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Chapter 38 Troubled Years: America After the Great War 1919–1923.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 38 Troubled Years: America After the Great War 1919–1923."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 38 Troubled Years: America After the Great War 1919–1923

2 Postwar Tensions: Labor, Reds, Immigrants A year of strikes Wages not keeping up with prices 3,600 strikes in 1919 Americans not sympathetic with strikers Marines put down general strike in Seattle Steelworkers Have extremely long hours Make subsistence wages Boss convinces public that strike was caused by radicals Strike fails

3 Postwar Tensions: Labor, Reds, Immigrants Postwar Tensions: Labor, Reds, Immigrants (cont.’d) Boston Police Strike Creates jump in crime Police underpaid Have little public support Calvin Coolidge refuses to help them Red Scare American xenophobia Reaction to Bolshevik Revolution Fear of third international Few immigrants and ethnics radical

4 Postwar Tensions: Labor, Reds, Immigrants Postwar Tensions: Labor, Reds, Immigrants (cont.’d) Palmer Raids Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer Illegally deports immigrants Arrests 6,000 on little-to-no evidence Red Scare fizzles after May Day Sacco and Vanzetti Italian radicals charged with murder Do not receive unbiased trial Found guilty World wide protest, but executed

5 Postwar Tensions: Labor, Reds, Immigrants Postwar Tensions: Labor, Reds, Immigrants (cont.’d) Immigration restrictions Felt new immigrants would never be assimilated 1921 Congress sets up quota system 1924 quota system becomes tighter Quotas favor Western Europeans Asians completely excluded

6 Racial Tensions Race riots and lynchings Several major race riots Chicago 1919, 120 dead Tulsa 1921 city-wide with 100 dead Increase in lynching Congress fails to pass Dyer bill Middle class Southerners help stop lynchings Ku Klux Klan Revived founded 1915 by William Simmons Becomes money-making racket Against anything except WASPs Declines after leader convicted of murder

7 Racial Tensions Racial Tensions (cont.’d) Marcus Garvey calls for racial separation Universal Negro Improvement Association Black pride, create new nation Declines after Garvey imprisoned

8 Prohibition and Fundamentalism Prohibition Violation of Prohibition common Drys more common in South and rural areas Wets more common in North and cities Illegal activities gave immigrants opportunities Moonshiners and Bootleggers City versus country Bible belt south was dry as was Oregon and southern California and Midwest Much violation Speakeasies existed everywhere and alcohol available Businessmen gangsters Al Capone saw himself as businessmen Gang wars erupted in Chicago Gangs often involved immigrants Illegal activities gave immigrants opportunities

9 Prohibition and Fundamentalism Anti-Semitism Old resentment of Jewish businessmen remained Henry Ford anti-Semitic Myths that Jews controlled banking Hollywood Film industry booming Foreign-born Jews dominated business Protests against moral standards in films Hollywood chose self-censorship in Hays Code

10 Prohibition and Fundamentalism (cont’d) Evolution controversy Traditional values vs. new worldliness Fundamentalists insist on literal truth in Bible Tennessee makes it illegal to teach evolution John Scopes charged with teaching evolution Media descends on Dayton, Tennessee William Jennings Bryan aids prosecution Arthur Garfield Hays leads defense team Clarence Darrow assists Darrow puts Bryan on stand Bryan fails to defend Bible Scopes found guilty, Bryan dies Dayton reaps in the profits

11 “The Worst President” Warren G. Harding Too eager to say yes Works his way up Ohio politics Helps friends find jobs Least effective senator

12 “The Worst President” “The Worst President” (cont.’d) A decent man Tries to be “best liked” president Pardons Eugene V. Debs Convinces U.S. Steel to have 8-hour days Laughs off enemies Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover Extremely smart Radio Act of 1927 Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes Treaty of Washington Arms race one cause of World War I Five major naval powers agreed to limit fleets Each gains something Hughes’s biggest accomplishment

13 Discussion Questions What sort of president was Warren Harding? What did he accomplish? What were the scandals of his administration? What effect did the Treaty of Washington have on U.S. foreign and military policy at the time? Will it have longer reaching consequences in the future? What led the to revival of the Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s? Was it successful? Did it have any affect of American society? What was the issue of Scopes Monkey trial? How did it conclude? Is this trial relevant today? Why or why not? Explain the postwar racial violence and anti-immigration views that swept the nation.

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