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SOUTHERN AND SOUTHEASTERN ASIAN ART – PART I (TO 1200) EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA WITH APOLOGIES TO FRED.

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Presentation on theme: "SOUTHERN AND SOUTHEASTERN ASIAN ART – PART I (TO 1200) EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA WITH APOLOGIES TO FRED."— Presentation transcript:

1 SOUTHERN AND SOUTHEASTERN ASIAN ART – PART I (TO 1200) EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA WITH APOLOGIES TO FRED KLEINER

2 THEME THE CROSSROAD OF WORLD RELIGION IN THE LIVELY MATERIAL WORLD OF MAYA AND SORROW TO RECALL THAT: HINDU, BUDDHIST AND MUSLIM TRADITIONS FUSE IN SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA AND THAT WHILE BUDDHISM AND HINDUISM VIEW THE MATERIAL WORLD AS ILLUSORY AND/OR MISERABLE, THEIR RELIGIOUS ART IS USUALLY LIVELY!

3 GENERAL OBJECTIVE FOR ALL NON-WESTERN ART:  KNOW ENOUGH ABOUT IT IN GENERAL TO ANSWER A FEW MULTIPLE-CHOICES QUESTIONS ON THE AP EXAM  KNOW SEVERAL EXAMPLES OF EACH APAH THEME TO BE ABLE TO COME UP WITH "NON- WESTERN" OR "BEYOND THE EUROPEAN TRADITION" EXAMPLES ON ESSAYS ON THE AP EXAM  IDENTIFY CROSS-CULTURAL INFLUENCE, EAST-WEST AND WEST-EAST

4 THE APAH THEMES (REMINDER) power and authority wealth RELIGION (SACRED SPACES, PLACES,IDENTITY OBJECTS, SCENES)NATURE PIETYMORTALITY RITUALLOVE PROPAGANDA GRIEF POLITICAL ARTINVISIBLE HUMAN BODYUNREAL PLACE LEADERS IN ART PATRONAGE GENDER ROLES AND RELATIONS PUBLIC ART FAMILY AND CHILDREN IN ARTTECHNOLOGY VIOLENCENARRATIVE JOYPRIDE

5 GENERAL ART HISTORY OBJECTIVES  UNDERSTAND THE LATE NEOLITHIC ORIGINS OF INDIAN AND SOUTHEAST ASIAN ART AND CULTURE.  UNDERSTAND HOW THE INDIGENOUS BELIEFS AND THE BEGINNINGS OF BUDDHISM AND HINDUISM INFLUENCED THE ART AND ARCHITECTURE.  IDENTIFY HALLMARKS OF ARCHITECTURE FROM HINDU AND BUDDHIST MONUMENTS.  COMPARE ANCIENT INDIAN ART WITH ART OF OTHER ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS

6  UNDERSTAND THE ARTISTIC INFLUENCE OF BUDDHISM AND HINDUISM IN SOUTHEAST ASIA AND THE VARYING APPEARANCES OF THE HUMAN FIGURE IN ART.  IDENTIFY HALLMARKS OF TEMPLE AND MONASTIC ARCHITECTURE IN SOUTHEAST ASIA  UNDERSTAND THE ROLE OF THE MONARCHS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA IN THE MIDDLE AGES.  ASSESS THE EFFECT OF ISLAM ON SOUTHERN AND SOUTHEAST ASIAN ART

7  UNDERSTAND THE EARLY SULTANATE, DYNASTY AND PERSIAN INFLUENCES IN THE ART OF THE MUGHAL EMPIRE.  UNDERSTAND THE ART AND ARCHITECTURE OF THE INDIGENOUS RAJPUT KINGDOMS IN CONTRAST WITH THE MUGHAL INFLUENCED ART.  EXAMINE WESTERN ARTISTIC INFLUENCE AND SOUTHEAST ASIAN ADAPTATION OF WESTERN ARTISTIC MEDIA AND CONCEPTS.  UNDERSTAND THE ARTISTIC DIFFERENCES OF THAILAND, BURMA, AND VIETNAM.

