2contents JICA’s Cooperation for Urban Water Activities and future vision in PakistanThis is the my presentation contents. Before talking our activities in Pakistan, I would like to explain the characteristics of JICA’s cooperation for urban water. After briefing JICA’s characteristics, I will share the our activities and vision for water sector in Pakistan, especially for capacity development of WASAs.
31. JICA’s Cooperation for Urban Water (1) JICA’s Cooperation Schemes (2) Characteristic of JICA’s technical cooperationIn this chapter, there are 2 topics, first is JICA’s scheme, and second is characteristics of our cooperation.
4JICA’s Cooperation Schemes for Urban Water ①Development of water supply and Sewage facilitiesDevelopment of Master Plan(technical cooperation)Development of facilities and Provision of Machineries(Grant, or Loan)②Sustainable operation and maintenance (technical cooperation)Promotion of operation/maintenance capacity of water supply utilities (WASA) in urban areasStrengthening the capacity of business management of WASA①Water Treatment plant in Cambodia②Japanese expert providing guidance on maintenanceThis slide shows our schemes. JICA has three schemes, Grant aid project, Loan project, and technical cooperation project.In water sector, we utilize these schemes effectively.Figure 1 shows typical example for development of some facilities. First, JICA supports making the MP as technical cooperation. After that we transfers construction project.JICA support not only construction project but also capacity development project. JICA can dispatch Japanese expert and received trainee from developing country to Japan.4③Japanese expert providing guidance on enlightenment activities
5Characteristic of JICA’s technical cooperation ~Japanese Water Operators as partners~ JICA has utilizes Japanese experience for technical cooperation.The situation in JapanWater Supply Coverage ratio is 97.5% in 2010Average NRW ratio of 1440 waterworks is 9.84% in 2010Ratio of wastewater treatment is 88.1% in 2012650 Engineers from over 60 water operators have worked with water operators in developing countries (1990~2006) .JICA has Invited many trainees from developing countries to Japanese water operators every year.●Pipe connectionHere, I would like to share the characteristic of JICA’s technical cooperation. JICA utilizes Japanese own experience for international cooperation project. After 1950 around Pakistan independent, water supply situation in Japan was improved dramatically in Japan. This is the current typical figure, water supply coverage ratio is 97.5%, Average NRW ration of 1440 waterworks is less than 10%. Therefore, JICA works with Japanese waterworks staff to implement our project. This figure is old, but this figure shows our characteristic. JICA dispatches the personnel to developing country and invites counterpart personnel to Japan waterworks.Pump operation
62. Activities and future vision in Pakistan (1) JICA’s Projects for Water in Pakistan (2) Concept of JICA/WASA Lahore Model (3) JICA’s Strategy to Water Sector in PakistanIn first chapter, I explained JICA’s characteristics briefly.Next, I will overview our activities and focus on the WASA Lahore model.
7JICA’s completed and on-going Projects for Water in Pakistan Abbottabad (GA)Constriction of Water Treatment PlantIslamabad (GA and Loan)Constriction and Rehabilitationof Water Treatment PlantLahore (GA and TC)- Provision of Pumpsfor drainage and SewageInstitutional Reform Advisor(WASA Lahore Model)Faisalabad (GA and TC)- Provision of Pumpsfor drainage and Sewage- Expansion ofWater Supply System- Institutional Reform AdvisorThrough this slide, we are overviewing our project. In this country, JICA has supported facility development projects using Loan and Grant aid, in Abbottabad, Islamabad, Lahore, Faisalabad, and Karachi. In addition, we are improving the financial situation in WASA Lahore and Faisalabad. First, we started in Lahore and WASA Lahore achieved cost saving successfully. For this approach, we call “WASA Lahore model”.Karachi (TC and Loan)- Development of Master Plan- Constriction and Rehabilitationof Water Treatment Plant
