24 provinces/towns 185 districts 1,621 communes over 13,000 villages Total population over 14 million Country Profile
Land: 181,035k ㎡ Population: 14,701,717 (2011) GDP per capita : 830US$ (2010) Population Density : 74 persons/km 2 Rural Population: 85% Khmer origin: 90%, Ethnic: Chinese; Vietnam; Islamic …10%.
Climate and Season temperature : - Max: 36 0 c - Mean: 24 0 c - Min: 21 0 c Climate : - April : hottest - December : Coolest Season : - Dry season : Nov- Apr - Wet season :May-Oct Rainfall ranges : - From1200 to 4000 mm Day length : 11h – 13h - December: Shortest - June: Longest
Total land area and cultivation Rice cultivation 54% (2,650,995ha) Fruit production was 89,981 ha. Vegetable was 42,360 ha. The flower land area in Cambodia in Non : - We have a little plant in a round house - Most of flower import from out side the country - The use of flower in Cambodia for many possible ways advantage like: Decoration, Using at wedding ceremony, Providing to the god in the Pagoda, any celebration, souvenirs, and love. - The flower import by the private business is the plays full role in the present. - And now Cambodia just little a new technology of this field like grafting : bring of Thai and Vietnam
Postharvest Technology of horticultural products
Introduction The 3 main objectives of applying postharvest technology to harvested fruits and vegetables are: 1. to maintain quality (appearance, texture, flavor and nutritive value) 2. to protect food safety, and 3. to reduce losses between harvest and consumption. 12
Postharvest Handling Steps in Cambodia FARM FARM PACK RURAL MARKET PACKING WHOLESALER RETAILER CONSUMER STORE Transport steps 13
Postharvest Handling Farmers deliver produce to collection centre Produce is dispatched to Packing House Produce is cleaned, trimmed, sorted, packed and randomly tested for chemical residue Handling is according to GMP and HACCP standard Heat-sensitive produce stays in ‘cold chain’ 14
Principal causes of postharvest losses and poor quality The most common causes of postharvest losses in developing countries continue are: Rough handling Inadequate cooling and temperature maintenance Lack of sorting to eliminate defects before storage The use of inadequate packaging materials MINIMIZING ROUGH HANDLING EFFECTIVE TEMPERATURE MANAGEMENT SORTING TO REMOVE DAMAGED PRODUCE EFFECTIVE PACKAGING MATERIALS 15
contamination agents Soil Microbes (fungus, bacteria) Water Pesticide/fungicide residues
Where it starts? Pretharvest management Postharvest Handling Packing Packaging Transportation Washing Retail Conditions Water borne Microbial Surface Characteristics Physical Damage -secondary microbial Soil borne Microorg. Human handling Increase Respiration Induce Cell wall deterioration Increase Ethylene Produce Toxins PERISHPERISH
Step related to contaminate Pre-harvest conditions Pre-harvest handling Packing/packaging Transportation Retail handling Consumer handling
Sources of Contamination Rain Irrigation water Soil Physical handling Field storage Washing Packing Transportation Handling at the retail shop Handling by the consumers
Methods to reduce or eliminate contamination Avoiding physical contact at harvest. Avoiding using contaminated water or reusing water. Treating the fruits or vegetables with ozonate or chlorine water. Cleaning the packing containers with bleach if it is reused. Avoiding exposure to high temperature.
Cleaning the trucks with bleach. Packaging the fruits and vegetables to avoid physical contact. Reduce water loss Preventing handling of produce by the consumers Cooling/refridgeration /cold storage Waxing and treating with fungicides Irradiation Methods to reduce or eliminate contamination
GROUPEXAMPLESPRINCIPAL CAUSES OF POSTHARVEST LOSSES AND POOR QUALITY Mature-fruit vegetables and fruits Tomato Melons Citrus Bananas Mangoes Apples Grapes Stone fruits Bruising Over-ripeness and excessive softening at harvest Water loss Chilling injury (chilling sensitive fruits) Compositional changes Decay Principal causes of postharvest losses and poor quality… 22
In many, but not all, Asian countries, the standard of retail markets is very poor. Problems in markets include: – Poor sanitary conditions. Arrangements for waste disposal are frequently inadequate. Factors affecting quality and safety of horticultural products in retail marketing
– Washing. water used should be clean and be changed frequently. – Fungicide and insecticide application. Farmers and traders sometimes spray insecticides directly on to fruits and vegetables to keep insects off the produce. Factors affecting quality and safety of horticultural products in retail marketing...
