Presentation on theme: "Fast SDP Relaxations of Graph Cut Clustering, Transduction, and Other Combinatorial Problems (JMLR 2006) Tijl De Bie and Nello Cristianini Presented by."— Presentation transcript:
Fast SDP Relaxations of Graph Cut Clustering, Transduction, and Other Combinatorial Problems (JMLR 2006) Tijl De Bie and Nello Cristianini Presented by Lihan He March 16, 2007
Outline Statement of the problem Spectral relaxation and eigenvector SDP relaxation and Lagrange dual Generalization: between spectral and SDP Transduction and side information Experiments Conclusions
Statement of the problem Data set S: Affinity matrix A: Objective: graph cut clustering -- divide the data points into two set, P and N, such that No label: clustering With some labels: transduction
Statement of the problem Normalized graph cut problem (NCut) where Cut cost How well the clusters are balanced Cost function:
Statement of the problem Normalized graph cut problem (NCut) Unknown label vector Let Write Rewrite the NCut problem as a combinatorial optimization problem NP-complete problem, the exponent is very high. (1)
Spectral Relaxation Let the problem becomes Relax the constraints by adding and dropping the combinatorial constraints on, we obtain the spectral clustering relaxation (2)
Spectral Relaxation: eigenvector Solution: the eigenvector corresponding to the second smallest generalized eigenvalue. Solve the constrained optimization by Lagrange dual: The second constraint is automatically satisfied:
SDP Relaxation Let the problem becomes Note that Relax the constraints by adding the above constraints and dropping and Letandwe obtain the SDP relaxation (3)
SDP Relaxation: Lagrange dual Lagrangian: We obtain the dual problem (strong dual is hold): (4) n+1 variables
Generalization: between spectral and SDP A cascade of relaxations tighter than spectral and looser than SDP where m+1 variables n constraintsm constraints, Looser than SDP Design the structure of W design how to relax the constraints
Generalization: between spectral and SDP rank(W)=n: original SDP relaxation. rank(W)=1: m=1, W=d: spectral relaxation. A relaxation is tighter than another if the column space of the matrix W used in the first one contains the full column space of W of the second. If choose d within the column space of W, then all relaxations in the cascade are tighter than the spectral relaxation. One approach of designing W proposed by the author: Sort the entries of the label vector (2 nd eigenvector) from spectral relaxation; Construct partition: m subsets are roughly equally large; Reorder the data points by this sorted order; W ~ n/m W=W= 1 … 1 1 … 1 1 … 1 … 12m …
Transduction Given some labels, written as label vector y t -- transductive problem Reparameterize Label constraints are imposed: L= ytyt 0 0I Labeled Unlabeled Rows (columns) corresponding to oppositely labeled training points then automatically are each other’s opposite; Rows (columns) corresponding to same-labeled training points are equal to each other.
Transduction Transductive NCut relaxation: n test +2 variables
General constraints An equivalence constraint between two sets of data points specifies that they belong to the same class; An inequivalence constraint specifies two set of data points to belong to opposite classes. No detailed label information provided.
Experiments 1. Toy problems Affinity matrix:
Experiments 2. Clustering and transduction on text Data set: 195 articles 4 languages several topics Affinity matrix: 20-nearest neighbor: A(i,j)= 1 0.5 0 Distance of two articles: cosine distance on the bag of words representation Define dictionary
Experiments 2. Clustering and transduction on text: cost By languageBy topic Spectral (randomized rounding) SDP (randomized rounding) Spectral (lower bound) SDP (lower bound) Cost: randomized rounding ≥ opt ≥ lower bound Cost Fraction of labeled data points
Experiments 2. Clustering and transduction on text: accuracy By languageBy topic Spectral (randomized rounding) SDP (randomized rounding) Accuracy Fraction of labeled data points
Conclusions Proposed a new cascade of SDP relaxations of the NP-complete normalized graph cut optimization problem; One extreme: spectral relaxation; The other extreme: newly proposed SDP relaxation; For unsupervised and semi-supervised learning, and more general constraints; Balance the computational cost and the accuracy.