8 VERY GENERAL TIMELINE  © 3300 B.C.E. : NEOLITHIC AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION IN INDUS VALLEY  © 2600 – 1900 B.C.E. : BRONZE-AGE INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION (HARAPPA, MOJENO-DARA)  © 1500: ARYAN INVASION  INTRODUCTION OF INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGE AND VEDIC HINDUISM

9 INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION (NOW MOSTLY PAKISTAN

10  SOMETIME BETWEEN © 570 AND 400 B.C.E. – LIFE OF SIDDHARTHA GAUTAMA, THE BUDDHA  © 400 B.C.E – 100 C.E.: SPREAD OF BUDDHISM THROUGHOUT CONTINENTAL ASIA  323 – 185 B.C.E: MAURYA DYNASTY  © 260 B.C.E.: MAURYAN EMPEROR ASHOKA THE GREAT CONVERTS TO BUDDHISM, MAKES IT OFFICIAL STATE RELIGION RECALL: MAURYA INDIA TRADED WITH AFRICA, MIDDLE EAST VIA INDIAN OCEAN ROUTE, WITH EUROPE VIA SILK ROADS

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12  © 180 C.E.: FALL OF MAURYA EMPIRE (KUSHAN [HEPHLALITE] CONQUEST OF EASTERN PARTS (PAKISTAN, AFGHANISTAN)  320 – 550 C.E.: GUPTA INDIA (CLASSICAL. GOLDEN AGE ) (FELL DUE TO WHITE HUN INVASION)  6 TH – 12 TH CENTURIES: NO EMPIRE; SOUTHERN AND SOUTHEAST ASIA BROKEN UP INTO MANY KINGDOMS  7 TH CENTURY: SUFI MUSLIM MISSIONARIES ARRIVE IN INDIA  13 TH – MID-16 TH CENTURIES: MUSLIM DELHI SULTANATE IN NORTH (TIMURID, TURKIC) HINDU VIJAYANAR EMPIRE IN SOUTH INDIA

13 KUSHAN EMPIRE, 30 – 375 C.E.

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15 GUPTA TRADE ROUTES

16 YELLOW = DELHI SULTANATE, SALMON = VIJAYANAR EMPIRE

17 INDIA IN THE 17 TH CENTURY

18  1526 – 1857: MUGHAL EMPIRE (PERSIANIZED MONGOLS/ TIMURIDS) – FIGUREHEAD EMPEROR UNDER BRITISH AFTER 1804)  1757: BRITISH EAST INDIA COMPANY EFFECTIVELY RULES INDIA  1858: BRITISH CROWN TOOK OVER INDIA – RAJ RULE  1947: INDEPENDENCE & PARTITION OF INDIA AND PAKISTAN  WAR, WAR, WAR (MEANWHILE VIETNAM, CAMBODIA AND LAOS WERE UNDER FRENCH RULE 1859 – 1954)

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20 INDIA AND PAKISTAN T0 1200

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22 PREHISTORIC INDUS VALLEY ART

23 GREAT BATH, MOHENJO-DARO, PAKISTAN, © 2600–1900 B.C.E. BASICALLY TO REMIND YOU THEY HAD PLUMBING

24 SEAL WITH SEATED FIGURE IN YOGIC POSTURE, FROM MOHENJO-DARO, PAKISTAN, © 2600–1900 B.C.E. STEATITE COATED WITH ALKALI AND BAKED, APPROX. 1 3/8" X 1 3/8". NATIONAL MUSEUM, NEW DELHI COMPARE TO SUMERIAN CYLINDER SEALS AND BE AWARE THAT THIS IS AN EARLY FORM OF PRINTING

25 ROBED MALE FIGURE, FROM MOHENJO-DARO, PAKISTAN, © 2600–1900 BCE. STEATITE, 6 7 / 8 " HIGH. NATIONAL MUSEUM OF PAKISTAN, KARACHI. TREFOILS ON ROBE, HEAD ORNAMENT MAY INDICATE KINGSHIP THEME? POWER AND AUTHORITY?

26 NUDE MALE TORSO, FROM HARAPPA, PAKISTAN, © 2000 – 1900 BCE. RED SANDSTONE, 3 ¾ " HIGH. NATIONAL MUSEUM, NEW DELHI COMPARED TO CONTEMPORANEOUS EGYPTIAN AND EVEN LATER ARCHAIC GREEK STATUARY? THEME: HUMAN BODY

27 MENKAURE AND KHAMERERNEBTY(?), FROM GIZEH, FOURTH DYNASTY, © 2490–2472 B.C.E. "NEW YORK" KOUROS, © 600 B.C.E. THE HARAPPAN SCULPTOR IS MORE INTERESTED IN MOTION – FIGURE IS MORE "LIVELY"

28 LION CAPITAL OF COLUMN ERECTED BY ASHOKA AT SARNATH, INDIA, © 250 B.C.E. ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM, SARNATH FUNCTION? HELD LAW CODE LIVELY! COMPARE TO? PEREPOLIS (5 TH C. PEREPOLIS (5 TH C. B.C.E.) BULL-HEADED CAPITALS CAPITALSTHEME: POWER AND AUTHORITY POWER AND AUTHORITY

29 EARLY INDIAN BUDDHIST ART AND ARCHITECTURE

30 MAURYAN ART AND ARCHITECTURE

31 GREAT STUPA, SANCHI, INDIA, 3 RD CENTURY B.C.E TO 1 ST CENTURY C.E. 120' ACROSS, 54' HIGH. PATRON: ASHOKA. NOTE THAT FENCES MIMIC WOOD.

