212.1 Chemical BondingAtoms want to be like noble gases (stable and happy)Goal = 8 outer valence electrons =Octet Rule (except H, He)Metals lose electrons and become (+) cationsNonmetals gain electrons and become (-) anionsA metal / nonmetal compound is IONIC w/ IONIC bond (the + and – attract each other)Who makes a good partner for Ca? Br? Li?Ionic Examples: KCl, CaBr2Nonmetals can also share electrons with each otherA nonmetal / nonmetal compounds is COVALENT w/COVALENT bonds.Example: diatomic elements (H2, N2, F2…)Covalent Examples: H2O, CO2
3Why is the formula CaBr2? Why one Ca per two Br? Any ideas? Because Ca ion is +2 and Br ion is -1. So need two Br -1 ions to balance with one Ca +2 ion = (Br-1Ca2+Br-1)The answer is NOT because Br is diatomicNote, Br is diatomic BY ITSELF (Br2) but when in a compound the Br ‘s break apart to bond with other atoms! The diatomic elements are NOT diatomic anymore once bonded with others.
4Which compounds are Ionic? KBrSO3HClBr2CO2MgCl2Answer: The ones with a metal and a nonmetal.KBr and MgCl2
512.2 Ionic BondingElectrons are completely transferred from metal to nonmetal.
6Draw electron dot structures for Mg and S atoms then Mg2+ and S2- ions in MgS. How many protons and electrons in Mg2+ and S2- ions?Notice that Mg2+ and S2- are “like” noble gases. They are isoelectronic with Ne and Ar, and that is what makes them happy and stable. While the number of electrons changed, the number of protons did NOT. # Protons never change in chemical reactions.
7Ionic RadiusCations have lost electrons, so there are more protons, so pull the electron orbits in closer to nucleus (smaller than the atom)Anions have gained electrons, so there are more electrons, they repel and push orbits farther from nucleus (larger than the atom)
8True or False regarding an ionic bond between aluminum and iodine? The aluminum atom loses electrons, and the iodine atom gains electrons.The aluminum atom is larger in radius than the aluminum ion.The iodine atom is smaller in radius than the iodine ion.The aluminum and iodine ions form a bond by attraction.True
912.3 Covalent Bonding …is when nonmetals share electrons. Single = 2, double = 4, triple = 6 e- sharedNote the bond length is less than r1+r2 due to orbital overlap
10Bond Energy =Energy required to break a bond. Breaking bonds always requires E.E is a reactant, it is absorbed.Forming bonds always releases E.E is a product, it is produced.EndothermicExothermicHCl (g) + heat H (g) Cl (g)H (g) Cl (g) HCl (g) + heat
11True or False regarding H2S? Electrons are shared in H2S.The bond between H and S is ionic.The H-S bond length is less than the sum of the two atomic radii.Breaking the H-S bond releases energy.TrueFalseFigure: 12-07Title:Formation of Na+ and Cl- IonsCaption:The radius of the sodium atom decreases, while the chloride atom increases when ionized.Notes:Losing an electron means that the positive nucleus can pull the other electrons in more strongly. Gaining an electron means that the positive nucleus is less effective in pulling the electrons in.
1212.4 Draw electron dot structures for H2 and HCl
1312.4 Electron Dot Structures Add up the total number of valence electrons.Surround the central atom with the other atoms and draw single bonds to them.All atoms want octet 8e- except H wants 2 e-.Final Check: Make SURE you use the total # of e-, no more or less.bonding e-= shared e-lone pairs = unshared e-If single bonds don’t work, try double, then triple.H2OTotal = 8e-. .H:O:. .H
14Examples to put on board: HCNCHCl3CO2NH3The central atom is in bold.
1512.5 Electron Dots of Polyatomic Ions NH4+Add electrons for anions and subtract electrons for cations. Put brackets around the ion and charge in the right corner.+1 charge means one less e-Total =5 + 4(1) – 1 = 8 e-
16Examples for the board: BrO3-SO42-CN-The central atom is in bold.
1712.10 Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory VSEPRElectron pairs (bonded and lone pairs) repel each other and move as far away from each other as possible.Molecular Shape or Geometry – the 3 D arrangement of the atoms..Print out Shape Table from the web page
18A = Central Atom B = Outer Atom E = Lone Pair on central atom Linear – AB and AB2Examples: H2, HCl, CO2Bond Angle is 180
22Trigonal Pyramidal – AB3E Example: ammonia, NH3Figure: UNTitle:CH4 Molecular ShapeCaption:This is the electron pair geometry and molecular shape of methane.Notes:This diagram is part of an in-text example of electron pair geometry and molecular shape. In this example, methane has 4 electron pairs and a tetrahedral molecular shape.
