Presentation on theme: "The British East India Company: required sepoys, or Indian soldiers in its service, to serve anywhere, including overseas, which violated Hindu religious."— Presentation transcript:
The British East India Company: required sepoys, or Indian soldiers in its service, to serve anywhere, including overseas, which violated Hindu religious law passed a law allowing Hindu widows to marry, which undermined Hindu beliefs ordered the sepoys to bite off cartridges made of animal fat when loading their rifles, which violated both Hindu and Muslim religious law The sepoys brutally massacred British men, women, and children. The British took terrible revenge, slaughtering thousands of unarmed Indians. Both sides were left with a bitter legacy of fear, hatred, and mistrust. The British put India directly under British rule, sent more troops to India, and taxed Indians to pay for the cost of the occupying forces. CAUSES EFFECTS
The British built roads and an impressive railroad network. The British flooded India with machine-made textiles, ruining India’s once-prosperous hand-weaving industry. Britain transformed Indian agriculture. Better health care and increased food production led to rapid population growth. Over-population led to terrible famines. The British revised the Indian legal system. British rule brought peace and order to the countryside. Upper-class Indians sent their sons to British schools. After 1858, Parliament set up a system of colonial rule in India.
Some educated Indians were impressed by British power and technology and urged India to follow a western model of progress. Other Indians felt the answer to change lay with their own Hindu or Muslim cultures. Most British knew little about Indian achievements and dismissed Indian culture with contempt. A few British admired Indian theology and philosophy and respected India’s ancient heritage. During the Age of Imperialism, Indians and British developed different views of each other’s culture. INDIAN ATTITUDES BRITISH ATTITUDES
The British believed that western-educated Indians would form an elite class which would bolster British rule. As it turned out, exposure to European ideas had the opposite effect. By the late 1800s, western-educated Indians were spearheading a nationalist movement. In 1885, nationalist leaders organized the Indian National Congress. Its members looked forward to eventual self-rule, but supported western- style modernization. In 1906, Muslims formed the Muslim League to pursue their own goals, including a separate Muslim state.
Prior to the 1800s, Chinese rulers placed strict limits on foreign traders. China enjoyed a trade surplus, exporting more than it imported. Westerners had a trade deficit with China, buying more from the Chinese than they sold to them. In 1842, Britain made China accept the Treaty of Nanjing, the first in a series of “unequal treaties” that forced China to make concessions to western powers. China paid a huge indemnity to Britain. The British gained the island of Hong Kong. China had to open five ports to foreign trade and grant British citizens in China extraterritoriality.
Irrigation systems and canals were poorly maintained, leading to massive flooding of the Huang He valley. The population explosion that had begun a century earlier created a terrible hardship for China’s peasants. An extravagant court, tax evasion by the rich, and widespread official corruption added to the peasants’ burden. The civil service system was rocked by bribery scandals. Between 1850 and 1864, peasants took part in the Taiping Rebellion, the most devastating revolt in history. By the 1800s, the Qing dynasty was in decline.
In the 1860s, reformers launched the “self-strengthening movement” in an effort to westernize and modernize China. The movement made limited progress because the government did not rally behind it. After China was defeated in the Sino-Japanese War, Emperor Guang Xu launched the Hundred Days of Reform. Conservatives soon rallied against the reform effort and the emperor was imprisoned.
As the century ended, anger grew against foreigners in China. In the Boxer Rebellion, angry Chinese attacked foreigners across China. In response, western powers and Japan crushed the Boxers. Defeat at the hands of foreigners led China to embark on a rush of reforms. Chinese nationalists called for a constitutional monarchy or a republic. When Empress Ci Xi died in 1908, China slipped into chaos. In 1911, the Qing dynasty was toppled. Sun Yixian was named president of the new Chinese republic. Sun wanted to rebuild China on “Three Principles of the People”: nationalism, democracy, and economic security for all Chinese.
