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Crisis, Resurgence, and the Millennium

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1 Crisis, Resurgence, and the Millennium
Learning U.S. History Via the Presidencies

2 ASSIGNMENT: Use the following power point to complete the Presidential comparison charts regarding domestic and foreign policy

Sometimes known as the “Imperial Presidency” since the expansion of Presidential power reached its peak Failed to consult Congress about bombing Cambodia & Laos and mining North Vietnam’s harbor Used public funds to remodel private homes Used the CIA and FBI to get info about political enemies Refused to spend funds if Congress voted for programs he did not like

4 Nixon’s Domestic Policy
Eliminated several Great Society programs Sought to end the draft, create strong anticrime laws, and advance environmental programs Created the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-sets & monitors air and water pollution standards) and the Endangered Species Act (requires Fish & Wildlife Service to list species of endangered plants and animals)

5 Nixon’s Foreign Policy
Withdrew troops from Vietnam, but increased bombing raids and financial aid to S. Vietnam With the help of Henry Kissinger (Sec. of State), he had 2 great foreign policy successes Re-opening of relations with China (1972) – wanted a more flexible situation in Asia in order to put pressure on N. Vietnam. Although strongly anti-Communist, Nixon became the 1st American President to visit mainland China

6 Nixon’s Foreign Policy Continued…
Détente with the Soviet Union (1972) – believed in pursuing a policy of detente (a relaxing of tensions) and introduced the policy to the Soviet Union He and Kissinger wanted to halt the build-up of nuclear weapons Became the 1st President to visit Moscow where he signed the SALT treaty limiting defensive missile systems Also agreed to sell American grain the Soviets to help with food shortages Worked together to pressure Israel and Arab states to come to a cease-fire when war broke out in 1973

7 Corruption in Nixon’s Presidency
New Vice President Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned when it was discovered that he had taken bribes while Governor of Maryland Under the Twenty-fifth Amendment, Nixon appointed Gerald Ford as his new Vice-President Watergate Crisis (1972) A group of former CIA agents, working for Nixon’s re-election as President, were caught breaking into Democratic Party headquarters at the Watergate complex in Washington, D.C.

8 More About Watergate The Cover-up
Nixon tried to cover up an investigation into the break-in claiming it involved national security Investigative reporters reported the link to the White House, the Senate appointed a committee to investigate, and the Attorney General appointed a Special Prosecutor to examine any wrongdoing

9 Even More About Watergate
The Tapes Nixon had secretly recorded all of his own White House Conversations Nixon claimed executive privilege and refused to release the tapes to the Senate Committee U.S. v. Nixon (1974) – Nixon contended that being forced by a court to turn over tapes would lead to judicial control of the Presidency, but the Supreme Court ruled that he must turn over the tapes. This reaffirmed the principle that no one is above the law Nixon Resigned when the tapes revealed that he was involved in the cover up to avoid impeachment

10 THE FORD PRESIDENCY (1974-1977)
Gerald Ford had not even been elected as Vice-President but had been appointed by Nixon when Agnew resigned One of his first acts as President was to pardon Nixon for any crimes he had committed This decision came under heavy public criticism

11 Ford’s Domestic Policy
Economic problems plagued his administration Stagflation: high unemployment combined with inflation (this was contrary to what most economists believed – inflation only accompanied economic growth and full employment) OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) was formed in In 1973, the Arab nations of OPEC used oil as a political weapon by imposing an oil embargo. High costs for energy had a significant impact on the American economy

12 Ford’s Foreign Policy The Helsinki Accords – an international agreement between the U.S., Canada, the Soviet Union, and most European countries recognizing post WWII borders and promising respect for human rights Showed his continuation of Nixon’s policy of détente with the Soviet Union

Since many Americans continued to blame Republicans for the Watergate scandal, Jimmy Carter (former Governor of Georgia) was elected President in the 1976 election He was a democrat who ran as an “outsider” promising to end corruption and “clean up” Washington

14 Carter’s Domestic Policy
Energy Crisis – created the Department of Energy & increased the oil in the nation’s “Strategic Petroleum Reserve” Stagflation – inflation & interest rates soared in Carter cut federal spending but inflation did not come down until 2 years later Community Reinvestment Act – required banks to make credit available to poor communities

