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Southeast Asia. Burma Thailand Laos Cambodia Vietnam Malaysia IndonesiaIndonesia Philippine East Timor Singapore Brunei Mainland Southeast Asia Insular.

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Presentation on theme: "Southeast Asia. Burma Thailand Laos Cambodia Vietnam Malaysia IndonesiaIndonesia Philippine East Timor Singapore Brunei Mainland Southeast Asia Insular."— Presentation transcript:

1 Southeast Asia

2 Burma Thailand Laos Cambodia Vietnam Malaysia IndonesiaIndonesia Philippine East Timor Singapore Brunei Mainland Southeast Asia Insular Southeast Asia

3 Introduction  Heavily influenced by external forces  cultural diversity Buddhism, Chinese immigrants, IslamBuddhism, Chinese immigrants, Islam European colonialismEuropean colonialism  Battleground for global ideologies after WWII Vietnam warVietnam war  Strongly felt globalization Promises: economic growth in the 1980sPromises: economic growth in the 1980s Perils: financial crisis in the late 1990sPerils: financial crisis in the late 1990s

4 Environmental Geography A Once-Forested Region

5 Mainland: delta landscape  large river systems Insular: volcanic eruption  located in 4 plate boundaries

6 Mainland Southeast Asia  Rugged uplands interspersed with river lowlands (delta) Mekong R. Red R. Irrawaddy R. Chayo Phraya

7 Insular Southeast Asia Borneo Sumatra Java Celebes (Sulawesi) New Guinea Sunda Shelf  Mountain spine created by a tectonic force  Large expanse of shallow ocean

8   Mainland  monsoon   Insular  monsoon, typhoon, equatorial effect  Monsoon: distinct dry and rainy season  changing wind direction  Typhoon: heavy rainfall to the northeastern reaches of Insular Asia  Equatorial effect: little seasonality, year-round precipitation

9  Difference in animal and plant life between western and eastern islands Western  Asian origin Eastern  Australian origin  12,000 years ago, the sea level was lower (last global ice age) Wallace’s Line

10  Pre-colonial period Agricultural settlement  Colonial period Plantation, shipbuilding  Post-colonial period Commercial logging by international firms  1990s Logging ban Deforestation of Southeast Asia


12 Population and Settlement Subsistence, Migrations, Cities

13 Settlement patterns  Unlike East Asia and South Asia, Southeast Asia has historically supported low population density  Why?  (1) Infertile soil  (2) Rugged mountains  Population is concentrated in deltas or volcanic islands due to its fertile soil

14 Mainland: heavily settled deltas Insular: heavily settled volcanic landscape

15 Upland swidden system  Shifting cultivation (“slash-and-burn”)  Threatened by growing population and commercial logging  Switched to a cash crop like opium (eg. Burma) Farming patterns (1):

16 Plantation agriculture  Specialty crops for exports during European colonization  Usually practiced in the coastal lowlands for shipping  Still widespread, but lesser dependence on plantation has been attempted Farming patterns (2):

17 Lowland rice cultivation  Lowland basins of mainland  Focused on three delta areas Irrawaddy (Burma) Chao Praya (Thailand) Mekong (Vietnam, Cambodia) Farming patterns (3):

18  High birthrate: Laos, Cambodia  low level of economic development  Low birthrate: Singapore, Thailand  high level of economic development, family planning  Still relatively rural despite recent industrialization

19 Indonesian transmigration  Relocating its population from densely populated area (Java) to outer islands  Pros: balanced population distribution pattern  Cons: environmental degradation, ethnic conflicts Population policy:

20 Urban settlement Bankok Manila Kuala Lumpur Singapore Overurbanization? Yes No

21 Cultural Coherence and Diversity A Meeting Ground of World Cultures

22  Meeting ground for cultural diffusion from South Asia – Hinduism, Buddhism, writing system China – Immigration of southern Chinese Middle East – Islam, writing system Europe – Christianity

23 External cultural influences 0 A.D. 20c13c12c19c BaliIndonesia Malaysia Mainland Philippines Tribal areas Chinese communities Hinduism Islam Theravada Buddhism Chinese immigration Christianity

24 Religion in Southeast Asia Buddhism mainland Islam insular Catholic Philippines Animism & Christianity in the uplands Hindu Bali