By the 1800s, discontent simmered throughout Japan. The government responded by trying to revive old ways. The United States forced Japan to grant trading rights and forced unequal treaties on Japan. Some Japanese strongly criticized the shogun for not taking a strong stand against the foreigners. Foreign pressure deepened the social and economic unrest. Discontented daimyo and samurai overthrew the shogun and “restored” the emperor to power. The Meiji restoration, which lasted from 1868 to 1912, was a major turning point in Japanese history.
Ended legal distinctions between classes Set up schools and a university Hired westerners to teach the new generation modern technology Encouraged Japan’s business class to adopt western methods Built factories and sold them to wealthy business families, known as zaibatsu Adopted the German model of government Set forth the principle that all people were equal under the law Established a western-style bureaucracy Used western technology to strengthen the military Ended the special privilege of samurai SOCIAL CHANGE ECONOMIC REFORMS GOVERNMENT The Meiji reformers wanted to replace the rigid feudal order with a completely new political and social system and to build a modern industrial economy. 1
Japan was a homogeneous society — that is, it had a common culture and language that gave it a strong sense of identity. Economic growth during the Tokugawa times had set Japan on the road to development. The Japanese had experience learning from foreign nations, such as China. The Japanese were determined to resist foreign rule.
In 1894,Japan defeated China in the Sino-Japanese War, gaining treaty ports in China and control over the island of Taiwan. In 1905, Japan defeated Russia in the Russo- Japanese War, gaining control of Korea as well as rights in parts of Manchuria. In 1910, Japan annexed Korea, absorbing the kingdom into the Japanese empire and ruling it for 35 years. As with western industrial powers, Japan’s economic needs fed its imperialist desires. 1
By the 1890s, Europeans controlled most of Southeast Asia. They: introduced modern technology expanded commerce and industry set up new enterprises to mine tin and harvest rubber brought in new crops of corn and cassava built harbors and railroads These changes benefited Europeans far more than the people of Southeast Asia. In their relentless race for raw materials, new markets, and Christian converts, western industrial powers gobbled up Southeast Asia.
King Mongkut, who ruled from 1851 to 1868, set Siam on the road to modernization. Siam was forced to accept some unequal treaties but escaped becoming a European colony. Both Britain and France saw the advantage of making Siam a buffer, or neutral zone, between them. In the early 1900s, Britain and France guaranteed Siam its independence.
In the 1800s, the industrial powers began to take an interest in the islands of the Pacific. In 1878, the United States secured an unequal treaty from Samoa. Later, the United States, Germany, and Britain agreed to a triple protectorate over Samoa. From the mid-1800s, American sugar growers pressed for power in Hawaii. In 1898, the United States annexed Hawaii. At the conclusion of the Spanish-American War, the Philippines was placed under American control. The United States promised Filipinos self-rule some time in the future.
In 1945, Japan lay in ruins. What factors allowed Japan to recover and produce an economic miracle? Japan’s success was based on producing goods for export. At first, the nation manufactured textiles. Later, it shifted to making steel, and then to high technology. While Japan had to rebuild from scratch, the nation had successfully industrialized in the past. Thus, it was able to quickly build efficient, modern factories and adapt the latest technology. Japan benefited from an educated, highly skilled work force. Japanese workers saved much of their money. These savings gave banks the capital to invest in industrial growth. Japan did not have to spend money on maintaining a large military force. 1
The oil crisis of the 1970s brought home Japan’s dependence on the world market. In response to the economic challenge the oil crisis presented, Japan sought better relations with oil-producing nations of the Middle East. Japan has had to deal with nations that still held bitter memories of World War II. Japan was slow to apologize for its wartime actions. In the 1990s, Japanese leaders offered some public regrets for the destruction of the war years. For many years, Japan took a back seat in international politics. More recently, it has taken on a larger world role. Today, Japan ranks as the world’s largest donor of foreign aid. 1
In the 1990s, Japan faced a terrible economic depression. Many workers lost the security of guaranteed lifetime employment, and confidence was undermined. In the 1990s, charges of corruption greatly weakened Japan’s dominant political party, the LDP. Some younger, reform-minded politicians broke with the LDP, threatening its monopoly on power. Today, most Japanese live in crowded cities in tiny, cramped apartments. While women have legal equality, traditional attitudes keep them in subordinate positions in the workplace. For decades, Japanese sacrificed family life to work long hours. Many younger Japanese, however, want more time to enjoy themselves. Some older Japanese worry that the old work ethic is weakening.