15 Carter’s Domestic Policy continued…
The environment – provided funds to clean up toxic waste & created the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to develop stricter standards for the peaceful use of nuclear energy Diversity – appointed women and minority members to government posts & sponsored a bill requiring public schools to provide instruction in their native language while trying to learn English

16 Carter’s Foreign Policy
Made human rights a priority, condemned apartheid in South Africa, pressured Soviet Union to allow Jews to emigrate, and cut aid to dictatorships that violated human rights Panama Canal Treaty, 1977 – signed a treaty returning control of all of the Canal Zone, except for the canal itself, to Panama and agreed to turn over the canal to Panama by 2000

17 Carter’s Foreign Policy continued…
Camp David Accords, 1977 – invited Anwar Sadat, President of Egypt, and Menachem Begin, the Prime Minister of Israel, to the Presidential retreat at Camp David in Maryland. The goal was to reach a peace settlement between the two countries that had been at war periodically since Sadat and Begin won the Nobel Peace Prize, but many Arab leaders denounced the agreement.

18 More of Carter’s Foreign Policy Continued
U.S. Soviet Relations – When the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in 1979, Carter halted grain sales to the Soviets, boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow, and postponed ratification of a new arms agreement (SALT II) Iranian Hostage Crisis – When the Shah of Iran fled the country during a revolution in 1979, Ayatollah Khomeini representing Shiite Muslims took control. Iranian students seized the staff of the U.S. embassy in Tehran and held them hostage for more than a year. Carter was unable to secure their release.

19 Short-cycle assessment:
Rank Presidents Nixon, Ford, and Carter in order of who you think had the most effective Presidency to the least effective (1 is the highest and 3 the lowest). Give at least 2 reasons for placing each choice in its order.


21 The Reagan Presidency (1981-1989)
Was a popular Hollywood actor in the years after WWII Was president of the actors’ union before entering politics Originally a Democrat, he grew more conservative over time Was Governor of California in the 1960s With running mate George H.W. Bush, won the Presidential election in 1980

22 Reagan’s Domestic Policy
Projected a confident, optimistic outlook Introduced far-reaching changes to bring prosperity to many, although not to all Americans Reversed the trend of increased federal control over businesses that had begun in the Progressive Era (he believed that individuals and businesses were better able to solve their own economic problems than gov’t. agencies)

23 Reagan’s Domestic Policy continued…
Reaganomics – tax cuts, reduced federal welfare programs, deregulation of businesses, increased military spending The Federal Deficit/National Debt – promised government spending would not exceed amount of taxes raised, but increased military spending actually doubled the national debt Trade Imbalance – Americans bought more overseas goods than they sold. This trade imbalance led to the loss of millions of jobs and the closing of steel mills and auto plants

24 Reagan’s Domestic Policy continued…
Immigration Policy – The Mazzoli-Simpson Act (1986) “legalized” illegal aliens who had lived continuously in the U.S. since 1981 Supreme Court – Reagan nominated Sandra Day O’Connor in 1981 as the first woman Justice on the U.S. Supreme Court. In her early days on the court she was a conservative, but in the 1990s became a swing vote between liberal and conservative groups on the court.

25 Reagan’s Foreign Policy
Set out to rebuild American confidence in the aftermath of Vietnam, Watergate, and the Iran Hostage Crisis Believed the U.S. had to continue to act as the world’s main defender of freedom and democracy The Iranian hostages were released the day he took office

26 Reagan’s Foreign Policy continued…
The Reagan Doctrine – stated that the U.S. would not simply confine itself to the containment of Communism. It would also attempt to “roll-back” Communism by aiding anti-Communist “freedom fighters” in Afghanistan, Angola, Nicaragua, and Cambodia (He had set the precedent by sending troops to Granada after Communists had taken control).

27 Reagan’s Foreign Policy continued…
Believed in a policy of Peace through Strength (the best way to prevent war was for our enemies to think we had both the will and means to stop aggression) Proposed research into anti-ballistic defense system and the Strategic Defense Initiative (Star Wars) The War on Terrorism – no negotiation with terrorists and would retaliate against those harboring terrorists

28 Reagan’s Foreign Policy continued…
The Iran-Contra Affair – arose from a secret foreign policy operation in which the U.S. sold arms to Iran as part of a deal in exchange for the release of American hostages in Lebanon. Iran then diverted the arms to “Contra” rebels fighting communism in Nicaragua. This deal tarnished America’s credibility in the world Beginning of the end of the Cold War – reforms in the Soviet Union, dismantling of thousands of nuclear weapons, overthrow of dictatorships and military governments in Latin America and the Philippines.

