Presentation on theme: "2.6.1 Initiatives for better land management 1 UPA Package 2, Module 6 BETTER LAND MANAGEMENT."— Presentation transcript:
2.6.1 Initiatives for better land management 1 UPA Package 2, Module 6 BETTER LAND MANAGEMENT
2.6.1 Initiatives for better land management 2 Land Policy Appropriates for consideration under land policy mentioned in the Bogor Declaration as follows: security of tenure access to credit land reform land titling resolution of issues relating to traditional or customary tenures provision of land for the poor, ethnic minorities and women land use and physical planning real property taxation prevention of land speculation and land disputes
2.6.1 Initiatives for better land management 3 Land Policy Land Policies for Growth and Poverty Reduction World Bank research report ‘ Land Policies for Growth and Poverty Reduction’ aims to strengthen the effectiveness of land policy in support of development and poverty reduction by setting out the results of recent research in a way that is accessible to a wide audience of policymakers.
2.6.1 Initiatives for better land management 4 Land Policy First, providing secure tenure to land can improve the welfare of the Poor, …the report discusses different mechanisms that can be used to promote tenure security, their advantages and disadvantages, and the ways in which they can fit into a broader development strategy.
2.6.1 Initiatives for better land management 5 Land Policy Second, facilitating the exchange and distribution of land, whether as an asset or for current services, at low cost, through markets as well as through non- market channels, is central to expediting land access by productive but land-poor producers and, once the economic environment is right, the development of financial markets that rely on the use of land as collateral. Third, governments have a clear role to play in promoting and contributing to socially desirable land allocation and utilization.
2.6.1 Initiatives for better land management 6 Land Policies for Growth and Poverty Reduction Land policies are at the root of social conflicts in countries as diverse as Cambodia and Colombia, Zimbabwe and Cote d'Ivoire. Political controversies, the complexity of land issues, and the fact that benefits of policy improvements accrue to people who are politically weak all hinder reform. As a result, festering land issues slow poverty reduction in many developing countries and sometimes lead to bloodshed.
2.6.1 Initiatives for better land management 7 Land Policies for Growth and Poverty Reduction A growing number of countries are successfully addressing land policy issues. The report shows that countries as diverse as China, Mexico, Thailand, Uganda, and some transition countries in Eastern Europe, have begun to address land policy issues in ways that benefit everybody. Although approaches vary, providing poor people secure tenure and facilitating land transactions are key.
2.6.1 Initiatives for better land management 8 Legal Framework For Land Acquisition, Occupation, And Use Cameroon The state in Cameroon is the guardian of all lands. There are four types of land tenure in Cameroon: Private Property, Public Property of the State, Private Property of the State and other public bodies, and National Land. This is a description the legal framework for obtaining free disposal of the lands necessary for the Land Easement in Cameroon. The principles of land tenure and private ownership according to Cameroonian law will be briefly outlined to provide a basis for obtaining the lands and compensation procedures.
2.6.1 Initiatives for better land management 9 National Slum Policy (Draft) India It was the first time such a policy was being framed since there was no integrated approach to the development of slums for India. The cities of India accounted for 75 per cent of the nation's slum population because of people migrating from rural areas for livelihood. The Government now wants to strengthen urban local bodies and ensure that they frame a policy for slums and involve all stakeholders in the development of slums. The main objectives of this policy are:
2.6.1 Initiatives for better land management 10 National Slum Policy (Draft) India 1. To integrate slum settlements and the communities residing within them into the urban area as a whole by creating awareness amongst the public and in Government of the underlying principles that guide the process of slum development and improvement and the options that are available for bringing about the integration.
2.6.1 Initiatives for better land management 11 National Slum Policy (Draft) India 2. To strengthen the legal and policy framework to facilitate the process of slum development and improvement on a sustainable basis. 3. To establish a framework for involving all stakeholders for the efficient and smooth implementation of Policy objectives.
2.6.1 Initiatives for better land management 12 Legal and Regulatory Framework A sustainable land management to development will most likely require the leadership of government and Legal and Regulatory Framework from government at different levels to ‘Provide legal security of tenure and equal access to land to all people, including women and those living in poverty. Ensure transparent, comprehensive and accessible systems in transferring land rights and legal security of tenure. Protect all people from and provide legal protection and redress for forced evictions that are contrary to law.
2.6.1 Initiatives for better land management 13 Land Administration The land administration perspective includes understanding the changing humankind-land relationship, land tenure issues such as native title, institutional and administrative issues such as the relationship between infrastructures and the business system they support, and technical issues such as those concerned with the use of the World Wide Web (WWW).
2.6.1 Initiatives for better land management 14 Land Administration Governments have a wide variety of tools available to implement their objectives of regulating land use within its boundaries. These include planning tools, zoning ordinances, building regulations and by-laws, permits, inspections and penalties.
2.6.1 Initiatives for better land management 15 Land Administration Governments should adopt a land policy approach and define their objectives and priorities on land ownership and use; and then formulate measures to marshal and coordinate their various activities in urban development and land use towards achieving these objectives.
