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Vietnam War Honors Foreign Policy. Timeline 1 st Vietnam War 1946 – 1954, Vietnam split at 17 th parallel Eisenhower and Kennedy support South Vietnam.

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Presentation on theme: "Vietnam War Honors Foreign Policy. Timeline 1 st Vietnam War 1946 – 1954, Vietnam split at 17 th parallel Eisenhower and Kennedy support South Vietnam."— Presentation transcript:

1 Vietnam War Honors Foreign Policy

2 Timeline 1 st Vietnam War 1946 – 1954, Vietnam split at 17 th parallel Eisenhower and Kennedy support South Vietnam with military advisors 2 nd Vietnam War 1965 – 1975, U.S. Forces withdraw in 1973

3 Korea vs. Vietnam Korea N. Korean attack Conventional War Caused by Stalin Vietnam Infiltration of South Vietnam Guerilla War Nationalistic

4 Guerilla Warfare  Aim to capture “hearts and minds” of ordinary citizens and to undermine their confidence in the regime  Long term strategy – Guerillas do not have to inflict complete defeat upon enemy or compel them to surrender  Guerillas need support of people for food, shelter, and information

5 French Colonization  French colonized Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia at the end of the 1800s until 1954, with brief period of Japanese rule during WWII  Japanese ruled Vietnam during WWII and exploited its natural resources

6 Dien Bien Phu  March 13 th – May 7 th, 1954  Battle between French Union troops and North Vietnamese troops in northwestern Vietnam  French forces surrounded and forced to surrender

7 First Indochina War French Union 70,000+ dead North Vietnam 300,000+ dead

8 Geneva Accords 1954  Granted independence to Indochina  Divided Vietnam at 17 th parallel  Called for internationally supervised free elections to be held in July 1956  Established International Control Commission composed of India, Canada, and Poland

9 Geneva Accords 1954  450,000 Catholic Vietnamese moved to South Vietnam; 50,000 communist Vietnamese moved to North Vietnam  Both sides violated the agreement; North Vietnam supported the Vietcong in the South; South Vietnam and the U.S. sent forces to sabotage installations in the north

10 Vietnam Split South Vietnam Ngo Dinh Diem Dictatorship North Vietnam Ho Chi Minh Communist

11 South Vietnam Government corruptionAlienation of peasants (no land reform)No economic or political reformsMilitary corrupt, inefficient, and inept

12 North Vietnam Repression of Catholics and French collaborators Land reforms and indoctrination of peasants Support of southern communists (Vietcong)

13 Strategic Hamlet  The Strategic Hamlet program was an attempt to isolate rural peasants from contact and infiltration by the Vietminh by creating fortified villages from 1962 - 1964  Several thousand fortified villages were constructed and millions of peasants relocated by the program failed due to corruption and peasant resentment

14 Strategic Hamlet

15 Diem’s Buddhist Crisis  Buddhists not allowed to fly religious flags at religious festival  Buddhists staged protests in May in the city of Hue. Diem’s soldiers shot and killed 9 protestors leading to more protests and retributions  Buddhists called for freedom to fly religious flags, end to arbitrary arrests, and religious equality with Catholics

16 Immolation of Thich Quang Duc

17 Coup Diem’s government overthrown in coup on November 1, 1963 A Junta of generals took control of the government until mid 1965 when Nguyen Cao Ky became Prime Minister and Nguyen Thieu Chief of State U.S. President John F. Kennedy knew about and supported the coup

18 Gulf of Tonkin Incident  August 2 nd, 1964 – The USS Maddox engaged by 3 North Vietnamese Torpedo boats  August 4 th, 1964 – The USS Maddox allegedly engaged by North Vietnamese Torpedo boats  Gulf of Tonkin Resolution – Joint resolution passed by Congress on August 7 th, 1964 Wayne Morse D – Oregon Ernest Gruening D - Alaska

19 Problems USS Maddox may have been in Vietnam’s Territorial waters USS Maddox was collecting electronic intelligence and assisting South Vietnamese ships conducting raids Second incident never occurred and U.S. administration fabricated the details

20 U.S. Commits Troops  March 1965, L.B.J. sends marines to Vietnam to protect U.S. air bases. Marines were supposed to perform defensive duties.  By December 1965, nearly 200,000 U.S. troops were in Vietnam performing offensive operations. Their task was to seek and destroy the Vietcong.