– Ripening. In Cambodia and some countries still use calcium carbide to ripening of bananas and mangoes, although in India it is technically banned as it contains impurities, including arsenic hydride. Much ripened fruit has an unsatisfactory flavour or aroma because it has not reached maturity before harvest, eg. Tomato. Factors affecting quality and safety of horticultural products in retail marketing...
– Exposure of produce to ambient conditions. Markets in many countries lack shelter and produce is exposed to direct sunlight and rain. Temperatures of the display tables or refrigerated supermarket displays should be suited to the commodity on sale. For example, while peppers and tomatoes look pleasing when displayed with lettuce, peppers and tomatoes are chilling sensitive, while lettuce is not, so that peppers and tomatoes will be spoiled. Factors affecting quality and safety of horticultural products in retail marketing...
– Poor packaging materials and practices. Produce is often moved between markets using second-hand packaging. – Sorting and trimming. At wholesale and retail stages trimming of leafy vegetables is carried out. Sorting and trimming is frequently done on the ground, in the sunlight. Factors affecting quality and safety of horticultural products in retail marketing...
Retail display on the ground. Even in those that do have good facilities retailers sometimes prefer to display their produce exposed on the ground, in areas that they believe attract the most customers. Factors affecting quality and safety of horticultural products in retail marketing...
– Handling by retailers and consumers. Many retail markets lack toilets or suitable washing facilities, leading to poor hygiene for traders. Produce on display is often picked over by consumers. This can lead to bruising and contamination of the produce. Factors affecting quality and safety of horticultural products in retail marketing...
Storage In Cambodia generally improper storage fruits and vegetables.. 30
Transportation in Cambodia In Cambodia generally there is no standard transportation for transporting fruit and vegetable such as vehicle (van, truck, taxi), boat, motorcycle, bicycle, horse cart.
Problems and Challenges Small scale production & lack of irrigation system Seasonality produce No application of postharvest and technology Lack of credit or microfinance (saving group) Competition with import product (price and quality) Disperse production Less processing Lack of market information (farmer) Market for agriculture is limited which is a serious threat for investor Producer s’ education limited on agricultural production Late of improvement of new technologies in product system
Opportunities High domestic demand though expensive High demand for agriculture quality product at the local and international market Abandon land Development of technologies of product system as well as postharvest technologies and food processing High potential in agriculture base on resource, climate and adapting climate change Productivities increasing by enlarge of product area through land concession for agricultural investing Human resource development Have many stakeholders involve
Opportunities Enlargement of production areas Government policy support and priority Increase linkage among public, private sector and NGOs in extension Decentralization and de-concentration policy and process. Availability of promising technologies within Cambodia and outside.
Conclusion and Recommendation Bargaining power of the Cambodia farmers/growers is still very low Poor marketing information system Less working capital for all actors in the supply chain No subsidy, high risk, little intervention Marketing share for farmers is still low Upland crops and vegetable crops draw less attention than rice crop Stakeholders must be trained and be made aware of these changes in order to participate effectively in fresh produce supply chains.
Conclusion and Recommendation Stakeholders must be cognizant of environmental issues in selecting packaging options Contract farming is increasing and has to be supported Should promote the drying machine service and postharvest technology for vegetables crops Improve coordination and dialogue between the government and the private sectors Reduce as much as possible the processing and transport cost Governments should pay more attention to pesticide, microbial and parasitic contamination issues. Ways of reducing such contamination need to be identified and information widely to farmers and traders. Further research on the causes of contamination during production and marketing is recommended.