8Concept of JICA/WASA Lahore Model (1)For the propose of sustainable water supply, sewerage and drainage services,(2)Ensuring the autonomy and independency of Service Providers (WASAs),(3)Through assuring the financial health of Service Providers(by Revenue Increase and Expense Decrease)Financial Healthof WASAsRevenue IncreaseExpense DecreaseFrom now, I am introducing WASA Lahore model briefly. In order to realize the sustainable water supply, sewage and drainage services, ensuring the autonomy and independency of WASAs through assuring the financial health of WASA is required.What is the definition of financial health ? Usually, full cost recovery is called required, it means including Operation and Maintenance cost, depreciation of facilities, and investment for new facilities. However, in most of developing country, this is difficult, due to the people’s low income level. So we have to consider the financial situation step by step. First step is recovery of OM cost, second including depreciation, finally including investment for new facilities.Then, how we can proceed the financial health. To improve financial situation, WASA has to increase revenue and decrease expense. For increasing revenue, WASAs have three methods, first is revision of water tariff including introduction of metered charge and raising the unit price, second is third is reducing Non revenue water and increasing collection ratio.On the other hand, to decrease the expense, reduction of OM cost, and efficient work of staff and human resources allocation is required.As the activities for reduction of OM cost, energy cost saving, asset management, and proper operation are considered.Water TariffRevisionReduction ofUFW/NRWand IncreasingTariff collectionReduction ofO/M CostEfficiencyImprovementand ReducePersonnel Expense
9Revenue Increase Strategy Breakdown ofRevenue Increase StrategyRevenue IncreaseWater Tariff RevisionReduction of UFW/NRWand Increasing tariff collectionImprovement ofWater QualityCustomer ServiceRehabilitation and Replacement ofDistribution network systemReduction of Illegal Connectionand Uncollected revenueImproving Collection efficiency (Computerization of billing system/Outsourcing to private sector etc.)Install Customer MeterClarification of Rights and ResponsibilityIn Relation with CustomersCreating Customer Relation OfficePreparation of PR Strategyand Awareness CampaignIncreasing Willingness to PayEstablishment of TransparentlyTariff Revision MechanismEstablishment ofMunicipal Water CommissionPreparation of Road Map andOperational Guidelines for Tariff RevisionEnactment of“Punjab Municipal Water Act”Analysis of Financial StatementCash Flow AnalysisConstruction/Rehabilitation ofWater Treatment Plant and Water PipelineIntroduction ofWater Quality MonitoringPrevention measurefor LeakageIntroduction of Water MeterFor regular SurveillanceIntroductionLeakage Control ProgramConductingDoor to Door Survey6 Years Business PlanEnactment of “Punjab Municipal Water Act”Amendment of “WASA Regulation”I am showing the breakdown of revenue increase strategy.For water tariff revision, JICA supported two aspects, increasing willingness to pay improving service provision to customer, and establishment of transparently tariff revision mechanism. For these, JICA supported to draft business plan, WASA regulation, Municipal water act and roadmap and guideline.On reduction of UFW/NRW and increasing tariff collection,Preparing “Road Map and Operational Guidelines for Tariff Revision”
10Breakdown of Expense Decrease Strategy Financial Health of WASAsExpense DecreaseReduce O&M CostEfficiency Improvement andReduce Personnel ExpenseRehabilitation and ReplacementOf Facilities and EquipmentImprovement ofOperational PerformanceMaking rehabilitationand Replacement PlanBudgeting necessary O&M CostEnhancement ofOperator ‘s skillIncreasing the cost consciousnessof WASA staffsIntroducingO&M Monitoring and AuditDevelopment of O&M ManualProviding appropriateTechnical TrainingAdministrative EfficiencyStaff RedeploymentReduce of Overlapping WorkImprovement of ProductivityIntroducing theperformance base IncentivesSetting-up ofperformance measurement systemTraining of StaffsNegotiation on Electricity TariffEnergy Cost SavingTO introduceEnergy Audit MechanismWASA Academy ProjectBreakdown ofExpense Decrease Strategy6 Years Business Plan