21 Vietnamese Strategy  Continue to send supplies to Vietcong insurgents in South Vietnam via the Ho Chi Minh Trail  Expand Ho Chi Minh Trail and protect key points with antiaircraft weapons  Begin to send large North Vietnamese regular units to the south to help Vietcong  Continue hit and run tactics, avoid conventional battles

22 U.S. Strategy  Bomb military targets in North Vietnam such as harbor facilities, railroads, and key points on the Ho Chi Minh Trail  Use overwhelming U.S. firepower to seek and destroy enemy  Wear down the morale and war fighting capability of North Vietnam until they asked for peace

23 Operation Rolling Thunder 1965 – 1968, sustained bombing campaign against N. Vietnam Dropped 1 million tons of bombs, 800 tons a day for 3 ½ years 1966, U.S. air force staged 7000 air raids against roads and 1000 against railways

24 Operation Rolling Thunder  Needs of North Vietnamese forces minimal. All forces in South Vietnam needed only 15 tons of supplies a day to carry on the war  China and Soviet Union supplied N. Vietnam with 6000 tons of aid a day  N. Vietnam was only a staging point, it had few factories  By 1967, N. Vietnam had suffered 300 million in damage but the U.S. had lost 700 aircraft

25 Ho Chi Minh Trail


27 Tet Offensive  Major North Vietnamese offensive on the Lunar New Year, January 1968  North Vietnamese forces broke a truce and simultaneously attacked U.S. Forces across Vietnam  NVA forces attacked U.S. embassy in Saigon and briefly took over strategic points in Saigon


29 Battle of Hue  NVA forces took over the ancient capital of Vietnam, Hue, during the Tet Offensive  Hue was one of the few urban battles during the Vietnam War  Casualties – 150 U.S. Marines, over 5000 NVA

30 North Vietnam Goals Topple Saigon regime by promoting peasant and urban rebellions Convince U.S. to end bombing and negotiate Weaken U.S./Saigon alliance

31 Tet Outcomes NVA suffered crushing defeat on battlefield Seen as propaganda victory for North Vietnam Fueled anti-war protests in U.S.

32 Nixon Doctrine  LBJ did not run for reelection, Richard Nixon was elected as President  Nixon promised he would end the war and bring peace with honor  Promoted the idea of Vietnamization, a slow withdrawal of U.S. forces in conjunction with training and improving the South Vietnam military

33 Nixon Doctrine  Nixon focused on improving relations with the Soviet Union and China  He hoped the Soviet Union and China would reduce aid to the North Vietnamese  Nixon was the first U.S. President to travel to communist China and meet with Chinese officials

34 Nixon Policy  Nixon gradually reduced U.S. troops in Vietnam  Approved the secret bombing of Vietnamese positions in Cambodia in 1969, Codenamed Operation menu  Approved Operation Linebacker, a continuous bombing campaign of North Vietnam from May to October of 1972

35 Cambodia  Cambodia was granted independence by France in November 1953  Government was constitutional monarchy under Prince Norodom  Norodom adopted policy of neutrality during the Vietnam War  North Vietnamese established bases in Cambodia with knowledge of Norodom

36 Cambodia  U.S. Forces secretly bombed and conducted special forces operations in Cambodia against Vietcong  In 1970, Prince Norodom was ousted by Prime Minister Lon Nol  Khmer Rouge, Cambodian communists with support of North Vietnamese began civil war against Lon Nol’s government forces  U.S. bombed Khmer Rouge bases and briefly invaded country

37 Paris Peace Accords  27 January 1973 – ceasefire  After ceasefire was in effect U.S. troops and other foreign troops would withdraw  U.S. prisoners of war would be released  Reunification of Vietnam to be carried out by step by step through peaceful means

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