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1 MD/HD CO 2 Reduction by Hybridization & WHR Technology Impact on Emission Control Dr. Uwe Zink, Corning Incorporated Director, Emerging Industry Technology.

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Presentation on theme: "1 MD/HD CO 2 Reduction by Hybridization & WHR Technology Impact on Emission Control Dr. Uwe Zink, Corning Incorporated Director, Emerging Industry Technology."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 MD/HD CO 2 Reduction by Hybridization & WHR Technology Impact on Emission Control Dr. Uwe Zink, Corning Incorporated Director, Emerging Industry Technology April 4, 2011

2 2 Agenda  CO 2 Context  Hybridization  Motivation  Powertrain implication  Aftertreatment design considerations  Technology sorting  Heat Energy Recovery Approaches in Industry  Rankine cycle considerations  Summary

3 3 CO 2 Context & considerations On-Road focus

4 4 HD CO 2 /Fuel Consumption Reduction: Different approaches JP: Fuel consumption, EU: CO 2 focus(?), EPA: GHG focus New EU Regs CO 2 (assumption) EPA CO 2 e (CO 2 ; N 2 O, CH 4 caps; BC) JP: Fuel cons. -12% vs 2002Tighter JP Regs (assumption) (*): MTZ 1-’09, DoE SuperTruck Vehicle fuel eco demo ACEA: 20% reduction goal (*) DoE: +50% freight efficiency Prototype demo CO 2 /Fuel Eco - Government / OE Initiatives DAG’s “Shaping Future Transportation” (*) “Road to Emission Free Mobility (LD & HD)”(*) Tighter EPA Regs

5 5 Fuel consumption evolution in Europe ACEA’s Goal (*) : 20% Fuel consumption reduction by 2020 –Assume vehicle -20% (*) MTZ 1-’09, Daimler SAE Gothenborg 9-’10 10 mpg per CCJ 3/31/10 quoting MATS

6 6 CO 2 & fuel consumptions measures -Aerodynamics, vehicle weight, engine, tires, drivetrain Ref.: Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, April 2010;

7 7 Class 6-8 Hybrid Truck Production: Hybrid Trucks to Set to Account for 8 Percent of Total Truck Production by 2015 (Frost & Sullivan, HTUF 10/’09)

8 8 MD/HD-Vocational Applications are Targets for Hybridization High Potential for Braking Energy Recovery 5/07 Michigan Clean Fleet Conference Vehicle Type

9 9 Targeting combustion engine operation at optimum BSFC points Ref: Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle System Panel

10 10 Ricardo, SIAT Jan 2011

11 11 Hybridization impact on conventional powertrain -Combustion engine selection (“downsized”) & operation (less transient”) Ref: DTF 3-08 Volvo “Hybridization” Transient Steady State Diesel Engine Operation

12 12 Combustion Engine “Downsizing” -Example (MB Citaro G)  Conventional:  12l, OM 457 LA  Hybrid:  4.8l, OM 924 LA  Compensation for torque & power  4 wheel hub electric motors,  60 kW continuous  80 kW peak rpm OM 457 LA OM 924 LA OM 457 LA OM 924 LA Mercedes Benz Website

13 13 Cost, Certification & OBD issues need to be resolved Navistar, HTUF 10/2009

14 14 HILS – Making its way into MD/HD Homologation Procedures J-MLIT at ACEA Mtg Dec.3, 2009: A Global Approach to Sustainable Freight Transport

15 15 Outlook: Waste Heat Recovery in combination with Hybrids “Integrated Powertrain and Vehicle Technologies for Fuel Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Reduction”, DDC, DEER 2009

16 16 Aftertreatment Design Considerations

17 17 Multiple drivers for aftertreatment requirements

18 18 A/T Impact of Hybridization on Freightliner M2 DPF Regeneration Interval increases Freightliner, HTUF 10/2009

19 19 A/T Impact of Hybridization on Freightliner M2 DPF Regeneration Interval increases Freightliner, HTUF 10/2009

20 20 Series Electric Class 8 Truck & City Bus w/ Range Extender -Freightliner Columbia (Parker-Artisane-Capstone), ZEM (Italy) Parker, HTUF 2010; Emissions are very low… aftertreatment likely not needed.

