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12-2: CHROMOSOMES AND DNA REPLICATION Biology 2. Prokaryotes lack a nucleus and organelles DNA is located in cytoplasm Most have single circular DNA Eukaryotes.

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Presentation on theme: "12-2: CHROMOSOMES AND DNA REPLICATION Biology 2. Prokaryotes lack a nucleus and organelles DNA is located in cytoplasm Most have single circular DNA Eukaryotes."— Presentation transcript:

1 12-2: CHROMOSOMES AND DNA REPLICATION Biology 2

2 Prokaryotes lack a nucleus and organelles DNA is located in cytoplasm Most have single circular DNA Eukaryotes are more complex DNA is located in nucleus, as chromosomes Number of chromosomes varies between species DNA and Chromosomes

3 PROKARYOTE DNA EUKARYOTE DNA

4 DNA is wrapped tightly around histones (forms chromatin) – CHROMATIN: granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins Chromatin is wrapped up tightly to form loops and coils As it wraps tighter and tighter, it forms the X structure of chromosomes DNA and Chromosomes

5 HOW IS DNA PACKAGED &feature=relmfu

6 CHROMOSOME ORGANIZATION

7 Before a cell divides it creates a “copy” of DNA during replication – REPLICATION: copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA DNA separates into 2 strands, and “copies” the pattern to create another strand Must use base pairing rules (A=T, C=G) to make new strand Goal of replication is to have 2 complete sets of DNA for cells DNA Replication

8 DNA REPLICATION

9 Section Assessment 1.Prokaryotes lack a __________ and __________, DNA is located in __________ 2.Eukaryotes are more __________, DNA is located in __________, as __________ 3.Goal of replication is to have ______________ of DNA for cells

10 Bill Nye – Genes and Chromosomes


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