25 Chinese in Southeast Asia  Chinese communities all over Southeast Asia  Disproportionate prosperity of the local Chinese community

26 Language in Southeast Asia Burman Tai Mon-Khmer Austronesian Papuan

27 National language in Southeast Asia Burmese Thai Lao Vietnamese Khmer Malay Indonesian Filipino English National language is limited to the core area of densely populated lowlands in mainland (Burma, Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia)

28 Use of English in Southeast Asia  Widely spoken in the former British or U.S. colonies Philippine, Malaysia, Singapore, Burma  Ambivalent attitude towards the use of English Encouraged by pro-globalizers Discouraged by nationalists Emergence of hybrid tongue

29 Geopolitical Framework War, Ethnic Strife, and Regional Cooperation

30  Pre-colonial era Mainland: form political states Insular: lack political states  Colonial era Insular (16c~): Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch Mainland (19c~): British, French  After independence The former French Indochina became battleground for ideological rivalries

31 Colonial Southeast Asia Portuguese Spanish Dutch British French Insular Southeast Asia inherited territory from former colonial powers  U.S.  U.S.

32 Ideological rivalries in the former French Indochina  Battle against the French (1945 ~ 1954) Backed by pro-communist group  Vietnam War (1954 ~ 1975) Military conflict between communist forces of North Vietnam and non-communist forces of South Vietnam  Communist regimes (1975 ~) Installed in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos Persistent political instability

33 Conflicts in Indonesia  Transmigration triggers ethnic conflicts Javanese (Islam) immigrants  indigenous people  Ethnically/culturally distinct regions have called for autonomy or independence Geopolitical tensions (1): Irian Jaya E.Timor Became the 11 th sovereign states in Southeast Asia

34 Regional tensions in the Philippines  Muslim separatists in the southwest  Communist-oriented nationwide rebellion  Rebellion of tribal groups in northern Luzon Geopolitical tensions (2):

35 Ethnic conflict in Burma Geopolitical tensions (3):  Ethnic minorities  Military regime dominated by the Burmans  Insurgencies are often financed by drug trade (“Golden Triangle”)

36 Dispute over the Spratly Islands ChinaTaiwan Philippines Vietnam Malaysia Spratly islands Geopolitical tensions (4):

37 ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations)  Originally intended as a bulwark against the spread of Communism  With the end of Cold War, communist states are admitted  Political cooperation Prevent external influences in the region Promote regional stability  Economic cooperation Regional cooperation:

38 Economic and Social Development The Roller-Coaster Ride of Tiger Economies

39  Recent economic development Leaders: Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia Laggards: Philippines, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia  Economic crisis in the late 1990s Hit most of Southeast Asian countries Marked dependence on foreign investment

40  Singapore: Regional hub  Brunei: oil reserves  Malaysia, Thailand: globalized economic development  Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Burma: civil war

41 The Philippine Decline  Pronounced decline in living standards over the last several decades  Causes Crony capitalism Kleptocracy  Consequences Exodus of labor Uneven distribution of wealth

42 The Regional Hub: Singapore  The region’s greatest development success  Transformed from entropôt port city to high-tech industrial city  Communications and financial hub of Southeast Asia  Authoritarian capitalism Brought fast growth, but Limited civil liberties

43 The Malaysian Boom  The region’s second greatest development success  Development was initially concentrated in natural resource extraction, but recent growth is powered by high-tech sectors  Disparities of wealth Geographical: west > east Ethnic: Chinese > non-Chinese

44 Thailand: An Emerging Tiger?  Japanese companies was leading players in the earlier Thai boom Attracted by its low-waged, and well-educated population under political stability  Rapid growth under democratic government  Relatively receptive to globalization Sex industry

45 Persistent Poverty in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia  Attributed to Continual warfare or fightings (1941~1990s) Socialist economic system (1975 ~ 1990s) The fall of the Soviet Union (1991) Embargo imposed by U.S. (1975 ~ 1994)  Recent economic reforms in Vietnam Embrace market while retaining the political forms of a communist state

46 Southeast Asia’s global linkages

47  With the exception of Laos, Cambodia, and Burma, Southeast Asia has achieved relatively high level of social welfare

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