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1961 – 1974 Chapter 29. Indochina was a French colony Heavily taxed, harsh rule, mercantilism During WWII, Japanese undermined French rule War began for.

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Presentation on theme: "1961 – 1974 Chapter 29. Indochina was a French colony Heavily taxed, harsh rule, mercantilism During WWII, Japanese undermined French rule War began for."— Presentation transcript:

1 1961 – 1974 Chapter 29

2 Indochina was a French colony Heavily taxed, harsh rule, mercantilism During WWII, Japanese undermined French rule War began for Vietnamese independence Led by Ho Chi Minh w/ Soviet support Cold War: so Truman supported France May 1954, France agreed to independence at Geneva Accords which divided Vietnam Agreed after horrible loss at Dien Bien Phu North Vietnam – Communist gov’t – Ho Chi Minh South Vietnam – non- Communist – US backed

3 Truman sent $2.6 Billion to support French Eisenhower sent weapons & economic aid “Domino Theory” SEATO Kennedy added military “advisors” Johnson 1 st sent non-combat troops Nixon expanded war into Cambodia & Laos Ford was president for the end Carter granted pardon for draft dodgers, 1977

4 Leader: Ngo Din Diem Strong nationalist, anticommunist, Catholic, corrupt Alienated predominately Buddhist population Led to Buddhist Anti-Diem demonstrations Also refused to make needed land reforms Diem only remained in power because of US support of Army of the Republic of S.V. - ARVN Refused to participate in 1956 elections called for by Geneva Accords National Liberation Front (NLF) – S. V. group determined to unite as communists  Vietcong

5 Nov 2, 1963 – Diem assassinated during coup Later revealed US plotted w/ S.V. generals in coup Nov 22, 1963 JFK assassinated  Pres Johnson August 1964, USS Maddox fired upon by N. V. while patrolling in Tonkin Gulf – was NOT hit Johnson ordered airstrikes to retaliate & asked Congress to authorize use of force Gulf of Tonkin Resolution – granted by Congress “to take all necessary measures…” – gave broad war powers to the President Never had to ask for war declaration

6 Could not tell who was on which side! Geography – mainly rainforests & jungle = hot! Rice paddies, mountains Agent Orange & napalm – ecological devastation Later - caused birth defects & cancer Fighting style – guerrilla warfare Ho Chi Minh’s “Tiger” – traveled light, tunnels, mines, sabotage/ booby traps Morale – got worse as war dragged on And after draft was instituted Result: Quagmire! Or officially a stalemate

7 Secretary of Defense - Robert McNamara General William Westmoreland – Commander Operation Rolling Thunder – sustained bombing campaign targeting N. V. & Vietcong Aim to stop N.V. from reinforcing the Vietcong “Ho Chi Minh Trail” ‘65-’73 – dropped 6 million tons of bombs Ground troops defended bases & staged raids on enemy targets Relied heavily on helicopters “Huey” (Bell UH-1) US strategies did not work well

8 We had expected a quick victory War expenditures weakened LBJ’s Great Society plans especially fight poverty & help education Also added to rising prices, inflation, & more taxes Antiwar Movement – had been there from start But grew as war grew Hawks vs. Doves Even in Congress J. William Fulbright, Chair Senate Foreign Relation Cmt. “Living Room war” – Walter Cronkite, CBS Credibility Gap grew w/ increased reporting

9 1.5 million men drafted during the Vietnam War Criticism of Selective Service System Deferments – postponements granted for various reasons College, specific jobs Disproportional numbers of draftees were from working-class and poor backgrounds – 76% Also percentages were high for numbers of African Americans being killed in Vietnam 20% of total combat deaths Dr. King spoke out against added war burden

10 Stop the Draft week in Oct 1967 Some burned their draft cards at protests Draft Dodgers – men who fled to Canada to avoid the draft Colleges became centers for protests Both professors & students **realize more were entering college than ever before – 8 million in 1970, up from 2 million in ’46 Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) Est. 1960 at U of Michigan, Sit-ins, teach-ins, “We won’t Go” petitions

11 1964 – University officials announced that antiwar protests could not happen on campus Free Speech Movement – formed to protest decision Sit-in at Sproul Hall, very orderly  800 were arrested Others then cut classes to march with FSM University changed policy Led to other similar movements at other campuses

12 Turning Point of the War Named for Vietnamese lunar new year Began w/ N.V. attack on Khe Sanh in NW Grew to coordinated attacks on 36 provincial capitals and 5 major cities Including Saigon & on the US embassy Technically, US & S.V. repelled the offensive, but proved that N.V. had the greater will to continue The end of the War was nowhere in sight New Sec of Defense Clark Clifford advised LBJ

13 Republicans: Richard Nixon, George Romney Democrats: Eugene McCarthy – MN Senator Robert Kennedy – NY Senator - assassinated Both campaigned that the war had hurt US & drained resources Hubert Humphrey – LBJ’s VP Johnson surprised everyone & announced he would not run for re-election Democrats’ Convention in Chicago marked by protests & violent clashes w/ police & Guard Remember, Dr. King also assassinated in 1968

14 Publically said he would draw back the war “peace with honor” Peace talks had begun in May 1968 Vietnamization – ARVN gradually replace US troops w/ US aid to help them In secret, authorized bombings in Cambodia N. V. & the Vietcong seized more of Cambodia, US felt obligated to try to support Phnom Penh, capital Sent $$ & supplies to the Cambodians as they fought off the Khmer Rouge Nixon announced invasion of Cambodia on TV

15 News of Cambodia caused more protests Nixon believed the protestors were a small minority & called on the “silent majority” to support him Kent State, Ohio, May 1970 National Guard sent in after building burned May 4 th, students threw rocks at the Guard Guard shot & killed 4 students Days of protests around country Jackson State, Miss – 2 students died

16 March 1968, Lt. William Calley’s unit opened fire on suspected Vietcong at My Lai village Ended up killing 400-500 unarmed civilians Military botched the investigation “Life” magazine published photos March of 1971, Calley’s court martial Maintained he was “following orders” Testimony included that some did not shoot, & one had tried to stop the massacre Convicted of murder, life in prison, released in ‘74 Shocked Americans & added to antiwar feelings

17 New York Times published these in 1971 Classified document of the history of US involvement in Vietnam Revealed that US leaders acted in Vietnam without fully informing the public & even lied to Congress One of the authors, Daniel Ellsberg leaked it Nixon tried to block its publication New York Times v. United States Side note: Nixon created the “Plumbers” to find & fix these “leaks”

18 North Vietnam & US signed cease – fire Initial peace of Oct 1972 had fallen apart  election US agreed to remove all troops from S. V. Would still give economic & military aid N. V. agreed to release all US POWs - 550 Worked to a certain point 1975 – N. V. again invaded S. V. April 1975, Saigon fell to the Communists Helicopters rescued US officials from Embassy & some S. V. citizens Images became symbol of the lost war

19 58,000 US killed/ 300,000 wounded Cost to US = $150 Billion 2 million Vietnamese died Khmer Rouge’s genocide = 2 million Cambodians killed or died in work camps Vietnam later fought Khmer Rouge (supported by China & US!) War Powers Act passed – requires the President to explain to Congress w/in 48 hrs whenever US troops were sent into a foreign country Caused enormous distrust of the US gov’t

20 2.5 million served in Vietnam Returned home to mixed reactions Few parades Also returned w/ physical & psychological ailments Revealed how badly POWs had been treated “Hanoi Hilton” Search for MIAs continues – 1994 end of trade embargo supposed to help w/ recovery 1982 – Vietnam War Memorial opened in Washington DC “Born on the Fourth of July”

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