11(Under Implementation) Actions Taken and to be Taken Under the ModelStep 4Punjab Municipal Water Act and Capacity Development (Under Planning)Punjab Province (Urban Unit, HUD&PHED)Enactment of Punjab Municipal Water ActEstablishment of Municipal Water CommissionTariff RevisionCapacity Development of WASA Staff (WASA Academy and P-WOPs)WASA LahoreStep 1 Analysis of the Status Quo and Making Reform Strategy (Completed in 2011)Making 6 Years Business Plan (Mid-Tem Business Plan): May 20th, 2011 approved by LDASetting Performance Monitoring Indictor and Establishment Performance Monitoring Cell (Total 42 Indicators, including 28 indicators recommended by WSP)Drafting Road Map and Operational Guidelines for Tariff RevisionAmendment of “WASA Regulations”Step2 Establishment of Sub committees(S/C)and preparing Module Projects (Completed in 2012)SC 1: Reduction of NRW and Water Pilferage (ex. Apparent Loss Reduction, Meter Installation & Replacement, NRW reduction, Customer Support Improvement etc.)SC 2: Improvement of O&M efficiency and Energy Saving (ex. Energy Audit and Establish Energy Management Cell, Negotiation with LESCO, Regular Inspection for O&M etc.)SC 3: Admin Efficiency Improvement and Staff Redeployment (ex. Financial Efficiency Improvement, Efficient Outsourcing etc.)I would like to share the result and its approach.Please look at the step 3, first. 成果を読み上げる。So far, WASA Lahore could achieve good results.Well, how did WASA Lahore accomplish this result? Please look at step1, JICA dispatched the expert to analyze the current situation and made reform strategy. After that, WASA Lahore established three sub-committees and made module projects activities. For example, Sub committee one is working for 読み上げる。In addition to WASA Lahore activities, JICA supported provincial level to improve water tariff system and disseminate the WASA Lahore result.In near the future, Urban Unit of Punjab Government will start WASA academy with JICA support. WASA academy’s role is strengthening the WASA staff’s capacity for operation and maintenance in Punjab. Through this academy, JICA wants to disseminate WASA Lahore’s good practice.Step 3 Implementation of Module Project(Under Implementation)EX. (Actual Achievement)Detected illegal/misuse connection, Rs.56 million added in WASA Revenue yearlyBilling ratio is 94% (79.1% in 2008)Energy Management Cell saved energy cost Rs.575 million in 17 months(JAN MAY 2013).JICA’s TechnicalCooperation
12JICA’s Strategy to Water Sector in Pakistan Step 1To Establish “JICA/WASA-Lahore Model” in Lahore City.Step 2To Expand the Model to Other Major Cities in Punjab, such as Faisalabad, Multan, Rawalpindi and Gujranwala thorough WASA Academy.Step 3To Expand the Model and Experience to other Provinces, like Islamabad, Karachi in Sindh, Peshawar in KP Province, Quetta in Balochistan etc, through P-WOPs and WASA academy.WASA Academy and P-WOPs with technical support of Japanese WaterworksFuture Achievement- Sharing WASA Lahore model and Japanese experience with WASAs, and Improvement of the Water Supply and Sanitation situation in Pakistan- Creation of the Relationship between Pakistan WASAs/P-WOPs and Japanese Waterworks/Waterworks AssociationThis is the last slide and shows JICA’s strategy for water sector.As I explained we have good practice in Lahore. For next step, JICA will try to disseminate to other WASA in Punjab and other provinces utilizing WASA academy and P-WOPs.In addition, now JICA is consulting with Japanese waterworks to support WASA academy technically and considering making relationship between P-WOPs and Japan Waterworks Association. JICA’s strategy is that based on WASA academy and P-WOPs, we will disseminate WASA Lahore model and Japanese knowledge and skill to Pakistan and as the result, we want to contribute the sustainable urban water service provision.
