Presentation on theme: "Cambodia’s Initial National Communication to the UNFCCC Prepared for the Eighth Conference of the Parties (CoP-8) Presented by Mr. Ung Seng, Director of."— Presentation transcript:
Cambodia’s Initial National Communication to the UNFCCC Prepared for the Eighth Conference of the Parties (CoP-8) Presented by Mr. Ung Seng, Director of the Minister’s Cabinet Ministry of Environment Kingdom of Cambodia Ministry of Environment
STRUCTURE OF THE PRESENTATION 1. Introduction 2. National Circumstances 3. National Greenhouse Gas Inventory for 1994 4. Greenhouse Gas Projection 5. Analysis of Climate Change Mitigation 6. Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment 7. Government Plans, Policies and Measures 8. Research and Systematic Observation 9. Education, Training and Public Participation 10. Financial Resources, Technology Transfer and Capacity Building 11. Problem/Constrains
Cambodia ratified the UNFCCC on 18 December 1995. The UNFCCC entered into force on 17 March 1996 The National Communication was prepared with support from the UNDP/GEF-sponsored Cambodia's Climate Change Enabling Activity Project (CCEAP) in collaboration with other concerned agencies UNDP/GEF’s financial supports for preparation of National Communication was US$325,480 Ministry of Environment is the National Focal Point of the UNFCCC and the implementing agency of the CCEAP 1. Introduction
The three-year CCEAP project started in January 1999 with the objective of assisting Cambodia in preparing its First National Communication in response to the UNFCCC Preparation of the Initial National Communication is the first step taken by the government in the actual implementation of the UNFCCC in Cambodia The Initial National Communication of Cambodia consists of the following chapters: (1) National’s Circumstances; (2) GHG inventory for 1994; (3) GHG projection and Mitigation analysis; (4) Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment; (5) Government Plans, Policy and Measures; (6) Research and Systematic Observation; (7) Education, Training and Public Participation; and (8) Financial Resources, Technology Transfer and Capacity Building. 1. Introduction (cont.)
2. National Circumstances Geography: located in Southeast Asia between latitudes 10 0 and 15 0 N and longitudes 102 0 and 108 0 E, total area of 181,035 km 2. Climate: governed by monsoon and characterized by two major seasons: rainy and dry season. The annual average temperature is 28 o C, with a maximum average of 38 o C in April, and a minimum average of 17 o C in January. Population: 8.60 million in 1990; 9.87 million in 1994; and 11.44 million in 1998. The annual growth rate for 1998 is 2.49%. The urban population contributed 15.7% of the total population of Cambodia. In 1998, 36% of the population lived below the poverty line. Human Health: the direct impact of the climate on human health is significant. Malaria and dengue fever are the two most important mosquito-borne diseases, which are found in Cambodia.
2. National Circumstances (cont.) Political and Decision-Making Structure: A constitutional monarchy (the King is the Head of State who reigns but does not govern). The country has a democratic multi-party system. The Prime Minister is the head of the government. Natural Resources: Cambodia’s natural resource wealth lies in the rivers and lakes, the terrestrial and inundated forests, the inland and coastal fisheries, pockets of volcanic soils and gemstones (the sapphire-ruby-zircon gems of Pailin). Water Resources: Cambodia is rich in water resources: the Mekong River and the Tonle Sap system. The Mekong is the twelfth longest river in the world. The central part of Cambodia is occupied by the Tonle Sap lake which is an overflow system of the Mekong River.
2. National Circumstances (cont.) Forests: Dryland and edaphic forests. Dryland forests consist of evergreen, coniferous, deciduous, mixed, and secondary forests, whereas edaphic forests include flooded forest, flooded secondary and mangrove. In 1998, total area of forests was about 58% of total country’s land area. The total protected area is 18% of the country’s area. Biodiversity: 130 species of mammals, more than 600 species of birds, more than 2,300 vascular plants and an unknown number of reptiles and amphibians. Agriculture: provides direct employment to approximately 80% of the labor force. Agricultural land is 4,079,464 ha in 1994. Rice is the staple food.
2. National Circumstances (cont.) Energy. Cambodia uses relatively little commercial energy per person: 44 kg of oil equivalent per capita for 1994. The country imports 100% of the required petroleum products from countries in the region (about 415.67 kilotonnes in 1994). Woodfuel and other biomass are the major energy sources for cooking for Cambodian people, especially in rural areas (over 85% of the total national energy supply in 1994).
2. National Circumstances for 1994 (cont.) Table 1: General information on National Circumstances
3. National Greenhouse Gas Inventory for 1994 Base year for the inventory is 1994 The preparation of the inventory is based on the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines Activity data: some are available from government ministries Emission factors: default data from the IPCC Guidelines were mainly used. No local emission factors exist The inventory covers three main greenhouse gases (GHGs): carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) The GHG emission and removal were estimated for 5 major sectors: Energy, Industrial Processes, Agriculture, Waste, and LUCF.
