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Cambodia and Germany in the Cold War Can communism be contained?

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Presentation on theme: "Cambodia and Germany in the Cold War Can communism be contained?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cambodia and Germany in the Cold War Can communism be contained?

2 What happened to Cambodia? Khmer Rouge: ___________________ ___________________ Formed in 1968 as a faction of the Peoples’ Army of ____________ Ruled from 1975-1978 Led by _____________

3 Rule of Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge Attempts at _____________________________led to widespread famine Forced evacuation of ________ populations (“New People”) in an attempt to create _______________ __________________________ (“Old People”) Insisted on absolute _______________________ = complete ______________ Severe restrictions on ____________________(religion, privacy, communication, etc.) Mass executions of dissenters, intellectuals, foreigners or “New People” led to the ______________________. Maintained support through _____________________.

4 Crimes Against Humanity The Khmer Rouge arrested, tortured, and executed anyone suspected of belonging to several categories of supposed "enemies:” – Connections to ________ or ___________ governments – Professionals & _______________ (In practice, this included everyone with an _____________) – Artists, musicians, writers – ___________________________________________ – ________ Vietnamese, Chinese, Thai populations – “Economic Saboteurs:” former __________ populations Death toll is estimated between ______________.

5 Fall of Khmer Rouge By December 1978, due to several years of _______________ and the _____________, relations between Cambodia and _________ collapsed Vietnamese forces invaded and captured the capital, ____________, in January 1979 (left) During period of Sino-Soviet tensions: ________ supported Vietnam & ______supported Cambodia Occupation and fighting continued until a _____________________ was established in 1996 _____________________________

6 REVIEW What led to the division of Germany in 1949? What were the causes/effects of the Berlin blockade? How did containment in Asia effect the Cold War in Europe? What were the two Cold War alliances?

7 Timeline of Events Affecting post-war Germany (1945-1961) 1945: Yalta & Potsdam Conferences 1948: Marshall Aide approved; Berlin Blockade 1949: NATO established; West (FRG) & East (GDR) Germanys established 1955: West Germany admitted to NATO (effect of Korean War) 1958: Khrushchev attempts negotiation = ultimatum 1961: Berlin Wall is built

8 8 NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization In 1949 the western nations formed the _________________________ ______________to coordinate their defense against USSR. Pledged signers to treat an attack against one, as _________________ It originally consisted of: – America- Holland – Belgium- Italy – Britain- Luxembourg – Canada- Norway – Denmark- Portugal – France When West Germany joined in 1955, the Soviets responded….. NATO flag

9 9 Warsaw Pact Warsaw Pact: organization of communist states in __________________________. Established May 14, 1955 in Warsaw, Poland ___________________________ Founding members: – Albania (left in 1961) - Poland – Bulgaria - Romania – Czechoslovakia- USSR (founding member) – Hungary - East Germany (joined in 1956)


11 The Two Germanys: East vs. West Economic Differences West Germany (“economic miracle”) __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ East Germany: Forced ____________ of farms and rapid socialization = massive ________________________ Hardships and drop in living standards caused many East Germans __________________________ __________________________ Political Differences West Germany: _____________ East Germany: ________________________ ________________________ ____ Discontent in East Germany led to riots in 1953 – put down with Soviet tanks As a result of these differences, no further efforts were made to _______________________.

12 Exodus of East Germany Economic and political disparities caused a mass exodus of ________________________________. Encouraged by West Between 1945-1961, _______ of the whole German population moved West via Berlin In 1958, _____________ proposed a peace treaty that would ______________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________

13 Walter Ulbricht _____________________________ _____________________________

14 Berlin Crisis of 1958 Khrushchev’s ultimatum: If the West did not agree to these changes, he would _________________________________ ___________________________________________________. To resist Khrushchev might _________________________!!! Due to Western outrage, the ultimatum was dropped and negotiations began 2/1959: meeting in Geneva to propose German unity, but ________________________________________________ _________: meeting in US, but again, no agreement reached Numbers of refugees continued to grow as _______________ ____________ with Khrushchev's failure to solve the problem (he wanted ______________________; no peace with West!) Khrushchev hoped he would have better luck with ________

15 Kennedy and “Flexible Response” “We intend to have a wider choice than humiliation or all out nuclear war” His approach to containment was a policy of “flexible response” – Limited involvement in _______________ – More spending on _____________________ – Increasing _________________________ – Continued ______ covert work – Continued _____________________to countries – Continued __________________with the USSR

16 Kennedy and “Flexible Response” How was Eisenhower’s “New Look” different than Kennedy’s “Flexible Response?” Similar?

17 Kennedy and “Flexible Response” Khrushchev assumed he could __________________________in foreign affairs, but JFK was determined to _______________ to the Soviets Called Berlin “an island of freedom in a communist sea” and “a beacon of hope behind the iron curtain.” Responded to Khrushchev’s demands with an _____________ ___________________________. “We cannot and will not permit the Soviets to drive us out of Berlin, either gradually or by force.”

18 Construction of the Berlin Wall In August 1961, Khrushchev ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ Why did Khrushchev agree to this? – Growing _________ in Berlin – ________________to the West – ________________’s response – ________ problems in the East Construction of the Berlin Wall began ______________

19 Berlin Wall 41 miles long (28 on border) 12 feet high Fortified with guards and weapons Included anti-vehicle trenches Over 5,000 escape attempts Became a symbol for the division between East & West

20 What did the building of the wall mean…. For Khrushchev? – Visible admission that __________________________: the Soviets had to create a barrier to _____________________. He was able to regain control over the situation and free himself of pressure from Ulbricht For Ulbricht? – _________________________________________________ For the citizens of Berlin? – _________________________________________________ For the Cold War? – Removed Germany as a key issue in Cold War negotiations; Americans disliked it, _______________________________ – Focus of the Cold War moved from Europe

21 Berlin Wall Document Analysis Pgs. 87-89 How do these documents compare in their analysis of the results of building the Berlin Wall? Essay Example When and why was Germany the focus of Cold War hostility in the 16 years after WWII?

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