Had served 2 terms as Reagan’s Vice President Promised to continue Reagan’s policies, but with greater compassion for homeless and poor Also promised to improve education and fight drug use

30 Bush’s Domestic Policy
Greatest challenge was to reduce the growing budget deficit Was able to cut military spending due to changes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union Agreed to raise income taxes on the wealthy but was never able to make significant budget reductions

31 Bush’s Domestic Policy continued…
Supreme Court Appointments – appointed several to the Supreme Court leading to a conservative majority. It toughened rules for criminal defendants, reduced the scope of abortion rights, and introduced important topics The Recession – The U.S. gradually moved back into a recession by Blamed on reduced spending. Foreign competition led to less demand for some American products leading to lay-offs in key industries (steel, auto, etc.)

32 Bush’s Domestic Policy continued…
Civil Rights and Unrest – Recession was especially hard on young African Americans. Riots erupted in Los Angeles and other cities. Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 – prohibited discrimination against people with disabilities in employment and public accommodations. Guaranteed equal treatment and handicap accessibility

33 Bush’s Foreign Policy Invasion of Panama, 1989 – Sent U.S. forces to Panama where they captured Panamanian dictator and drug-dealer Manuel Noriega and restored democratically elected leaders. Noriega was taken to the U.S. where he was tried and convicted on drug charges. End of the Cold War, – Eastern Europe moved from Communism to democracy, the Berlin Wall was torn down, and Germany reunited. The Soviet Union dissolved in Russia and the other independent republics were recognized by Bush and offered economic assistance.

34 Bush’s Foreign Policy continued…
The Gulf War, 1990 – Bush’s greatest single foreign policy success. Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait, capturing vast oil wealth and extending Iraq’s border. When he refused U.N. requests to withdraw, forces under the leadership of the U.S. launched an attack. In just a few days, Hussein agreed to remove Iraqi troops and pay Kuwait for damages. Bush refused to go further by removing Hussein from power, but American power was increased in the Middle East.

35 Bush’s Foreign Policy continued…
Somalia – In 1992, President Bush began a humanitarian airlift of food and supplies to Somalia in northeast Africa. Millions of people faced starvation as a result of war. When local warlords and bandits continued to steal and threaten food shipments, Bush sent in U.S. troops.

Came from a poor Arkansas background, but studied as a Rhodes scholar in England and attended Yale University, where he met his wife Hilary Was able to unite different groups within the Democratic Party as well as many independent voters A contributing factor to his success was the weakening of Bush’s authority by third-party candidate, Ross Perot. Perot gained 20% of the vote, making him one of the most successful third-party candidates in history.

37 Clinton’s Domestic Policy
Promised ambitious reforms, but had difficulty getting Congressional support He limited federal spending, increased taxes for 40% of the richest Americans, and cut taxes for low-income families He promised guaranteed health insurance and appointed his wife to head a task force on health care but was unable to get a bill passed through Congress

38 Clinton’s Domestic Policy continued…
As a “New Democrat”, he supported welfare reform, free trade, lower taxes on the middle class, and tough measures on crime His relaxing restrictions on exports (especially high tech good) helped restore the economy, and thanks to a reduction in military spending with the end of the Cold War, the economy was thriving. He was able to balance the nation’s budget, unemployment was down, consumer spending was up, and business profits were at an all time high

39 Impeachment and Scandal
In his second term in office, Clinton became the subject of a major scandal and was brought before the Senate for an impeachment trial. It was found that he had lied under oath about a sexual affair with a White House intern. The House of Representatives voted to impeach, but the Senate failed to reach a 2/3 majority to remove the President from office. Once again, Americans felt they could not trust their elected leaders.

40 Clinton’s Foreign Policy
Though he had little experience in foreign policy, some of his greatest successes were in that area The Balkans (Yugoslavia, Bosnia, Kosovo) – The end of the Cold War caused renewed ethnic tensions in Bosnia & Serbia, which had been part of Yugoslavia. Serbs attempted genocide against Muslims living in Bosnia and Kosovo. Clinton helped negotiate peace there and afterwards, used NATO air strikes against Serbia. This eventually led to a compromise peace.