32 THEME: SACRED SPACE. STUPAS = RELIQUARIES FOR BUDDHA’S ASHES, MANDALA AND MOUNTAIN OF WORLD 1: CHATRAS = BUDDHA’S PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE. 2: YASTI= AXIS OF UNIVERSE. 3: HARMIKA = ENCLOSURE OF SACRED DOMAIN. 4: SOUTH TORANA = GATEWAY (ONE FOR EVERY CARDINAL POINT). 5: UPPER AMBULATORY. 6: DOME. 7: WEST TORANA. 8: EAST TORANA. 9: DOUBLE STAIRWAY. 10: STONE FENCE 9 10

33 PLAN AND ELEVATION, GREAT STUPA

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35 PILGRIMS DO NOT ENTER STUPAS. THEY CIRCUMAMBULATE IT (AND BUDDHA'S RELICS) COUNTERCLOCKWISE.

36 YAKSHI, DETAIL OF THE EAST TORANA, GREAT STUPA, SANCHI, INDIA, MID- 1 ST CENTURY B.C.E. TO TO EARLY – 1 ST CENTURY C.E. SANDSTONE, 5' HIGH. YAKSHI = MINOR HINDU AND BUDDHIST DEITIES. FEMALE YAKSHIS = FERTILITY (PEOPLE, CROPS). NOTE LIVELINESS THEME: RELIGION, SACRED SPACE/ OBJECT

37 ANOTHER VIEW OF THE SAME YAKSHI

38 TORANA RELIEFS, GREAT STUPA OF SANCHI. NOTE DEPICTION OF MOTION – LIVELINESS

39 MEDITATING BUDDHA, FROM GANDHARA, PAKISTAN, SECOND CENTURY CE. GRAY SCHIST, 3' 7 1/2" HIGH. NATIONAL MUSEUMS OF SCOTLAND, EDINBURGH. IMAGES OF BUDDHA BEGIN IN 1 ST C. B.C.E. – COINCIDE WITH "DEIFICATION" OF BUDDHA HE WAS RENOWNED ASCETIC, SO HE IS USUALLY IN LOTUS POSE: BUT NOTE MOVING, LIVELY LIONS AND PEOPLE AT BASE THEME: RELIGION/OBJECT NOTE ROMAN INFLUENCE!

40 THE LIFE AND DEATH OF THE BUDDHA, FRIEZE FROM GANDHARA, PAKISTAN, SECOND CENTURY CE. SCHIST, 2' 2 3 / 8 " X 9' 6 1 / 8 ". FREER GALLERY OF ART, WASHINGTON, D.C.

41 BIRTH OF BUDDHA, FROM GANHHARA FRIEZE. NOTE MOTHER (QUEEN MAYA) BASED ON YAKSHI, AND ROMAN INFLUENCES (MORE NOTICEABLE ON FOLLOWING PANELS). THEMES: SACRED SPACE, SCENE, FAMILY, NARRATIVE

42 ENLIGHTENMENT AT BODH GAYA FROM GANDHARA

43 FIRST SERMON AT SARNATH FROM GANDHARA FRIEZE

44 DEATH OF THE BUDDHA AT KUSHINAGARA FROM GANDHARA FRIEZE

45 BUDDHA SEATED ON LION THRONE, FROM MATHURA, INDIA, SECOND CENTURY C.E. RED SANDSTONE, 2' 3 ½" HIGH. ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM, MUTTRA. KUSHAN BUDDHA: WEARS MONK'S ROBE, MORE BODY REVEALED, MAKES ABHAYA GESTURE, DHARMACHAKRA ON PALMS OF HANDS AND SOLES OF FEET

46 SEATED BUDDHA, MATHURA USHNISHA MUDRA CHAKRA PRANA ELONGATED EARS HALO OF ENLIGHTENMENT urna

47 INTERIOR, PLAN AND ELEVATION, ROCK-CUT CHAITYA HALL, KARLE, INDIA. CHAITYA HALL CONTAINS STUPA

48 COMPARE WITH ROCK-CUT TEMPLE OF RAMSES II, ABU SIMEL, EGYPT © B.C.E.

49 ELEPHANT CAPITALS, KARLE

50 GUPTA AND POST-GUPTA ART AND ARCHITECTURE

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52 GUPTA BUDDHIST ART AND ARCHITECTURE

53 SEATED BUDDHA PREACHING FIRST SERMON, FROM SARNATH, INDIA, SECOND HALF OF FIFTH CENTURY. TAN SANDSTONE, 5' 3" HIGH. ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM, SARNATH. EARLY MONUMENTAL BUDDHA. SMOOTH BODY, CLINGING CLOTHES = GUPTA STYLE SACRED OBJECT, HUMAN BODY, POWER AND AUTHORITY (?)

