Nonlocality Tests Particles a and b are in a singlet state in the source. The source is manipulated and the particles start moving towards opposite directions

43 Nonlocality Tests Particles a and b both can be measured to have some spin values: spin-up xor spin-down

44 Nonlocality Tests The spins of a and b are correlated: when the spin of a is measured to be spin-up, the spin of b is measured to spin-down, and vice versa: a-up & b-down a-down & b-up

45 Nonlocality Tests

46 The spins of a and b are correlated: when the spin of a is measured to be spin-up, the spin of b is measured to spin-down, and vice versa: a-up & b-down no b-up & a-up a-down & b-up no a-down & b-down

47 Nonlocality Tests How should the correlation be interpreted?

48 Nonlocality Tests How should the correlation be interpreted? The realist and the solipsist interpretations

49 The Realist Interpretation The spins of a and b are correlated and there is nothing more into it

50 The Realist Interpretation The spins of a and b are correlated and there is nothing more into it They are measured to be correlated because they have been correlated all along, in the singlet state and after

51 The Realist Interpretation The spins of a and b are correlated and there is nothing more into it They are measured to be correlated because they have been correlated all along, in the singlet state and after No superluminal influence is required, and thus locality is not threatened

52 The Solipsist Interpretation

53 So awkward to a realist that it is hard to understand

54 The Solipsist Interpretation So awkward to a realist that it is hard to understand Do not get surprised: it is solipsism!

55 The Solipsist Interpretation So awkward to a realist that it is hard to understand Do not get surprised: it is solipsism! Still strongly present in physics

56 The Solipsist Interpretation a and b do not have definite states at all before the measurement

57 The Solipsist Interpretation a and b do not have definite states at all before the measurement The measurement itself determines the states of a and b

58 The Solipsist Interpretation a and b do not have definite states at all before the measurement The measurement itself determines the states of a and b They are in definite states only after the measurement

59 The Solipsist Interpretation Before the measurement a and b are in a superposition:

60 The Solipsist Interpretation Before the measurement a and b are in a superposition: The superposition contains both possibilities

61 The Solipsist Interpretation Before the measurement a and b are in a superposition: The superposition contains both possibilities After the measurement they are either in the state b-up&a-down xor in a-up&b-down, but no longer in a superposition

62 The Solipsist Interpretation Because the measurement of a determines the state of b faster than light travels between a and b, superluminal or instantaneous influences are required. If you believe in the superposition idea, then nonlocality is the conclusion. Earth a - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - b Alpha Centauri

63 The Solipsist Interpretation Superluminal and/or instantaneous influences are compatible with monism: all is together in some sense Earth a - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - b Alpha Centauri ab

64 Speculation “The particles communicate faster than light.” Tim Maudlin. Quantum Non-Locality and Relativity. Blackwell Publishers Inc., 2002, p2. “A pair of photons created together in the entangled state and allowed to separate remain, no matter how great the separation, causally connected to one another.” Ibid., p162. “Two particles, having interacted in the past, form an inseparable whole, even if at present they are far apart.” Giuliano Toraldo Di Francia. A world of individual objects? In Elena Castellani (ed.), Interpreting Bodies: Classical and Quantum Objects in Modern Physics. Princeton University Press, p21–29, 1988, p28.

65 Speculation “When a sparrow falls in Yougoslavia it has effects in the New Brunswick and on Saturn and in the most distant galaxy. Tim Maudlin. Quantum Non- Locality and Relativity. Blackwell Publishers Inc., 2002, p22. “Since any particle has certainly interacted with other particles in the past, the world turns out to be nonseparable into individual and independent objects.” Giuliano Toraldo Di Francia. A world of individual objects? In Elena Castellani (ed.), Interpreting Bodies: Classical and Quantum Objects in Modern Physics. Princeton University Press, p21–29, 1988, p28.

66 Speculation The idea of the superposition is troubled also by the Schrödinger’s cat paradox: nothing has properties unless these properties are percieved by a conscious agent

67 Speculation The idea of the superposition is troubled also by the Schrödinger’s cat paradox: nothing has properties unless these properties are percieved by a conscious agent This is very near to solipsism, and against ontological realism where properties are mind-independent

68 Speculation The idea of the superposition is troubled also by the Schrödinger’s cat paradox: nothing has properties unless these properties are percieved by a conscious agent The Schrödinger’s cat paradox can be resolved with other interpretations such as with the many minds/worlds interpretation, where every perception makes the Universe branch based on the superposition

69 The Solipsist Interpretation Might sound funny but these interpretations are out there

70 The Solipsist Interpretation Extreme empiricism is taken as a starting point: only that what is measured is scientific

71 The Solipsist Interpretation Extreme empiricism is taken as a starting point: only that what is measured is scientific The importance of the measurement is over- propagated into unmeasurable conclusions : superluminal influences and the many-worlds interpretation

72 The Solipsist Interpretation Extreme empiricism is taken as a starting point: only that what is measured is scientific The importance of the measurement is over- propagated into unmeasurable conclusions : superluminal influences and the many-worlds interpretation The unmeasurable conclusions are against the original postulate of extreme empiricism

73 The Solipsist Interpretation Extreme empiricism is taken as a starting point: only that what is measured is scientific The importance of the measurement is over- propagated into unmeasurable conclusions : superluminal influences and the many-worlds interpretation The unmeasurable conclusions are against the original postulate of extreme empiricism This is unnoticed because metaphysics is denied to exist by the extreme empiricist

74 Solipsism or Realism? Which one should we choose, the realist or the solipsist intepretation? The case is unmeasurable.

75 Solipsism or Realism? Which one should we choose, the realist or the solipsist intepretation? The case is unmeasurable. Economy favours the realist interpretation: it is a simpler explanation of the measurement results

76 Solipsism or Realism? Which one should we choose, the realist or the solipsist intepretation? The case is unmeasurable. Economy favours the realist interpretation: it is a simpler explanation of the measurement results Solipsism unnecessarily and effectively muddifies the wells of discourse

77 Conclusions Economical realism is a good way to go. It makes the total science a tighter package than earlier. Accept the necessary part of metaphysics and let economy be the judge.

78 Conclusions Economical realism is a good way to go. It makes the total science a tighter package than earlier. Accept the necessary part of metaphysics and let economy be the judge. A case where the utility of philosophy can be easily explained


Download ppt "Economical Realism Avril Styrman. Economically Empiricist Realism in Axiomatic Ontology."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google