2.6.1 Initiatives for better land management 16 Land Law And Justice Land law creates property rights in land and the ability to transfer those rights, but it also involves provisions of regulations that affect those rights, including environmental legislation; laws creating public rights in land and structuring the institutions that make allocation and other decisions with regard to public land, and laws enacted to facilitate the operation of property rights systems, such as land registration laws.
2.6.1 Initiatives for better land management 17 Decentralization and Cooperation It is common for governments at all levels to establish several specialized organizations for land development and management.
2.6.1 Initiatives for better land management 18 Decentralization As a Means to Improve Urban Land Management Deconcentration is defined as the transfer of national government staff to local administrative offices, while devolution implies the transfer of authority to municipalities. A decentralization process, which aims at improving the efficiency of the public sector, relies on a process of devolution.
2.6.1 Initiatives for better land management 19 The Integrated Urban Infrastructure Development Programme (IUIDP) Indonesia Until the mid-1980s, practically all urban infrastructure was planned by the national Government in Jakarta and implemented by their field offices. Typically, the programmes were neither coordinated within government agencies nor in response to the local needs. It was gradually realized that the system was inefficient and could not cope with the increased urbanization rates. A process of decentralizing the responsibilities for service provision and funding to municipal governments was included in the National Urban Development Strategy (NUDS).
2.6.1 Initiatives for better land management 20 The Integrated Urban Infrastructure Development Programme (IUIDP) Indonesia It was evident from the outset that very few municipalities, apart from for example Jakarta and Medan, had the capacity and capability to assume their new role. IUIDP aimed to fill the existing gap. IUIDP has so far covered water supply, sanitation, drainage, kampung improvement and urban roads. Other components will be included at a later stage. It has now been implemented in the entire country and the programme had covered 56 per cent of the urban population by the end of 1993.
2.6.1 Initiatives for better land management 21 The Integrated Urban Infrastructure Development Programme (IUIDP) Indonesia The IUIDP-programme provides cross-sectoral city- based planning, financial planning and capacity- building. In the implementation of the programme, the national Government works together with municipal offices in planning and implementing investment programmes to build local capacity through on-the-job training of local staff.
2.6.1 Initiatives for better land management 22 The Integrated Urban Infrastructure Development Programme (IUIDP) Indonesia The initial guidelines of IUIDP were adopted in 1985 but they have been improved and revised gradually based on operational experience. For example, a new emphasis on operations and maintenance was introduced on the basis of the experiences from eight cities. Moreover, the Indonesian Government has supported the PJMs as well as the financing and capacity-building plans in order to reinforce and institutionalize the process.
2.6.1 Initiatives for better land management 23 Developing Partnership Government And Community Cooperation The main advantages of Government and community cooperation are that (1) It enables direct participation and control by users in providing their own land and housing inexpensively; (2) It mobilizes the skills of the community and its financial resources; and (3) It mobilizes additional resources into the land and housing delivery system typically in an organized and efficient manner.
2.6.1 Initiatives for better land management 24 Partnerships for Poverty Alleviation in Cebu City Philippines Cebu City Government initiated the Cebu Urban Basic Services Programme in 1988 with the support of UNICEF, the Presidential Commission on the Urban Poor and the cooperation of several national government agency programmes as well local and national NGOs. The programme was expanded to address land tenure and housing improvement by the development of the Community Mortgage Programme in 1990. The establishment of the Local Government Code in 1992 greatly increased the autonomy and authority of city government and lays the foundation for institutionalization and replication of the Cebu poverty alleviation policies and programmes in other cities.
2.6.1 Initiatives for better land management 25 Public--private partnerships (PPPs) Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are seen by many countries as a way out of constituting a political ‘Third way’ in which the relative strengths of both sectors complement each other. Land pooling/readjustment, guided land development, participatory development projects and Requests for Proposals (RFPs), have been most widely adopted.
2.6.1 Initiatives for better land management 26 land pooling/readjustment (LP/R) It is designed to facilitate the consolidation of small land parcels under different owners for their planned development.This approach has been adopted in many parts of Asia, including Nepal, Japan, Korea, Thailand and Australia.
2.6.1 Initiatives for better land management 27 Guided Land Development An approach which has been applied particularly widely in Nepal and Pakistan. It consists of planning a development in collaboration with private developers, and allowing the residents to design and manage the construction of their own dwellings.
2.6.1 Initiatives for better land management 28 Requests for Proposals (RFPs) Under this approach, a local authority identifies a site suitable for development and prepares a brief which stipulates the mandatory components a developer will need to fulfill, plus a series of additional optional features which are considered desirable. Having prepared a brief, the development agency then invites proposals from the private sector, NGOs, land-owners or any combination of actors and the one which meets all the mandatory elements and the greatest number of additional features, wins the contract to develop the site. They have been widely adopted in the transition countries of Eastern Europe, such as Russia and Bulgaria, and are currently being adopted in Lesotho.