Presentation on theme: "Modern Asian History chapter 12, sections 4-5 Chapter 13, sections 1-2 Chapter 16, sections 3-4-5 Chapter 21, sections 1-2-3-4 Chapter 22, section 1."— Presentation transcript:
1Modern Asian History chapter 12, sections 4-5 Chapter 13, sections 1-2 Chapter 16, sections Chapter 21, sections Chapter 22, section 1 Honors Non-Western Studies Mr. Tumino
2The Sepoy Rebellion: Causes and Effects The British East India Company:required sepoys, or Indian soldiers in its service, to serve anywhere, including overseas, which violated Hindu religious lawpassed a law allowing Hindu widows to marry, which undermined Hindu beliefsordered the sepoys to bite off cartridges made of animal fat when loading their rifles, which violated both Hindu and Muslim religious lawThe sepoys brutally massacred British men, women, and children.The British took terrible revenge, slaughtering thousands of unarmed Indians.Both sides were left with a bitter legacy of fear, hatred, and mistrust.The British put India directly under British rule, sent more troops to India, and taxed Indians to pay for the cost of the occupying forces.
3British Colonial RuleAfter 1858, Parliament set up a system of colonial rule in India.The British built roads and an impressive railroad network.The British flooded India with machine-made textiles, ruining India’s once-prosperous hand-weaving industry.Britain transformed Indian agriculture.Better health care and increased food production led to rapid population growth. Over-population led to terrible famines.The British revised the Indian legal system.British rule brought peace and order to the countryside.Upper-class Indians sent their sons to British schools.
5Different Views on Culture During the Age of Imperialism, Indians and British developed different views of each other’s culture.INDIAN ATTITUDESBRITISH ATTITUDESSome educated Indians were impressed by British power and technology and urged India to follow a western model of progress. Other Indians felt the answer to change lay with their own Hindu or Muslim cultures.Most British knew little about Indian achievements and dismissed Indian culture with contempt. A few British admired Indian theology and philosophy and respected India’s ancient heritage.
6Indian NationalismThe British believed that western-educated Indians would form an elite class which would bolster British rule. As it turned out, exposure to European ideas had the opposite effect. By the late 1800s, western-educated Indians were spearheading a nationalist movement. In 1885, nationalist leaders organized the Indian National Congress. Its members looked forward to eventual self-rule, but supported western-style modernization. In 1906, Muslims formed the Muslim League to pursue their own goals, including a separate Muslim state.
7The Trade IssuePrior to the 1800s, Chinese rulers placed strict limits on foreign traders. China enjoyed a trade surplus, exporting more than it imported. Westerners had a trade deficit with China, buying more from the Chinese than they sold to them. In 1842, Britain made China accept the Treaty of Nanjing, the first in a series of “unequal treaties” that forced China to make concessions to western powers. China paid a huge indemnity to Britain. The British gained the island of Hong Kong. China had to open five ports to foreign trade and grant British citizens in China extraterritoriality.
8Internal Problems By the 1800s, the Qing dynasty was in decline. Irrigation systems and canals were poorly maintained, leading to massive flooding of the Huang He valley.The population explosion that had begun a century earlier created a terrible hardship for China’s peasants.An extravagant court, tax evasion by the rich, and widespread official corruption added to the peasants’ burden.The civil service system was rocked by bribery scandals.Between 1850 and 1864, peasants took part in the Taiping Rebellion, the most devastating revolt in history.
9Reform EffortsIn the 1860s, reformers launched the “self-strengthening movement” in an effort to westernize and modernize China. The movement made limited progress because the government did not rally behind it. After China was defeated in the Sino-Japanese War, Emperor Guang Xu launched the Hundred Days of Reform. Conservatives soon rallied against the reform effort and the emperor was imprisoned.
10Imperialism in China to 1914 5Imperialism in China to 1914
11Fall of the Qing Dynasty As the century ended, anger grew against foreigners in China.In the Boxer Rebellion, angry Chinese attacked foreigners across China. In response, western powers and Japan crushed the Boxers.Defeat at the hands of foreigners led China to embark on a rush of reforms.Chinese nationalists called for a constitutional monarchy or a republic.When Empress Ci Xi died in 1908, China slipped into chaos.In 1911, the Qing dynasty was toppled.Sun Yixian was named president of the new Chinese republic. Sun wanted to rebuild China on “Three Principles of the People”: nationalism, democracy, and economic security for all Chinese.
12Events Leading Up to the Meiji Restoration By the 1800s, discontent simmered throughout Japan.The government responded by trying to revive old ways.The United States forced Japan to grant trading rights and forcedunequal treaties on Japan.Some Japanese strongly criticized the shogun for not taking a strong stand against the foreigners. Foreign pressure deepened the social and economic unrest.Discontented daimyo and samurai overthrew the shogun and “restored” the emperor to power. The Meiji restoration, which lasted from 1868 to 1912, was a major turning point in Japanese history.
13Reforms Under the Meiji 1Reforms Under the MeijiThe Meiji reformers wanted to replace the rigid feudal order with a completely new political and social system and to build a modern industrial economy.ECONOMIC REFORMSGOVERNMENTSOCIAL CHANGEAdopted the German model of governmentSet forth the principle that all people were equal under the lawEstablished a western-style bureaucracyUsed western technology to strengthen the militaryEnded the special privilege of samuraiEncouraged Japan’s business class to adopt western methodsBuilt factories and sold them to wealthy business families, known as zaibatsuEnded legal distinctions between classesSet up schools and a universityHired westerners to teach the new generation modern technology
14Why Was Japan Able to Modernize So Rapidly? Japan was a homogeneous society — that is, it had a common culture and language that gave it a strong sense of identity.Economic growth during the Tokugawa times had set Japan on the road to development.The Japanese had experience learning from foreign nations, such as China.The Japanese were determined to resist foreign rule.
151Japanese ImperialismAs with western industrial powers, Japan’s economic needs fed its imperialist desires.In 1894,Japan defeated China in the Sino-Japanese War, gaining treaty ports in China and control over the island of Taiwan.In 1905, Japan defeated Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, gaining control of Korea as well as rights in parts of Manchuria.In 1910, Japan annexed Korea,absorbing the kingdom into theJapanese empire and ruling itfor 35 years.