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Ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation Historical perspective Philippe MERAL GEESCAM Project coordinator Symposium on Biodiversity & Health 17-18.

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Presentation on theme: "Ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation Historical perspective Philippe MERAL GEESCAM Project coordinator Symposium on Biodiversity & Health 17-18."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation Historical perspective Philippe MERAL GEESCAM Project coordinator Symposium on Biodiversity & Health 17-18 th November 2014 Phnom Penh Malyne NEANG Director of Ecoland Research Centre

2 Outline 1.Introductive remarks 2.Some definitions 3.Historical background 4.Recent trends and grey zones 5.Conclusion

3 1. Introductive remarks Ecosystem Service is a new concept (but an old idea) provided by researchers and international institutions in 2000’s.

4 1. Introductive remarks Ecosystem Service is a new concept (but an old idea) provided by researchers and international institutions in 2000’s.

5 1. Introductive remarks This is a top-down concept – Mainly used by conservationnists – economists – Mainstreaming in other sectors (rural development, land management, health…) is not obvious Its usefulness is not yet clear – The aim was to create an global awareness of biodiversity erosion – First stage of application / applying this concept in public policy is a key challenge – Some controversies still remain Clarifying the concept (strength and weakness)

6 2. Some definitions What are Ecosystem Services? Ecosystem Services are the conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems, and the species that make them up, sustain and fulfil human life — Daily (1997). Ecosystem Services are the benefits human populations derive, directly or indirectly, from ecosystem functions — Costanza et al.(1997). Ecosystem Services are the benefits people obtain from ecosystems — MA 2005. Ecosystem Services are components of nature, directly enjoyed, consumed, or used to yield human well-being — Boyd and Banzhaf(2007). Ecosystem Services are the aspects of ecosystems utilised (actively or passively) to produce human well-being— Fisher et al.(2009). Ecosystem Services are the direct and indirect contributions of ecosystems to human well-being—TEEB Foundations (2010). (source: Braat et de Groot, 2012, p.5)

7 2. Some definitions Bibliometric analysis of ES. Number of scientific papers (Web Of Science + Science Direct) dealing with ES (in their title, abstract or keywords) classified by ecosystems studied

8 3. Historical background 1970 1997 Costanza et al. Daily 2005 MA PES Emergence Media coverage Policy

9 3. Historical background Emergence phase Plato (424/423 av. J.-C.- 348/347 av. J.-C) – Critias – Organization of the Atlantis kingdom as a metaphor of the ideal city Larousse (1817-1875) – Great Universal 19th- Century Dictionary

10 3. Historical background Emergence phase Influence of US ecologists Marsh (1864), Osborn (1948), Leopold (1949)… who were talking about services provided by Nature; Paul and Anne Ehrlich in the 1970’s – « The most subtle and dangerous threat to man’s existence… is the potential destruction, by man’s own activities, of those ecological systems upon which the very existence of the human species depends » (Ehrlich et Ehrlich, 1970, p.157)

11 3. Historical background Emergence phase Study of Critical Environmental Problem Working group ± 100 experts at MIT (July 1970) Objective : global approach of environmental problems (climate, ocean…) « pest control, insect pollination, fisheries, climate regulation, soil retention, flood control, soil formation, cycling of matter, composition of the atmosphere » (SCEP, pp.122-125).

