Presentation on theme: "VIETNAM WAR. Going to War in Vietnam December 1956 to 30 April 1975 in 1940 Japan invaded Vietnam From 1800s until WWII the French ruled Vietnam,"— Presentation transcript:
Going to War in Vietnam December 1956 to 30 April 1975 in 1940 Japan invaded Vietnam From 1800s until WWII the French ruled Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia (known as French Indochina) GROWTH OF VIETNAMESE NATIONALISM Nationalism became a powerful force in Vietnam Political parties pushed for independence …one leader Nguyen That Than…KNOWN as Ho Chi Minh He was forced to flee Indochina and returned in 1941 By then Japan seized control of the country He organized a nationalist party united with communist and non-communist party known as Vietminh to expel the Japanese. Soon after the U.S. began sending aide to the Vietminh
Ho Chi Minh
America Aids the French When japan surrendered to the Allies in 1945, gave up control of Indochina. Ho Chi Minh declared Vietnam’s independence. France did no want to lose control of Indochina France asked U.S. for help…U.S denied help…but later agreed because U.S. did not want Vietnam to become Communist President Eisenhower continued Truman’s policy and defended his decision with what became known as DOMINO THEORY. (the belief that if one nation in Asia fell to communism, neighbor countries would follow).
Defeat at Dien Bien Phu French forced fell to Vietnamese guerrilla Geneva Accords: provided temporary division of Vietnam along the 17 th parelle Ho Chi Minh controlled North Vietnam; pro-Western regime led by anti- communist (Ngo Dihn Diem) controlled the South. U.S. protected the South However in 1956…Diem renounced to hold free elections…U.S. increased forces in the South.
American Involvement Deepens Both sides became eventually Communist ….. In the South they organized a new guerrilla known as Vietcong. President Eisenhower sent army to south Vietnam but guerrilla continued to grow. President Kennedy increased the army from 2,000 to 15,000. Death of Diem: He became extremely unpopular… killing his own people and banned Buddhism (country’s religion) / Executed by his own people…after the country’s government weakened. After his death Kennedy was assassinated; President Johnson wanted to keep the entire country falling for communism. In 8/8/1964, Johnson announced that North Vietnam torpedo boats had fired on two U.S>d destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin. 2 days later he reported another attack and ordered American aircrafts to attack North Vietnam ships and naval facilities. U.S. and Vietnam were at war.
A Bloody Stalemate By the end of 1965 more than 180,00 U.S. combats troops were fighting in Vietnam. In 1966, the number doubled. Vietcong used ambushed, and a lot of guerrilla tactics. Chemical weapons American planes dropped napalm ( a jellied gasoline that explodes on contact) and Agent Orange (a chemical that strips leave from trees and shrubs, turning farmland and forest into wasteland)
Ho Chi Minh Trail In the Vietcong’s war effort, North Vietnamese support was a major factor. Although Vietcong included South and North Vietnam, North provided arms, weapons and advise. North Vietnam set arms and supplies south by the way of network of jungle paths known as the Ho Chi Minh Trail. The trail wound through Cambodia and Laos, by passing the border between North and South North Vietnam received weapons and other support from the Soviet Union and China. Vietnam led the war by bombing American planes and killing thousand of soldiers.
Section 2 : Vietnam divides the Nation In 1965 about 65% of Americans approved of the War by the end the # decrease! In March 1965 a group of “teach-in” (faculty members and students from the University of Michigan) discussed issues surrounding the war and affirmed opposition. People opposed to war in different ways….some saw the war as conflict as a civil war in which the US should not intervene ….others saw South Vietnam as a corrupt dictatorship and believed defensing it was immoral. As the war escalated, an increase draft call put many college students at risk of being drafted. An estimated of 500,000 draftees refused to go. From officials prosecuted about 3,000 Americans who refused to serve. in 1971 the 26 th Amendment to the Constitution was ratified…giving all citizen age of 18 years the right to vote in state and national elections (that way their names could entered in a draft) Most African Americans in Vietnam did not agree with the war….thinking “why to defend other country’s right when ours are not recognized”) (EOC Question)
U.S. Divided … Haws, wanted the nation to star and fight Doves wanted the U.S. to leave Vietnam.
1968: THE PIVOTAL YEAR On January 30, 1968 during Tet (Vietnam new year), the Vietcong and North Vietnam launched a massive surprise attack….called Test Offensive. After a month of fighting, US and Vietnam soldiers repelled the enemy troops, inflicting heavy losses on them. The Americans were shocked that an enemy supposedly on the verge of defeat could launch such a massive attack. The media openly criticized the war. Pres. Johnson and the war became very unpopular he did not seek another presidential term President June 5, 1968… Dr. Martin Luther King Assassinated…………… A YEAR OF VIOLENCE!!!!
WAR WINDS DOWN Nixon appointed Henry Kissinger as special assistant for national security affairs. He proposed the idea of linkage (improve relations with the Soviets Union and China, to try to persuade them to reduce their aid to North Vietnam) Nixon began VIETNAMIZATION. This process involved gradual withdraw of U.S. troops while the South assumed more of the fighting He announced the withdraw of 25,000 soldiers on June 8, 1969 but however ta the same time increased the air strikes against North Vietnam and began secretly bombing Vietcong sanctuaries in neighboring Cambodia. In April 1970 Nixon announced that American troops had invaded Cambodia to destroy Vietcong….many believed this invasion expanded the war and set off protest which led to the death of civilians.
An angry Congress began to work to end the president’s control of the war. In December 1970 Congress repealed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution which gave complete power to the president to control the war. the following year, a former employee of the depart. Of Defense, Daniel Ellsberg, leaked what became known as Pentagon Papers to the New York Times. These documents contained details about decisions to expand the war, and confirmed what many Americans had long believed: the government had not been honest with them. However, Nixon won reelection again in 1972; the same year Nixon administration began the most destructive air raids of the war….known as Christmas Bombing. (lasted 11 days) On January 27, 1973 the warring sides promised to end the war and restore the peace in Vietnam. US promised to withdraw its troops in exchange for American prisoners of war.
The Domino Effect Peace did not last 1975 Cambodia felt in to control of communist group Khmer Rouge (BUT NIXON RESIGNED IN AUGUIST 1974 DUE TO THE WATERGATE SCANDAL) Therefore, President Ford asked Congress to aid South Vietnam AGAIN but Congress denied… year later North Vietnam captured the capital of South Vietnam and renamed the city Ho Chi MinhCity. Also expanded to Laos and other countries…….the DOMINO EFFECT played out as predicted.
The War’s Human Toll 1 million Vietnamese soldiers died (north and South) 58,000 young American and some 300,000 injured. The war remained unresolved for the American families whose relatives and friends were classified as prisoners of war (POWs) or missing in action (MIA). Congress passed in 1973 WAR POWERS ACT: the act required the rpesidnet to inform Congress of any commitment of troops abroad within 48 hours, and to withdraw in 60 to 90 days, unless Congress approved the commitment..