41 Clinton’s Foreign Policy continued…
Pushed for NAFTA (North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement), which had originally been negotiated by Bush. Free trade between Canada, U.S., and Mexico Gradually phases out tariffs between them China – though Clinton pressed China for human rights reform, he separated this demand from trade issues. A U.S. missile accidentally struck the Chinese embassy in Yugoslavia, which strained relations U.S trade with China continued and we even helped China join the World Trade Organization

42 Short-cycle assessment:
Rank Presidents Reagan, G.H.W. Bush, and Clinton in order of who you think had the most effective Presidency to the least effective (1 is the highest and 3 the lowest). Give at least 2 reasons for placing each choice in its order.

Son of former President George H.W. Bush (Governor of Texas) became President after winning a majority of the Electoral College in the closest Presidential election in U.S. history He defeated Al Gore, Clinton’s Vice President, who had won the popular vote

44 Bush’s Domestic Policy
Pushed through a tax cut to attempt to revitalize the economy Promoted education reform and introduced the No Child Left Behind Act requiring states to test all students in English and math Had to take measures to deal with a financial crisis at the end of his second term

45 Bush’s Foreign Policy Much was dictated by terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 at the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington, D.C. Bush declared a global “War on Terror” against nations that harbored terrorists. Ordered air and ground assaults which toppled the Taliban and destroyed al-Qaeda’s bases Created Transportation Security Agency (TSA), Dept. of Homeland Security, & USA PATRIOT Act

46 Bush Foreign Policy continued…
War in Iraq – feared that Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein might provide biological, chemical, or possible nuclear weapons to terrorists Hussein refused to allow U.N. inspectors in to search for weapons Bush gave him an ultimatum to leave the country or face invasion U.S. & U.N. Forces invaded in April 2003 Hussein was eventually captured and tried for his crimes

Won one of the hardest fought elections in U.S. history Defeated Hillary Clinton to win the Democratic nomination then beat John McCain in the election for President Received a tremendous boost when Oprah Winfrey publicly endorsed him (she was a self-made superstar who appealed to women and African American voters)

48 Importance of the 2008 election
First African American President (son of a Kenyan father and white American mother) Campaigned on a promise of change Longest Presidential campaign in U.S. history Rapid rise in politics from a position of obscurity just a few years before Used the Internet to gather support and campaign contributions

49 Obama’s Domestic Policy
Response to financial crisis American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: purpose was to jumpstart the economy More than $700 billion was spend in government bailouts designed to create new jobs, save existing ones, spur the economy, and invest in long-term infrastructure development Regulated credit cards, lending and banking practices Passed a controversial health care reform act

50 Obama’s Domestic Policy Continued…
Appointed Sonia Sotomayor to the Supreme Court First Hispanic Justice third woman to serve on the U.S. Supreme court

51 Obama’s Foreign Policy
Gradually withdrew American troops from Iraq Increased U.S. troops in Afghanistan to try to stabilize the country and revitalize development The “Arab Spring” – discouraged dictators from using force to suppress democracy movements Encouraged Pakistan to take a more aggressive stance on terrorism (U.S. troops tracked down and killed Osama bin Laden in Pakistan)

52 Obama’s Foreign Policy Continued…
Has maintained close ties with Europe Problems facing his foreign policy Iran is suspected of developing nuclear weapons, sponsors terrorist groups, and openly threatens Israel’s existence Seeks to work with Israelis and Palestinians to achieve a two-state solution to their problems China continues to sell a large number of goods to Americans while its investors buy a great deal of U.S. Treasury notes, supporting the large U.S. debt

53 Short-cycle Assessment
Briefly describe how the elections of 2000 and 2008 were significant and unique in American politics.

54 ASSIGNMENT: Use the following slides to answer the questions in your notes packet.


Proposed in 1923 pledging “equality of rights under the law…for all sexes” Failed to pass each session of Congress for almost fifty years Finally approved in 1972 and sent to states with a 7 year time limit for ratification (was extended to 1982, but still fell 3 states short) Has been reintroduced into every Congress since that time One outspoken critic was Phyllis Schlafly

57 ROOTS OF CONSERVATISM A number of leading conservative groups supported Reagan in the 1980 Presidential election National Rifle Association – first time in history it supported a Presidential candidate. Wanted to relax the Gun Control Act of 1968. The Moral Majority – composed mainly of Fundamentalist Christians. Begun by Jerry Falwell, it favored strict interpretation of the Bible, social conservatism, and anti-Communism. Dissolved in 1989.