54 LEFT: INTERIOR OF CAVE 19, AJANTA, AND RIGHT, ANOTHER AJANTA CAVE WITH BETTER PHOTO, 2 ND HALF OF 5 TH CENTURY. NOTE THAT IN THE GUPTA ROCK-CUT CHAITYAS, LARGE RELIEF (OR STATUE) OF THE BUDDHA IS ON FRONT OF THE STUPA. THEMES = SACRED SPACE, OBJECT, RITUAL, PATRONAGE

55 BODHISATTVA PADMAPANI, WALL PAINTING IN CAVE 1, AJANTA, INDIA, SECOND HALF OF FIFTH CENTURY. A FORM OF FRESCO SECCO, BUT WITH WATER COLORS THEME: SACRED SPACE (GUPTA CAVE CHAITYAS ARE PAINTED), PATRONAGE

56 GUPTA AND (MOSTLY) POST- GUPTA HINDU ART

57 ROCK-CUT HINDU TEMPLES: ABOVE, INTERIOR OF AN ELEPHANTA CAVE; RIGHT EXTERIOR OF AN UDIYAGIRA CAVE THEME: SACRED SPACE NOTICE – NO STUPA. THERE MIGHT HAVE BEEN SHRINES OF HINDU GODS – RELIEFS AND INSCRIPTIONS REMAIN

58 BOAR AVATAR OF VISHNU RESCUING THE EARTH, CAVE 5, UDAYAGIRI, INDIA, EARLY 5 TH CENTURY. RELIEF 13' X 22'; VISHNU 12' 8" HIGH. SACRED SPACE, POWER AND AUTHORITY, POLITICAL, HUMAN BODY

59 DETAILS OF BOAR AVATAR VISHNU: TOP LEFT, VISHNU’S FOOT ON SNAKE GOD (WITH ASP’S HOOD); TOP RIGHT, TINY RESCUED EARTH CLINGS TO VISHNU’S TUSK; RIGHT, SOME OF CAST OF THOUSANDS WATCHING

60 DANCING SHIVA, ROCK-CUT RELIEF IN CAVE TEMPLE, BADAMI, INDIA, LATE 6 TH CENTURY. THAT’S A LIVELY DESTROYER! NOTE THE DANCING GANESHA (SON OF DURGA INCARNATION OF DEVI) SACRED SPACE, “HUMAN” BODY

61 SHIVA LINGA (OR LINGAM) – SHIVA ALSO REGENERATES AND LINGA ARE ONE OF THE MOST PREVALENT HINDU ICONS A HOLE IN A TRIANGLE = YONI LINGAM AND YONI WORSHIP MAY BE INDIGENOUS INDIAN RELIGION THEME: SACRED OBJECT

62 MITHUNA SEXUAL THEMES AND MOTIFS ARE FREQUENT IN HINDU ART (A WHOLE OTHER KIND OF “LIVELINESS”)

63 SHIVA AS MAHADEVA (GOD OF THE WORLD, WITH 3 FACES), CAVE 1, ELEPHANTA, INDIA, © 550–575. BASALT, SHIVA 17' 10" HIGH.

64 SHIVA AS MAHADEVA, CAVE 1, ELEPHANTA

65 VISHNU TEMPLE (LOOKING NORTH), DEOGARH, INDIA, EARLY 6 TH CENTURY. MASONRY TEMPLES BEGIN © 6 TH C. TOWER ORIGINALLY 40’ TALL.