12 3. Historical background Emergence phase Development of environmental and ecological economics

13

14 « this paper suggests that the term 'natural resources' be re-defined as 'natural functions' (or, goods and services provided by the natural environment) and discusses the (potential) use of the function-concept in economic planning and decision-making. »

15 1970 1997 Costanza et al. Daily 2005 MA PES Emergence Media coverage Policy

16 « the paper received broad media coverage, including stories in the NY Times, Newsweek, Science, Science News and US News and World Report and reports on US National Public Radio and the BBC. It was also included as one of Discover magazine’s top 100 science stories for 1997. » 3. Historical background Media coverage phase

17 2000 2001 2005 2003 Millennium Development Goals 3. Historical background Media coverage phase

18 18 The MA conceptual framework on the ecosystem services and human well- being linkages

19 19 The MA conceptual framework on the ecosystem services and human well-being linkages

20

21 Technical Documentation Synthesis report Conceptual framework

22 1970 1997 Costanza et al. Daily 2005 MA PES Emergence Media coverage Policy

23 3. Historical background Policy phase MA Follow-up process (Ash, 2008) – Limited impacts to date on policy formulation and decision-making, especially in developing countries – Unavailability of working models to analyze ecosystem services and their trade-offs with development policies – Need to fill knowledge gaps at all levels and economic valuations one ecosystem service (cultural and regulating) – Limited funds for many of the Sub Global Assessment – Need to further raise awareness among various stakeholders Ash, N. (2009). Turning Knowledge into Action. A global strategy for follow up to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA). IUCN Ecosystem Management Programme. 3-6 th June 2008, Brussells

24 3. Historical background Policy phase MA Follow-up process (Ash, 2008) – Knowledge Base Build the knowledge base on the links between biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, ecosystem services and human well-being, and develop tools for mainstreaming ecosystem services into development and economic decision-making – Policy implementation Promote the systematic application of ecosystem service considerations in public, civil society and private sector decision-making – Outreach and Dissemination Disseminate MA findings and conceptual framework, tools and methodologies to relevant stakeholders through the development of action-based media strategies and educational tools – Future ES Assessment Explore needs, options and modalities for a possible second global ecosystem assessment, complementing existing assessment processes and contributing to the development of a more coherent international environmental assessment landscape

25 3. Historical background Policy phase Created in 2012 - sponsored by UN institutions (FAO, UNESCO, UNEP, UNDP) and approved by 96 countries. “the platform will complement, among others, the scientific subsidiary bodies of the biodiversity- and ecosystem-related conventions and relevant intergovernmental bodies with the needed scientifically credible information on emerging issues in the science of biodiversity and ecosystem services”. (Unep, 2008)

26 3. Historical background Policy phase Origin – Launched by several environmental ministers in March 2007 during the preparation phase of Bali Conference on Climate Change G8+5 (USA, France, Germany, UK, Japan, Russia, Canada, Italy + Brazil, India, China, Mexico et South Africa) – meeting at Postdam (Germ.) Objectives A call to assess the economics cost of inaction and broadly to improve the monetary valuation of ES

27 http://www.teebweb.org/ Screenshot – 15/11/14

28 3. Historical background To summarize Ecosystem Services are contributions of ecosystems to human well-being Old idea, renewed in 1970’s and publicized by the MA process in 2005. Top down process carried by ecologists/economits in order to boost conservation of biodiversity policies and awareness of the erosion of biodiversity at a global scale. Today, the implementation in public policies at national or local level is needed.

29 4. New trends

30 30 MA United Kingdom, 2011 3. New trends Grey zones

31 31 MA France Proposal, 2009 3. New trends Grey zones

32 32 ESF provided by the TEBB, 2010 3. New trends Grey zones

33 33 ESF provided by the IPBES, 2010 3. New trends Grey zones

34 34 Within scientific papers Fisher et al., 2009 Balmford et al., 2010 Tallis et al., 2012 Haines-Young & Potschin, 2009

35 35 The MA conceptual framework on the ecosystem services and human well- being linkages

36 To conclude ESF is a new promising concept carried by environmental institutions, ecologists and economists. It aims at creating a signal about the erosion of biodiversity through a specific (anthropocentric) way : human well-being depends on the natural ecosystems. It aims at demonstrating that conservation of biodiversity is not a constraint for economic development. It is a political challenge. This challenge leads to focus on trade-offs between provisioning vs regulating services. Links with health exist but they are not yet clearly developed.


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