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Southeast Asia and Oceania That’s a lot of islands.

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1 Southeast Asia and Oceania That’s a lot of islands

2 Southeast Asia Located on the equator: Almost entire region falls within the humid tropics. Archipelago of about 25,000 islands Population: 610 million Southeast Asia is conventionally divided into two cultural, linguistic, and geographic regions: Mainland Southeast Asia - the countries of Thailand, Laos, Burma, Cambodia and Vietnam; Insular (Island) Southeast Asia - the island or peninsular countries of Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, the Philippines, East Timor

3 Mainland Southeast Asia Half of 11 countries are on mainland Vietnam Cambodia Thailand Laos Myanmar part of Malaysia Laos only country without coastline Most countries on Indochina Peninsula Malaysia shares Malay Peninsula with Thailand as well as occupying part of Borneo

4 Insular Southeast Asia Insular = island Brunei-almost surrounded by Malaysia East Timor-1999 became independent of Indonesia Indonesia-largest island country with 13,677 islands (only 6,000 are named and only 1,000 settled) Singapore-just south of Malay Peninsula Philippines-11 islands have 95% land area (900 of 7,000 islands named)

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6 Indonesia Regional setting From the Greek Indos (India) and Nesos (Island), literally the “Indian Islands.” 17,000 islands: About 6,000 inhabited. Longest coastline in the world. Three time zones. Coastal zones supports approximately 60% of the population. Controls two strategic straits: Sunda and Malacca. Through which much of the world’s oil traffic must pass. Volcanism Intense volcanic and seismic activity. 300 volcanoes of which 200 have been historically active

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8 Indonesia: Core and Periphery Core Periphery More than 200 people per sqr km Inner islands (Java, Madura and Bali) Fertile land due to volcanic origin and monsoon (among the most fertile land in the world). 80% of the population on 7% of the land. Mostly Javanese. Outer islands (Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Irian Jaya) 20% of the population on 93% of the land. Most of the minorities. Sparsely populated but abundant in resources.

9 Mountains and Volcanoes Dominate landscape Most peaks below 10,000 feet Create geographical and political barriers Western and northern highlands separate region from India and China Three ranges run north to south Arakan Yoma Range in western Myanmar Bilauktaung Rnage between Myanmar and Thailand Annam Cordillera separating Vietnam from Laos and Cambodia Island mountains form part of Ring of Fire Indonesian and Philippine islands marked by craters Mineral-rich volcanic material breaks down and leaves rich, fertile soil, making Southeast Asia highly productive agricultural area

10 Volcanoes of Indonesia and the Philippines 327 volcanoes stretch across Indonesia Java, home to 17 of Indonesia's 100 active volcanoes, is one of Ring of Fire's most active areas 1883 eruption of Krakatau destroyed everything now monitor volcanic activity to be prepared 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo 20th century's most powerful 55 miles north of Philippine capital Manila damaged town of Angeles foot deep layer of ash over U.S. Clark Air Force Base

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12 Tectonic Activity in Indonesia Eurasian Plate Australian Plate Philippines Plate Australian Plate

13 Mainland Southeast Asia External influences Have been stronger than internal influences. China brought civilization and technology (early history). India brought religion (Hinduism and Buddhism). Middle Eastern countries brought Islam and trade. Europe brought trade and colonialism. USA and Japan brought imperialism (at different levels): Recently brought trade and development. Indochina Often used to define the region. Hint at the strong historical Chinese and Indian influence. Notably refers to the former French colonies of Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos.

14 Bali, Fiji, and Tahiti

15 Rivers Waterways for transportation, communication, and food Silt and deposits of sediment create fertile agricultural regions Mainland rivers originate in northern highlands and flow south to Gulf of Thailand Irrawaddy in Myanmar Chao Phraya in Thailand Red in Vietnam Mekong between Thailand and Laos and through Cambodia and Vietnam before emptying into South China Sea, where it adds 50 feet/year to shoreline from sediment Island rivers shorter and flow in various directions Indonesian rivers flow south to north Borneo's rivers flow from center outward

16 Agriculture Two main types in SE Asia Slash and Burn Located in upland areas Slash forest and burn before rainy season Rain washed nutrients into ground Grows for 1-2 years then must abandon plot for years Wet Rice Agriculture Must dramatically change land Must build terraces and irrigation canals Nutrients provided by algae in water Very labor intensive, but can yield two crops a year

17 Mainland Southeast Asia: Thailand Profile The “Land of the free”: Never colonized by European powers. The core along the Chao Phrya Valley. Access to the Indian (Gulf of Bengal) and Pacific (Gulf of Thailand) oceans. 62 million population: Thai 75%, Chinese 14%, other 11%. Buddhist 94.4%, Islam 4%, Hindu 1.1%, Christian 0.5%. Muslims minority in the south (along the Malaysia border). Bangkok Chao Phrya Valley Gulf of Thailand Indian Ocean

18 Mainland Southeast Asia: Vietnam Geographical setting Coastal plain along the South China Sea with a population of 78 million. Stands for “People of the south”. Two major deltas: the Red River (Song Koi) and Mekong. Natural penetration corridor towards China. Only 5% of the territory is mountainous. The south is more fertile. Most minerals resources in north. Government still one-party communist-ish, but opened up to free markets Hanoi Ho Chi Min City (Saigon) Red River Delta Mekong River Delta Annamite Chain

19 Economies Variety of political, economic and cultural landscapes Least advanced economies of the region: Laos, Cambodia and Burma. Emerging nations: Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand. The leader: Singapore. Phnom Phem and Singapore

20 Oceania Australia, New Zealand, and surrounding islands

21 Geography of Australia World’s smallest continent/largest island; 6 th largest country Western half: plateau rising to mountains Eastern half: Great Artesian Basin, rising to Great Dividing Range in East Outback in the middle; covers 70% of Continent Tasmania: large, mountainous island to southeast

22 Size Comparison

23 The Outback Any area outside of urban zones is known as “the bush” in Australia; more remote areas are called “outback” Used for tourism, agriculture, and mining

24 Ayers Rock (Uluru) Sacred spot to indigenous people home to a plethora of springs, waterholes, rock caves and ancient paintings Known for changing colors during the day/year

25 New Zealand 900 miles East of Australia Mostly forests, sharp mountain peaks (Southern Alps) due to convergence of plates Queen of England is the head of state, she appoints a Governor- General to act for her in NZ at the recommendation of the Prime Minister Wool is major export Known for unusual birds

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