66 VISHNU ASLEEP ON THE SERPENT ANANTA, RELIEF PANEL ON THE SOUTH FAÇADE OF THE VISHNU TEMPLE, DEOGARH. NOT SHOWN: MITHUNAS GUARD THE GATE TO WARD OFF EVIL SPIRITS – COMPARE GOTHIC GARGOYLES THEMES: SACRED SPACE, NARRATIVE, HUMAN BODY

67 ROCK-CUT RATHAS (CHARIOTS OF THE GODS), MAMALLAPURAM, INDIA, LATE 7 TH CENTURY. (1) DHARMARAJA – TEMPLE TO SHIVA (FRONT) – TYPIFIES SOUTHERN TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE (STEPPED VIMANA TOPS MANDAPA (HYPOSTYLE HALL CONTAINING GARBHA GRIHA (CELLA) 2)BHIMA (VISHNU) 3)DRAUPADI (DURGA) – SMALL SOUTHERN TEMPLE

68 NNORTHERN AND SOUTHERN HINDU TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE NORTHERN: VISHVANATHA TEMPLE (LOOKING NORTH), KHAJURAHO © SINGLE SHIKHARA (TOWER) TOPPED BY AMALAKA SOUTHERN: RAJARAJESVARA TEMPLE, THANAJAVUR, © STEPPED VIMANAS AND ONE SHIKHARA

69 PLAN OF VISHVANATHA TEMPLE. SACRED SPACE AND RITUAL: ONLY PRIESTS COULD ENTER THE GARBHA GRIHA WHERE STATUE OF GOD WAS(COMPARE GREEK TEMPLES, CHOIRS OF EUROPEAN CATHEDRALS, AND NAVES OF BYZANTINE CATHEDRALS (ONLY CLERGY AND EMPEROR)

70 MITHUNA RELIEFS, NORTH SIDE OF VISHVANATHA TEMPLE

71 DON’T LOOK TOO CLOSE, KIDDIES! MORE THAN MERE PROPAGATION IS BEING CELEBRATED! VERY, VERY LIVELY SACRED SPACE, HUMAN BODY

72 SHIVA AS NATARAJA, © BRONZE. NALTUNAI ISHVARAM TEMPLE, PUNJAI. SHIVA DANCES AND SIMULTANEOUSLY DESTROYS AND CREATES THE WORLD SACRED OBJECT AND RITUAL, NARRATIVE

73 AFGHANISTIAN

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75 BAMAYAN BUDDHAS (DESTROYED), BAMAYAN, AFGHANISTAN, 3 RD CENTURY C.E. 150' TALL.

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78 SOUTHEAST ASIAN ART AND ARCHITECTURE - T0 1200

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80 DEATH OF THE BUDDHA (PARINIRVANA), GAL VIHARA, NEAR POLONNARUWA, SRI LANKA, 11 TH – 12 TH CENTURIES. GRANULITE, BUDDHA 46' LONG X 10' HIGH. MASSIVE MONUMENTAL BUDDHA (UNLIKE INDIA) BUT STILL VESTIGES OF GUPTA STYLE

81 AERIAL VIEW OF BOROBUDUR, JAVA, INDONESIA, © STUPA, 1500 BUDDHA STATUES, MEANING OF PLAN DEBATED. ALMOST NOTHING INDIAN ABOUT THIS! Aerial view of Borobudur, Java, Indonesia, © 800

82 HARIHARA, FROM PRASAT ANDET, CAMBODIA, EARLY 7 TH CENTURY. STONE, 6' 3" HIGH. NATIONAL MUSEUM, PHNOM PENH. SHIVA/VISHNU HALF-AND- HALF "CULT" STATUE FOR GARBA GRIHA INFLUENCED BY GUPTA, BUT DIFFERENT: FULLY IN THE ROUND! THEMES: SACRED OBJECT, HUMAN BODY

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84 VISHNU LYING ON THE COSMIC OCEAN, FROM MEBAN ISLAND TEMPLE, ANGKOR, CAMBODIA, 11 TH C. BRONZE, 8' LONG. NATIONAL MUSEUM OF CAMBODIA, PHNOM PENH. THEME: SACRED SPACE AND OBJECT, PATRONAGE, POWER AND AUTHORITY

85 AERIAL VIEW OF ANGKOR WAT, ANGKOR, CAMBODIA, FIRST HALF OF 12TH CENTURY. COMPLEX 5000' X 4000'. PATRON: SURYAVARMAN II. SACRED SPACE, POWER AND AUTHORITY. ULTRA-SOUTHERN!

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90 KING SURYAVARMAN II HOLDING COURT, DETAIL OF A STONE RELIEF, LOWEST GALLERY, SOUTH SIDE, ANGKOR WAT, ANGKOR, CAMBODIA, FIRST HALF OF 12 TH CENTURY. THEME: POWER AND AUTHORITY

91 TOWERS OF THE BAYON, ANGKOR THOM, CAMBODIA, © THEMES: POWER AND AUTHORITY, PROPAGANDA (BUDDHA HAS THE KING'S FACE), SACRED SPACE


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