13Thank youBefore concluding this presentation, I’d like to complement me presentation to realize sustainable service provision.First, based on analysis of the finance, raising water tariff is necessary.If government want to realize sustainable service by WASAs, it is significantly required.Of course, we have to take care low income people with some way, for example using cross subsidy system.Second, in order to raise tariff, WASAs are also required to realize efficient operation and maintenance to represent their effort like WASA Lahore.For WASA’s efficient operation and maintenance, and for sustainable service provision to Pakistan people, JICA would like to contribute for urban water sector continuously.Thank you for your attention.13
14~ A Successful model of “JICA’s Cooperation” Phnom Penh Water Supply Authority (Cambodia)COMPREHENSIVE ASSISTANCE OF JICA FOR RECOVERING WATER SUPPLY CAPACITY DAMAGED DURING THE CIVIL WARPreparation of a master plan on water supply in Phnom Penh city (JICA, 1993)Improvement of water infrastructureJapan: Phum Prek WTP, DNI in “7th January” and Toul Kork districtsAFD: Chamcarmon WTP, DNI in Don Penh districtWB: Chroy Cang War WTP, DNI in Toul Kork andChamcarmon districtsADB: DNI in Chamcarmon districtCapacity Development (JICA, 1998~2006)WTP: Water Treatment PlantService coverage25% _ 90%Now let’s look at a case study of JICA’s activities in water supply. This is restoration of water supply in Phnom Penh in Cambodia. This is regarded as a model project for technology promotion as we trained core engineers within the water supply authority so as to improve technical skills of other personnel through these core engineers.The water facilities in Phnom Penh was hit by the devastating civil war, which began in 1970.JICA started by formulating a master plan for restoration of the country’s water service in 1993, ahead of activities by other donors.As a second step, not only the Japanese grant aid, but also the World Bank, the French Development Agency and the Asian Development Bank used this master plan to build and rehabilitate three water treatment plants and to install water pipes stretching 300 kilometers in total. As a result, the city’s service coverage, which had dropped to 25%, reached 90% in 2006.As a third step, from 1998 JICA implemented a technical cooperation project to enhance the operational and maintenance capacity of Phnom Penh Water Supply Authority with Japanese waterworks experts.それでは、JICAの協力事例の紹介をいたします。まず初めはカンボジア・プノンペン市の水道の復興に関する協力例です。これは、水道局内に中核技術者を育成し、その中核技術者によって他の職員の技術向上を図る技術普及モデルの例です。プノンペン市の水道は、1970年からの内戦中に壊滅的な被害を受けました。JICAは第一に、1993年に他のドナーに先駆け水道サービスの復旧に向けたマスタープランを策定しました。第二に、このマスタープランを基に、日本の無償資金協力のみならず、世界銀行、フランス開発庁、アジア開発銀行が、３つの浄水場の建設やリハビリ、総延長300kmにも及ぶ水道管の敷設を行いました。その結果、 25%まで落ち込んでいたプノンペン市の給水率は、2006年には90%に達しました。第三にJICAは1998年から、プノンペン水道公社の運転・維持管理能力の強化のため、技術協力プロジェクトを行いました。（メモ：パワーポイント中にある施設、地区名の日本語読み） DNI：Distribution Network Improvement（配水管網整備）日本：プンプレック浄水場（Water Treatment Plant：WTP）、 “7th January”町とトゥールコルク町のDNIフランス開発庁（AFD）：チャンカーモン浄水場、ドンペン町のDNI世銀：チュルイチャンワー浄水場、トゥールコルク町とチャンカーモン町のDNIADB：チャンカーモン町のDNIDNI: Distribution Network Improvement
15~ A Successful model of “JICA’s Cooperation” Phnom Penh Water Supply Authority (Cambodia)ACHIEVEMENT19932006Service coverage25%90%Service hours (per day)10hrs24hrsNon-Revenue Water ratio72%8%Collection ratio48%99.9%Extension (Second and Third phase: 2007~2017)From Phnom Penhto 8 other local operatorsExpansion in CambodiaThrough a set of these support activities, Phnom Penh’s water system was successfully restored as its service coverage reached 90% with 24-hour supply. Surprisingly, its non-revenue water ratio reached 8.Currently, Phnom Penh Water Supply Authority is leveraging the capacities of both individuals and the organization, which were enhanced during Phase 1, and is providing water operators in eight regional cities with technical training.While there is indirect support through the JICA project, water operators within the country have engaged in technology transfer and sharing of experiences among themselves.Like this, JICA and Japanese waterworks have worked together and contributed to achieve safe and stable water supply.これら一連の支援により、2006年には給水率90％、24時間給水、無収水率にいたっては8％を達成し、見事復興を果たしました。そして現在、プノンペン水道公社は、第１フェーズで強化された個人と組織の能力を活用して、８つの地方都市の水道事業体に対する技術指導を行っています。JICAプロジェクトによる側面支援があるものの、カンボジア国内において水道事業体どうしの技術交換、経験の共有が進められています。（メモ）プノンペン水道公社の配水管の総延長は1,118km（2005年4月時点）。●