21 21 LD Example (Prius III, 1.8l ICE) -Intermittent ICE Operation, Lower exhaust gas temps & aggressive catalyst heating Umicore, 4/2010 Aggressive Catalyst Heating in Prius

22 22 Market dynamics

23 23 Class 6-8 Hybrid Truck Production: Hybrid Trucks to Set to Account for 8 Percent of Total Truck Production by 2015 (Frost & Sullivan, HTUF 10/’09)

24 24 Current offerings (NAFTA)

25 25 Hybridization Market Triggers  Fuel prices-some anticipate $4++(US)  CO2 regs-getting into place  Tax incentives-key to mitigate  Cost reduction-significant effort needed

26 26 Three areas that could affect A/T for the ICE ICE - Time frame Enabler A/T - Impact 1.Downsizing Short / Medium Serial Hybrid, High battery capacity Parallel Hybrid: medium potential Downsizing, NR: possible avoidance (kW-segment specific) 2. Modified ICE ops cycle Medium / Long Above and OE focused effort Functional shift Light-off, heat retention importance 3.Homologation / Certification Long Regulatory approaches, new cert cycles / limits Potential functional reduction

27 27 Heat Energy Recovery Approaches

28 28 Context: Engine based fuel economy levers Reduced pumping losses -intake -exhaust (e.g. A/T) Heat Energy Recovery Engine Hard/Software, NOx calibration, A/T Efficiency Stanton, Deer % Energy Flow B50 point of a 290kW engine, Behr, Wien 2009

29 29 Heat Energy Recovery ApproachesTurboChargingTurboCompounding Process Heat (e.g. Rankine Cycle) Thermoelectric Series production LD & HD Series production HDEmergingHDEmergingLD e.g on DC-7, Wright 3350 and later up to today on HD as well (CAT, Cummins, DAF, Hino, Scania, Volvo, DDC/DAG ) MAN’s Thermo Efficiency System, Marine & Stationary

30 30 BMW’s TEG in EGR Loop 4 cyl Diesel engine Ref: BMW, 5th Emission Control, Dresden, 6/10 TEG EGR Cooling Suggested to move to exhaust system location for higher recovery (500W rather than 100W on EGR)

31 31 Mechanical/Electrical Turbocompounding -extracting heat upstream of aftertreatment BSFC simulation data for from a “typical” heavy duty engine, >10ltrs and with emissions compliance DDC Mechanical Turbocompounder Bowman Industries, SAE ComVec 2009

32 32 Cummins Example -showing R245fa working fluid Cummins, SIAT Jan. 2011

33 33 Iveco Glider -Concept Vehicle Condensor Expander:Turbine Boiler Lastauto Omnibus 12/2010

34 34 Expander machines under consideration

35 35 R&D ongoing for expander machines  Turbine  High rpm speeds  Piston  e.g. Voith’s “Steam Expander”  2 cylinder, ~0.75l displacement  Rotary/Sliding Vane  Axial piston rotary  Considerations:  Expansion ratio  Ability to handle wet vapor (X<1), i.e. two-phase flow with droplets  Working fluid compatibility  GWP  other

36 36 Working Fluids under Consideration

37 37 Rankine Working Fluid candidates R245fa, Ethanol, Water, Water/Ethanol, other Choice based upon: Critical point Decomposition temperature Slope of saturated vapor line Environmental/Safety aspects other

38 38 Working fluids considerations  Chemical and physical characteristics  E.g. decomposition temperature  Achievable system pressure  cost for pumps, condensor, heat exchanger along with pressure level  Environmental considerations  GWP

39 39 Technologies emerging that will have an impact on aftertreatment design -> A/T industry needs to prepare for  Hybridization  ICE downsizing  Shift in operating points  Certification/Homologation procedures  Exhaust Heat Energy Recovery  New processes  Additional components  Weight  Space  Backpressure

40 40 Thank you for your kind attention! Questions are welcome!


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