23Bent – AB2E2 Example: water, H2O Figure: 12-09-08UN Title: NH3 Molecular ShapeCaption:This is the electron pair geometry and molecular shape of ammonia.Notes:This diagram is part of an in-text example of electron pair geometry and molecular shape. In this example, ammonia has 4 electron pairs--3 bonding and 1 nonbonding--and therefore a trigonal planar molecular shape.
24Summary Given any molecule or polyatomic ion you should be able to Draw the Electron dot structureDetermine the shape and bond anglesGet used to the Table of Shapes online – you will get it on the exam over this chapter!!!Practice: PH3 and ozone O3
2512.6&7 Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds A covalent bond where electrons are shared equally is a nonpolar bond. (no poles, no magnet)A covalent bond where electrons are shared unequally is a polar bond. (has poles like a magnet)Symbols used to indicate polarity:d+ = Partially positive atomd- = Partially negative atompoints toward more EN atom
26What does partial charge mean? The atoms in ions are completely +1, +2, -3, -2 and suchPolar bonds make the atoms just a little bit + and -, like maybe andSo ions are WAY more + and – than polar covalent bonded atomsIonic bond Na-Cl is completely +1 and -1Polar Covalent bond N-F is a little bit d+ and d-
27Electronegativity (EN) is the ability of a BONDED atom to attract electrons.
28Noble Gases don’t have an EN Why? Any ideas? EN = ability of an atom to pull BONDED electrons closeWell noble gases don’t BOND! So they can’t pull bonded electrons close. So what is the atom with the highest EN???Yep, F. F pulls electrons closer than anything! F is an electron hog. Nothing holds electrons tighter than F.
29Nonpolar covalent bonds When an atom is bonded to itself, that bond is nonpolar because the electrons are shared equally between them.Diatomic molecules have nonpolar covalent bonds.Examples:H2, N2, F2, O2, I2, Cl2 , Br2Note C and H are about the SAME in EN so also make nonpolar covalent bonds.Example:C-H bond in CH4
30Polar covalent bonds Examples of polar bonds: C-O, H-F, S-F, C-N In general, when two different nonmetal atoms are bonded, the bond is polar because the more EN atom pulls the electrons closer so they are shared unequally.Examples of polar bonds:C-O, H-F, S-F, C-N
31Examples: Ionic, polar covalent, or nonpolar covalent??? Cl-Cl bond (a) Add the delta notation(b) Add the polarity arrowC-FO-CC-HC-ClO-HIonic, polar covalent, or nonpolar covalent???C=O bondCl-Cl bondNa-O bondC=C bondPolar covalentNonpolar covIonic
32Polarity - ReviewThis is really important and will come up later again and again and again.Think of this as a tug-of-war for bonded electrons. The more EN atom pulls them closer, and since e- are negative, that makes that atom a little bit d-. By default the other atom is a little bit d+. The bond is thus polar. If the atoms have the same EN, like C and H, then it is a tie (nonpolar).
33Ionic, Polar, or Nonpolar Bonds? Na-ClH-ClH-HCl-CC-HO=OK-OP-FIonicPolar CovalentNonpolar Covalent
34Metallic Bonding Pure metals have a freely moving “sea of electrons”. The electrons are shared among all the metal atoms.This is why they conduct heat and electricity so easily.
3512.10 Polarity of Molecules All nonpolar bonds = nonpolar molecule. Polar bonds that don’t cancel out = polar molecule.Polar bonds that do cancel out = nonpolar molecule.
36Polar Bonds BUT Nonpolar Molecule Polar bonds cancel out = nonpolar molecule.
37Summary Water Ammonia Carbon dioxide Draw the electron dot structure, determine shape, bond angle, determine if bonds are polar and if molecule is polar.WaterAmmoniaCarbon dioxideYes, we skipped sections 8 and 9
38For Fun if timeWhy care about molecular shape? Well look at what cis-platin can do thanks to its shape!Antioxidants and free radicals – what are they? Free radicals are when a molecule has an unpaired electron. They are considered bad for you.
39Self TestPage 352Try 1-6, 10, 12, 14 (shape only), (don’t worry about when it says electron geometry, worry about shape)Answers in Appendix J