Heritage Foundation – strongly influenced many of Reagan’s policies. Based in Washington, D.C., it was a “think-tank” seeking to promote conservative principles based on free enterprise, limited government, individual freedom, values, and strong national defense. An example of a non-profit lobbying group attempting to influence legislators.

Until the 1970s, most Americans lived in the Northeast and Midwest. The Southeast was considered too hot and humid in summers, and the West too dry and remote Government-built dams made water more available in the West. Rising oil prices made mild winters in the South more attractive and air conditioning made things easier to cool. Population in the “Sun Belt” has grown 4 times faster than in the Northeast and Midwest placing a greater burden on the environment

60 CONTRACT WITH AMERICA In 1994, Newt Gingrich, Republican Speaker of the House proposed a program of conservative principles (Contract with Am.) Endorsed by most Republican candidates to attempt to win control of the House of Representatives during mid-term elections in Clinton’s Presidency Sought to restore balance between government and citizens, reduce the size of government, and make it more responsive to the people

World Trade Organization (WTO) – an international organization that establishes rules for global trade and helps settle trade disputes United Nations – global cooperation helps all countries improve their economies and security. Helps strengthen relationships among member NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization), SEATO (Southeast Asia Treaty Organization), OAS (Organization of American States), APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) are other organizations to which we belong

Refers to the idea that any American can be successful through the right combination of ambition, talent, and hard work. Examples can be found in the following people: Bill Gates – co-founder of Microsoft. Among the 1st to recognize the potential of the personal computer. Obtained a contract from IBM in the 1980s to produce software. Sam Walton – started his own five-and-dime store in Arkansas with a vision to create a chain of stores with a large variety of products. Walmart and Sams have become the world’s largest retailer.

Estee Lauder – Founded a cosmetics company with her husband. Pioneered new promotions and marketing concepts. Robert Johnson – First African-American billionaire and founder of Black Entertainment Television (BET). Sold it in 1998 for $1.5 billion. In 2003, became owner of the Charlotte Bobcats Lionel Sosa – founded the largest Hispanic advertising agency in the U.S., advised several Republican candidates, and encouraged Latinos to “compete and win.”

64 Short-cycle Assessment:
Create a storyboard of any four events from your notes questions and the power point on Crisis and Resurgence Divide your paper into quadrants Each section should have a title (your topic), a picture describing it, a 3 to 4 sentence paragraph description, and a question you would ask about it


USA PATRIOT ACT – greatly expanded authority of law enforcement and intelligence agencies to monitor private communication and get personal information. Some limits have been placed on their authority since then. The TSA – beefed up security at airports. Questions raised include rights regarding searching people and luggage and what is reasonable and not. Military Tribunals – try legal residents who were not citizens of the U.S. on charges of terrorism. The questions – does this violate “due process” of the 5th Amendment and does it apply only to U.S. citizens?

67 HURRICANE KATRINA Led to the evacuation and flooding of almost 80% of New Orleans and other parts of the Gulf Coast Brought the highest storm surge and waves ever recorded to hit North America and exceeded the engineering design of the New Orleans levees Costliest on record Killed more than 1,800 people, many were stranded for days on rooftops and in attics, and almost 20,000 were trapped in the Superdome

68 FINANCIAL CRISIS OF Background – When the stock market dropped sharply in 2000, the Federal Reserve lowered interest rates to stimulate the economy. Many began speculating in the housing market due to low rates and poor banking and lending practices ensued Overbuilding led to falling house prices and interest rates began to rise. Foreclosures began to rise. Efforts by the government to help stimulate the economy failed

69 CONTINUING CRISIS In September 2008, the federal government took over the nation’s largest mortgage lenders, but the crisis continued to spiral out of control. Banks stopped lending and credit for individuals and businesses dried up The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act (2008) authorized the Sec. of the Treasury to spend up to $700 billion to keep banks from failing The Treasury and Fed. Reserve provided emergency funding to several organizations

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