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Where is Vietnam? US Presidents  Truman 1945 - 1953  Eisenhower 1953 - 1961  Kennedy 1961 - 1963  Johnson 1963 - 1969  Nixon 1969 - 1974 USSR.

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Presentation on theme: "Where is Vietnam? US Presidents  Truman 1945 - 1953  Eisenhower 1953 - 1961  Kennedy 1961 - 1963  Johnson 1963 - 1969  Nixon 1969 - 1974 USSR."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Where is Vietnam?

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4 US Presidents  Truman  Eisenhower  Kennedy  Johnson  Nixon USSR Leaders  Stalin  Malenkov  Khruschev  Brezhnev

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6 Vietnam = French Colony During WWII, Japanese occupies Indochina Post WWII, Japanese retreated & people of Vietnam established gov’t

7 France holds this area for 50 days Surprise attack by Vietnam TURNING POINT  France pulls out

8 Importance to the Cold War -Jan 1950  China and USSR recognizes Ho Chi Minh’s Democratic Republic of Vietnam and China sends weapons -Feb 1950  USA sends $15 million in aid for French and recognizes Bao Dai’s French controlled govt

9 What CAUSED the Second Indochina War ( )?

10 GENEVA ACCORDS Signed b/w France & Vietnam Vietnam divided near the 17 th parallel TEMPORARY DIVISION until national elections to reunify the country

11 He set up a communist regime, supported by the Soviet Union and China, in Hanoi (Northern Vietnam)

12 The United States prevented the elections that were promised under the Geneva conference b/c they knew that the Communists would win. If Communists won elections, Vietnam would be unified as a COMMUNIST COUNTRY

13  North Vietnam – HO CHI MINH  supported by USSR AND CHINA  South Vietnam – looking for a leader  supported by USA President Eisenhower supported the creation of South Vietnam

14 Placed into office by the United States Claimed S. Vietnam was under attack by the Communists in the North

15 Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) Collective security organization, meant to prevent spread of communism beyond North Vietnam Main justification for USA to join the war b/c they were part of SEATO With the help of American military & CIA, Diem (SOUTH) identified his opposition and arrested/executed them

16 HO CHI MINHNGO DIHN DIEM Leader of NORTH Lots of people looked up to him for leadership Considered a hero  broke up large estates  redistributed land Leader of SOUTH “placed” into office by U.S.A. Unsuccessful b/c of corrupt gov’t Offered no land distribution to peasants Catholic vs. Buddhism

17 Diem’s Government “This is a hostile act of aggression by North Vietnam against peace- loving and democratic South Vietnam” - Ngo Dinh Diem

18  South Vietnam did not like Diem as their leader  North Vietnam created NLF (1960)  Helped mobilize southerners  Brought together Communists (North) and non- Communists (South) together

19 RECALL: USA opposed Communism Johnson feared losing Vietnam  The situation in South Vietnam was critical b/c it was an area of increasing communist control, an unpopular government and an army suffering from low morale

20 Believed the NLF was a way for North Vietnam to spread their ideologies to the South  Johnson decided to escalate the scope of US intervention

21 USA needed to increase aid: 1)Military 2)Economic 3)Technological Stabilize Diem regime Crush NLF

22 USA Enters The War- The Domino Theory 1) President Truman’s policy of containment- Americans were fearful of communist expansion and needed it to be contained 2) President Eisenhower’s domino theory – If one power were to fall to communism then surrounding countries would also be susceptible 3) The loss of Vietnam it was feared would trigger an “domino effect” in Southeast Asia

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24 What was the STYLE OF WAR ?

25 HO CHI MINH Trail 1959 HO CHI MINH Trail 1959  Went through neutral Laos and Cambodia so that those travelling would go undetected  Instrumental to movement of people and weaponry  Later became target for bombing campaign  Also used to transport military supplies from North to Viet Cong

26 GULF OF TONKIN (1964)

27 THE GULF OF TONKIN RESOLUTION Gave US Pres far-reaching powers in Indochina, including power to send troops Congress agreed to take any necessary measures against attack from opposition

28 Operation Rolling Thunder (1965) Johnson ordered bombing missions over North Vietnam massive aerial bombing campaign that targeted Ho Chi Minh Trail, Viet Cong areas in south & industrial & military areas in north

29 Napalm Bombs inflammable petroleum jelly placed in bombs used by US caused burns to thousands of innocent civilians

30 Agent Orange chemical defoliant spray designed to remove leaves from trees in jungle to deprive Viet Cong (N. Vietnam) of cover chemical contains dioxin which got in the food chain, causing chromosome damage to humans

31 Technology & Weaponry (con’t) HELICOPTERS became the most useful b/c they would drop bombs in the jungle and clear everything out

32 North Vietnam Tactics

33 USA Tactics “Search and Destroy” In areas where they thought the NLF were operating, US troops went in and checked for weapons, and if they found it, they would burn the villages down and round up the villagers

34 China’s Role stationed troops near their border with N.Vietnam provided anti-aircraft defence systems to counter Operation Rolling Thunder sent technicians so that NV army could be free to engage in military operations

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36 NV decided to launch all-out military assault on USA and S. Vietnam on Vietnamese holiday of Tet, which had been a day of ceasefire for whole nation US didn’t win but they needed to send 200,000 more troops  eroded much of US public support

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38 What were the NEGOTIATIONS and SETTLEMENTS What were the NEGOTIATIONS and SETTLEMENTS ?

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40  SOUTH Vietnam would increasingly take leadership role in war and USA would gradually withdraw, while training S. Vietnam troops and preparing them to take complete political and military control over North Vietnam

41 i. Jan – ceasefire (until settlement was in effect) ii. US troops would withdraw iii. SV people would decide their political future iv. All POWs were to be released v. NV infiltration of men and supplies through Laos and Cambodia into SV were to cease GOAL: Reunification of Vietnam through peaceful means

42  Agreement was a joke because neither side had any intention of obeying it  By 1973 all US troops were removed from Vietnam

43  continue to support non-communist movments abroad w/ economic or military aid but wouldn’t commit its troops to fight on foreign soil

44 US’s longest war was a failure because Third Indochina War ( ) resulted in S. Viet falling under communist control of the North  US’s longest war was a failure because Third Indochina War ( ) resulted in S. Viet falling under communist control of the North  Led to re-evaluation of their foreign policies

45 Relation to Cold War i. Domino Theory  Policy of Containment ii. USSR and China supplied North Vietnam with weapons, troops and aid WHILE U.S.A sent troops, weapons and aid to South Vietnam iii. USSR proposed dual nation solution – North and South would be recognized as separate nations but US rejected this because they hoped to gain control over entire country

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48 WORKS CITED AND CONSULTED policy-past-present-future-fall-2010/lecture- notes/MIT17_40F10_VIETNAM.pdfhttp://ocw.mit.edu/courses/political-science/17-40-american-foreign- policy-past-present-future-fall-2010/lecture- notes/MIT17_40F10_VIETNAM.pdf th Century World History IB Textbook History for the IB Diploma – The Cold War


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