Although some reforms did result in more access to education and greater equality, people in China paid a heavy cost for Mao’s programs. During the 1950s and 1960s, two efforts in particular led to economic disaster and tremendous loss of life. In the “Great Leap Forward,” Mao urged people to make a superhuman effort to increase farm output. Food output slowed and backyard industries turned out low-quality, useless goods. A terrible famine occurred. Between 1959 and 1961, up to 30 million Chinese starved to death. The goal of the Cultural Revolution was to purge China of “bourgeois” tendencies. The Cultural Revolution convulsed China. Schools and factories closed. The economy slowed, and civil war threatened.
Stalin sent economic aid and technical experts to China, but he and Mao disagreed on many issues. China and the Soviet Union competed for influence in developing nations. By 1960, border disputes and clashes over ideology led the Soviets to withdraw all aid and advisers from China. At first, the United States refused to recognize the People’s Republic of China and for years tried to isolate China. Slowly, relations improved. In 1979, the United States set up formal diplomatic relations with China. RELATIONS WITH THE SOVIET UNION RELATIONS WITH THE UNITED STATES
By the late 1980s, some Chinese were demanding greater political freedom and economic reform. The crackdown showed that China’s Communist leaders were determined to maintain control. To them, order was more important than political freedom. In 1989, thousands of demonstrators occupied Tiananmen Square and called for democracy. The government sent in troops and tanks. Thousands of demonstrators were killed or wounded.
China’s human rights abuses have brought strong pressure from trading partners such as the United States. Population growth strained the economy and posed a challenge for the future. As communist ideology weakened, government corruption became a growing problem. Many state-run industries were inefficient, but could not be closed without risking high unemployment and economic chaos. Inequalities between rich and poor urban and rural Chinese continued to grow.
The term “Asian tigers” refers to Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, and South Korea. All four are small Asian lands that became “newly industrialized countries” by the 1980s. They are known for their aggressive economic growth. Although they differ in important ways, all followed similar roads to modernization after 1945. All four were influenced by China. In each, the Confucian ethic shaped attitudes about work. All four had stable governments that invested in education.
Taiwan was ruled by China until 1895, when it fell to Japan. The Japanese built some industry, providing a foundation for later growth. Taiwan first set up light industries and later, developed heavy industry. After the Cold War, Taiwanese businesses invested in companies on the Chinese mainland. Britain won Hong Kong from China after the Opium War. Hong Kong’s prosperity was based largely on trade and light industry. Hong Kong also became a world financial center. Hong Kong’s amazing growth was due in part to its location on China’s doorstep. In 1997, Britain returned Hong Kong to China. Both Taiwan and Hong Kong have deep cultural and historical links to China. TAIWAN HONG KONG
During his 30 years in power, Prime Minister Lee Kwan Yew: supported a free-market economy attracted foreign capital by keeping labor costs low expanded Singapore’s seaport into one of the world’s busiest harbors welcomed skilled immigrants insisted on education for all of Singapore’s people encouraged high-tech industries, manufacturing, finance, and tourism followed a Confucian model of development, emphasizing hard work and saving money
After World War II, the Soviet Union and the United States divided Korea along the 38th parallel. Before long, North Korea became a communist ally of the Soviet Union. The United States backed noncommunist South Korea. In 1950, North Korea attacked South Korea. The war turned into a stalemate. In 1953, both sides signed an armistice, or end to fighting. The armistice has held for 50 years, but no peace treaty has ever been negotiated.