3. National Greenhouse Gas Inventory for 1994 (cont.) Table 2: Summary of 1994 Cambodia’s GHG emission and uptake (Gg)
3. National Greenhouse Gas Inventory for 1994 (cont.) Figure 1: (a) Share of the Three Main GHGs; (b) Total CO 2 Equivalent Emissions by Sectors (a) (b)
The projection of GHG emissions was done for the energy, agriculture, wastes and LUCF. The industrial process was not taken into account for the projection due to unavailability of data. The projection indicated that in 2000 Cambodia was already a net emitter of GHGs with approximately 6,244 Gg of CO 2 -eqv. of GHG emissions. In 2020, the net emissions would increase to approximately 43,848 Gg of CO 2 -eqv. LUCF would remain the main source of emissions (63.0%), followed by agriculture (27.5%) and energy (9.0%). 4. Greenhouse Gas Emission Projection
Reduction of GHG is not mandatory for Cambodia. However, many government activities and measures have already contributed to the global efforts to limit GHG emissions and develop GHG sinks (eg., forest protection and reforestation). Three main sectors were taken into account for analysis: (1) Energy and transport, (2) LUCF, and (3) Agriculture Some options were evaluated and identified: Energy and transport sector: Combined cycle gas turbine Hydropower Phnom Penh city shuttles Improve cook stove Compact fluorescent Mass transit for rural areas 5. Analysis of Climate Change Mitigation
Forestry sector: Five mitigation options were evaluated under each scenario using COMAP (Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process model): forest protection (FP); reforestation with short rotation (RSR); reforestation with long rotation (RLR); reforestation without rotation using fast (RFG); and slow growing species. 5. Analysis of Climate Change Mitigation (cont.)
Agriculture sector: The mitigation options evaluated for the agriculture sector only covered rice paddies: intermittent irrigation applied to dry season rice; direct seeded applied in both dry and wet seasons; organic matter management applied for both seasons; and zero tillage applied in both seasons. 5. Analysis of Climate Change Mitigation (cont.)
The assessment was conducted for four sectors: (1) agriculture (rice production), (2) forestry, (3) human health, and (4) coastal zone. Proposed adaptation measures Agriculture: Improvement of genetic or development of new high yielding varieties Improvement of crop management and cultural practices Development of capacity to adapt to current extreme climate such as development of early warning system Development of irrigation facilities Diversification of food crops. 6. Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment
Proposed adaptation measures Forestry: Forest plantation establishment Conservation of protected area Establishment of appropriate legal framework, policies, and procedures for planning, management, monitoring, enforcement, and community participation in protected areas Improvement of forest resource management. Human health (malaria): Control measures with focus on the reduction of malaria mortality and morbidity through early diagnosis and treatment of the disease Programs for health education with focus on the most critical causes of disease: watercourses and containers where mosquitoes breed and personal habits Improvement of general education to diminish malaria incidents. 6. Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment (cont.)
Proposed adaptation measures Coastal zone: Develop a strategic response measures to sea level rise for the coastal areas Investigate further potential impacts of sea level rise on biogeophysical, socio-economy, marine resources, freshwater, infrastructure, human settlements, and agricultural production Formulate a comprehensive adjustment and mitigation policy for sea level rise in the context of integrated coastal zone management Develop computer-based information systems covering the results of surveys, assessments and observations to minimize the impact of sea level rise Increase public awareness on the effect of sea level rise on Cambodia’s coast. 6. Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment (cont.)
Legal and Policy Frameworks Institutional Framework Programmes/Plans Related to Sustainable Development International Conventions World Heritage Sites Climate Change Policy. 7. Government Plans, Policies and Measures
Data Collection and Monitoring: - Meteorology and Hydrology - Land Use Change and Forest Cover Data - Agricultural Data - Census Data. Research - Climate Research - Donor Support to Environment and Natural Resource Research - NGO Support to Research in the Environment Sector. 8. Research and Systematic Observation
Education and training specifically relating to climate change is still limited General courses relating to climate change, air pollution & climate change issues, global warming, ozone layer depletion, and acid ozone layer depletion, and acid rf universities So far, there have been no researches on climate change related issues in Cambodia beside CCEAP MoE, a number of NGOs and local media have been organizing various programmes to promote better understanding among the general public and policy makers about environment which also includes climate change 9. Education, Training and Public Participation
Financial Resources Donor Support to Climate Change Activities Technology Transfer: - Domestic barries to technology transfer; - External barries to technology transfer; Capacity Building. 10. Financial Resources, Technology Transfer and Capacity Building
Preparation of the First National Communication is the first-ever climate change-related project in Cambodia, no previous experiences Relatively low technical capacity of local staff Lack of local data/information and local emission factors for GHG inventory Language barrier Limited budget Lack of relevant experts available in the country Research activities related to climate change are very limited. 11. Problem/constrains