Presentation on theme: "G. L. Doll, M. N. Kotzalas, and Y. S. Kang"— Presentation transcript:
1G. L. Doll, M. N. Kotzalas, and Y. S. Kang Life-Limiting Wear of Wind Turbine Gearbox Bearings: Origins and SolutionsG. L. Doll, M. N. Kotzalas, and Y. S. KangThe Timken CompanyCanton, Ohio USA
2Outline Critical bearing locations in WTGs. The problems: micropitting, smearing, flaking; not fatigue.CausesMicropittingSmearingFlakingSolutionsConclusions
3Critical Bearing Locations in WTGs Critical bearing locations are defined as places that have exhibited a high percentage of application failures in spite of the use of best current design practices.1. Planet bearings2. Intermediate shaft bearings3. High-speed shaft bearingsW. Musial, S. Butterfield, and B. McNiff, “Improving wind turbine gearbox reliability”, Proceedings of the 2007 EWEC Conference, Milan, Italy, Paper DW2.1, pp
4twear L10 The Problems DESIRED ACTUAL Micropitting Brittle Smearing FlakingDESIREDtwearACTUALL10
5Causes of Micropitting and Smearing – Roller/Raceway Sliding Micropitting: Cumulative shear stresses from moderate roller/raceway sliding in low L leads to low cycle micropitting (< predicted life)…Moderate PvSmearing: High roller/raceway sliding with higher local surface temperature causes micro-welding of the surface leading to smearing…High Pv
6Causes of Brittle Flaking* Transient loads & high stress/high cycle loadingButterflies at nonmetallic inclusions → ferrite in wingContinued cyclic strain:Voids/microcrack initiate at Al2O3/steel interfaceMicrocracks agglomerate & propagate → brittle flaking*A. Grabulov, R. Petrov, & H.W. Zandbergen, Intl. J. Fatigue, 32 (2010), pp
7Mechanics of Micropitting and Smearing in Spherical Roller Bearings (SRBs) SRB geometry dictates that there are at most two points of rolling contact (A).Differential or Heathcoat Slip exists (pure sliding) at Q.Low lambda conditions prevail in WTGs.Cannot effectively load SRBs in WTGs to reduce sliding at Q.Micropitting in moderate Pv situationsSmearing in high Pv situations.T. A. Harris and M. N. Kotzalas, Advanced Concepts of Bearing Technology, Rolling Bearing Analysis, 5th Ed., (Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, 2007), p. 132.
8Mechanics of Micropitting and Smearing in Cylindrical Roller Bearings (CRBs) When traction forces at roller/raceway cannot overcome roller inertia, sliding increases.Rollers slide/misaligned outside load zone.WTG bearings designed for very large & rarely experienced static & dynamic loads.Large C1 → highly crowned raceways.Low P → small traction forces.Gearbox torque reversals rapidly change load zone to sliding/misaligned rollersLoad Distribution in Loaded ZoneC1 is a measure of the bearing’s ability to withstand rolling contact fatigueC0 is a measure of the bearing’s ability to withstand the maximum applied load without function-reducing permanent deformations
9Results of DBM Calculations (Intermediate Shaft CRB for 1.5mW WTG) When C1/P 1,SRR=5 ~ 10 %When C1/P 1000,SRR=20 ~ 100 %Tighter clearances,SRR decreases but > 0Acceleration/DecelerationSRR 50 %
11Black Oxide Surface Treatments (Rings & Rollers) Before UseAfter UseChemical conversion of the surfaces of the rollers and raceways from steel to magnetite (Fe3O4).Black oxide employed on bearings for many years to inhibit corrosion and in some cases to facilitate a break-in.Black oxide surface treatments are sacrificial and can wear rapidly in operation (depends upon Pv).After black oxide wears, smoother raceways. Benefit to micropitting, not beneficial to smearing.
13ES322 Treated Rollers Eliminate Micropitting & Reduced Life from Debris Reverse Sliding ZoneRoller Contact AreaLact~0.6L10The pictures in this slide are of spherical roller bearing raceways that were deliberately damaged with steel debris and then life tested to fatigue in a low lambda (~0.5) condition. Debris damage is known to significantly reduce bearing life, especially for through-hardened material like The dark band in the upper image is called peeling or grey-staining and it is caused by micropitting. Micropitting of bearing raceways is caused by high cyclic shear stresses in low lambda conditions. The high shear stresses are associated with roller sliding, and rollers in SRBs always experience high amounts of sliding. The reverse sliding zone is indicated. There is also a large amount of debris damage on the raceway still observable at the end of the useful bearing life. In contrast, the image of the SPB raceway which ran against ES322 treated rollers is much smoother – the majority of the debris damage has been repaired. That is, the plastically deformed raised lips around the debris generated craters have been removed through the gentle lapping action of the coated rollers. In fact, whereas the SRB with the untreated rollers statistically experiences a 40% reduction in bearing life because of debris damage, SRBs with ES322-treated rollers statistically show a 20% improvement in bearing life over untreated, non-debris damaged bearings. Additionally, even thought the testing conditions of both bearing tests were identical, absolutely no micropitting has occurred in the SRBs with ES322-treated rollers.Lact~1.2L10
14Additional Benefits of ES Roller Treatments Protection Against Loss of LubricationIncreased Life of the Bearing in Thin Lube FilmReduction in the Friction LossesA Debris Resistant Bearing for Gearboxes
15Possible Solutions to Brittle Flaking ActionsMaterial BenefitPerformance BenefitImprove steel cleanlinessReduced volume of Al2O3 inclusionsReduction in sites for crack initiationIncrease fracture strength of steelFine grains,Small/dispersed carbides,~20% Retained AusteniteInhibits crack propagationApply ES treatments to rolling elementsReduces shear stresses on raceways surfacesDrives Hertzian stresses deeper into raceway,L10-based fatigue life
16SummarySome wind turbine gearboxes are not achieving their desired operational lives because bearings in three critical positions suffer field failures due to low-cycle micropitting/smearing and/or brittle flaking, not fatigue.Micropitting & smearing are caused by excessive amounts of roller/raceway sliding in low L.Rollers slide when C1/P is large.High cyclic stresses cause WEAs which cause brittle flaking in low fracture strength material.Black oxide surface treatments applied to raceways and rollers should delay the onset of micropitting, but will probably not allow the bearings to attain their predicted L10 life. Black oxide surface treatments are ineffective against smearing.Advanced ES surface treatments applied to rollers eliminate micropitting and provide durable barrier against smearing. Low shear forces move peak stresses away from raceway surfaces.In addition bearings with ES-treated rollers are alsoresistant to damage due to lubricant interruption,immune to damage from gearbox debris,operate with about 15% less frictional torque,have about 3.5 times greater fatigue life in low L conditions.