Communists fought against non- communists supported by the United States for control of Vietnam. After the United States withdrew from the war, the North Vietnamese reunited the country under communist rule. The communist victors imposed harsh rule in the south. Vietnam had to rebuild a land destroyed by war. During the Vietnam War, fighting spilled over into neighboring Cambodia. In 1970, the United States bombed and then invaded Cambodia. When the United States left, communist guerrillas called Khmer Rouge, led by Pol Pot, slaughtered more than a million Cambodians. In 1979, Vietnam invaded and occupied Cambodia. In mainland Southeast Asia, an agonizing liberation struggle tore apart the region once known as French Indochina. VIETNAM CAMBODIA
In 1946, the Philippines gained freedom after almost 50 years of American rule. In 1965, Ferdinand Marcos was elected president. Marcos promised reform but became a dictator. In 1986, the people of the Philippines forced Marcos to leave in what was called the “people power” revolution. Corazón Aquino became president and restored the fragile democracy. Challenges: The country enjoyed economic growth during the 1990s, but many people remained poor. Government corruption and guerrilla wars threatened the nation’s stability. The Philippines experienced rapid urbanization. Natural disasters caused setbacks. Many enterprising Filipinos left the country.
Southeast Asian nations faced many problems after independence. They lacked experience in self-government. They faced complex ethnic and religious conflicts. Demands for political freedom and social justice were frequent. For years, repressive military rulers battled rebel ethnic minorities. They isolated the country and imposed state socialism. In 1990, the government held elections. The opposition party won, but the military rejected the election results. Geography posed an obstacle to unity in Indonesia. Under authoritarian rule, Indonesia made great economic progress. The 1997 Asian financial crisis led to riots against the government. A new government was elected and faced many problems. MYANMARINDONESIA
By the 1990s, the volume of trade across the Pacific Rim was greater than that across the Atlantic. The region has potential for further growth. Countries on the Pacific Rim formed a huge market that lured investors, especially multinational corporations. The development of the Pacific Rim promises to bring the Americas and Asia closer together. In the modern global economy, Southeast Asia and East Asia are part of a vast region known as the Pacific Rim. It includes countries in Asia and the Americas that border the Pacific Ocean.
After World War II, Britain finally agreed to Indian demand for independence. Muslims insisted on their own state, Pakistan. Riots between Hindus and Muslims persuaded Britain to partition, or divide, the subcontinent. In 1947, British officials created Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan. As Hindus and Muslims crossed the borders, violence erupted in Northern India. Ten million refugees fled their homes. At least a million people, including Mohandas Gandhi, were killed. Even after the worst violence ended, Hindu-Muslim tensions persisted. 1
Muslim conquest of northern India in 1100s British imperialism in India Nationalists organize the Indian National Congress in 1885 Muslim nationalists form separate Muslim League in 1906 Long-Term Causes World War II weakens European colonial empires Pressure from Indian nationalists increases Insistence by Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the Muslim League that Muslims have their own state Rioting between Hindus and Muslims throughout northern India Short-Term Causes Violence erupts as millions of Hindus and Muslims cross the border between India and Pakistan Gandhi is assassinated by Hindu extremists India and Pakistan become centers of Cold War rivalry Establishment of the state of Bangladesh Effects Continuing clash between India and Pakistan over Kashmir Nuclear arms race as both India and Pakistan refuse to sign Non-Proliferation Treaty Connections To Today
Urbanization undermined some traditions, but most Indians continued to live in villages. The government tried to end discrimination based on caste. However, deep prejudice continued. India adopted a socialist model to expand agriculture and industry. Rapid population growth hurt efforts to improve living conditions. An economic slowdown forced India to privatize some industries and make foreign investment easier. India’s constitution set up a federal system. For 40 years after independence, the Nehru family led India. India’s size and diversity have contributed to religious and regional divisions. Today, India is the world’s largest democratic nation. SOCIAL ECONOMIC POLITICAL
After independence, military leaders seized power and ruled as dictators. When civilian leaders were finally elected, the military continued to intervene. The country lacked natural resources for industry. Ethnic rivalries fueled conflicts. Severe economic problems and corruption plagued the government. Forty percent of the nation’s budget goes to repaying foreign debt. In 1971, Bengalis declared independence for Bangladesh. Geography has made it difficult to rise out of poverty. Explosive population growth has further strained resources. Since the early 1990s, civilian governments have worked to encourage foreign investments. PAKISTAN BANGLADESH 1