Back in Colonial times, Americans raised most of the food they ate and made most of the clothes they wore. They spun their own yarn, wove their own cloth, and stitched their own garments. They dipped candles and built tables and chairs. When wealthy colonists wanted fancy dishes, fine cloth, or elegant furniture, they sent to England for them. Manufactured goods were made in England; raw materials came from the colonies. Then, during the American Revolution, that system stopped. Suddenly there was no place to send raw materials and no supply of fine goods. The colonists had to find new markets for their lumber, tobacco, cotton, and other raw materials. Soon their sailing ships were calling in ports from Spain to India. The Industrial Revolution
After the war, the new United States began trading with England again. At the same time, America was growing and changing. Our democracy was producing a strong middle class. It wasn't only the very rich who wanted to buy manufactured goods. Ordinary people wanted them too. And something was happening in England that would make that possible. It was another revolution—an industrial revolution (although no one called it that for a while). It was a way of organizing work, based on new ideas in science and technology and business. Things once made at home—like cotton and cloth—were being made faster, and often better, in factories. And it all began in England. Beginning of the Industrial Revolution
LET’S SEE ! WHAT CHANGED BETWEEN COLONIIAL AMERICA AND POST-AMERICAN REVOLUTION AMERICA? 1 2 3 4
Define the Problem In your groups, find evidence of the social problem from each slide: Slide #1 Slide #2 Slide #3 Slide #4 Slide #5
Whilst writers, such as Charles Dickens in Britain and Emile Zola in France, wrote about the appalling living and working conditions, social reformers, such as Robert Owen, showed by practical experiment, that alternatives to long hours, child-labour and maltreatment were available. Others, such as Edwin Chadwick and Seebolm Roundtree, conducted inquiries into the miserable conditions of the poor. In their own way each of them highlighted the awful conditions that prevailed and suggested ways of righting them.
(2) John Brown, A Memoir of Robert Blincoe (1828) A girl named Mary Richards, who was thought remarkably handsome when she left the workhouse, and, who was not quite ten years of age, attended a drawing frame, below which, and about a foot from the floor, was a horizontal shaft, by which the frames above were turned. It happened one evening, when her apron was caught by the shaft. In an instant the poor girl was drawn by an irresistible force and dashed on the floor. She uttered the most heart-rending shrieks! Blincoe ran towards her, an agonized and helpless beholder of a scene of horror. He saw her whirled round and round with the shaft - he heard the bones of her arms, legs, thighs, etc. successively snap asunder, crushed, seemingly, to atoms, as the machinery whirled her round, and drew tighter and tighter her body within the works, her blood was scattered over the frame and streamed upon the floor, her head appeared dashed to pieces - at last, her mangled body was jammed in so fast, between the shafts and the floor, that the water being low and the wheels off the gear, it stopped the main shaft. When she was extricated, every bone was found broken - her head dreadfully crushed. She was carried off quite lifeless.John Brown
PersonInventionDate James WattFirst reliable Steam Engine1775 Eli WhitneyCotton Gin, Interchangeable parts for muskets1793, 1798 Robert FultonRegular Steamboat service on the Hudson River1807 Samuel F. B. MorseTelegraph1836 Elias HoweSewing Machine1844 Isaac SingerImproves and markets Howe's Sewing Machine1851 Cyrus FieldTransatlantic Cable1866 Alexander Graham BellTelephone1876 Thomas EdisonPhonograph, Incandescant Light Bulb1877, 1879 Nikola TeslaInduction Electric Motor1888 Rudolf DieselDiesel Engine1892 Orville and Wilbur WrightFirst Airplane1903 Henry FordModel T Ford, Assembly Line1908, 1913
Slater's Mill In 1790 Sam Slater was hired by Moses Brown and William Almy to construct British-style machinery in their Rhode Island cotton mill. The machines he built, pictured here on a page from Slater's memoir, were the most advanced design anywhere in the United States. Indeed, the industrial revolution in America can be said to date from the opening of Slater's Mill. This search tool will help you find more images.
A Cotton Plantation Before 1793 cotton was a minor crop in America. It was just too difficult to clean it of its seeds. Here is a cotton plantation in the 1850s, long after Eli Whitney's invention had made cotton king across the South. This search tool will help you find more images.