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March 24, 2015  Objectives: Students will be able to describe and evaluate the Cambodian Genocide.  NO Opening and closing  Agenda: Notes  Video with.

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Presentation on theme: "March 24, 2015  Objectives: Students will be able to describe and evaluate the Cambodian Genocide.  NO Opening and closing  Agenda: Notes  Video with."— Presentation transcript:

1 March 24, 2015  Objectives: Students will be able to describe and evaluate the Cambodian Genocide.  NO Opening and closing  Agenda: Notes  Video with Questions

2 Cambodia Genocide Led by Pol Pot and Khmer Rouge (Red Cambodians) million deaths

3 Map Of Cambodia

4 History of Cambodian Genocide  In 1953, Cambodia gained independence after nearly 100 years of French rule  Prince Norodom Sihanouk took charge of the newly born state.

5 History of Cambodian Genocide  Prince Sihanouk alienated the U.S.:  Struck up friendship with China, America’s foe  Irritated President Nixon by trying to keep Cambodia neutral in the war with Vietnam  U.S. backed Lon Nol  Pro-American, but also corrupt, repressive, and incompetent

6 Background  In 1949 Pol Pot- real name was Soloth Sar- went to college in Paris  Became interested in Marxism  1953 returned to Cambodia and led a communist movement  Cambodia gained independence from France  Became leader of Cambodian Communist Party  But had to flee to the jungle because Prince Sihanouk did not agree with him  Formed the Khmer Rouge and waged a war against Sihanouk

7 Pol Pot Pol Pot  He and his army, called the Khmer Rouge, came to power in Cambodia in  He was named prime minister of the new communist government in 1976 and began a program of violent reform.  In hope of creating a society free of western influence, he abolished religion, institute, private property and evacuated cities.  Under his regime, forced labor, execution and famine killed ~2 million Cambodians.

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9  Prince Sihanouk was ousted by US military and joined Pol Pot and Khmer Rouge  US bombed North Vietnam which killed 150,000 Cambodians  These events led to economic and military destabilization in Cambodia  Support for Pol Pot grew  April 17, Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge army marched into Phnom Penh and seized control of Cambodia  Wanted to create an agrarian utopia inspired by Mao Zedong  Declared “This is year zero” and society would be “purified”  Capitalism, western culture, city life, religion and all foreign influences were to be gone

10 New Society  Wanted an extreme form of peasant communism  Foreigners expelled  Embassies closed  Foreign economic or medical assistance refused  Foreign language banned  Newspapers and TV stations were shut down  Mail and telephone use banned  Religion, education, health care all gone

11 April 1, 2013  Objectives: Students will be able to identify the events of the Cambodian Genocide.  Question: Who did Pol Pot target in the Cambodian Genocide?  Agenda: Notes- Article with questions- due at the end of class.

12 How was the genocide carried out?  2 million people were evacuated from Phnom Pen by foot at gunpoint  20,000 died along the way  Forced into slave labor  Worked from 4 a.m. until 10 p.m. with 2 rest periods  Every 10th day was a day of rest  3 days off during Khmer New Year festival  Many died due to overwork, malnutrition, and disease  Diet consisted of 1 tin of rice every 2 days or 2 bowls a day

13 History of Cambodian Genocide  The Toll of Cambodia’s 5 year civil war had been immense  1 million Cambodians had been killed  Many were displaced, causing the capital to swell from 600,000 to 2 million by 1975  Many believed the KR atrocities were just a part of war, not their ideology  Lon Nol only promised more of the same and a U.S. backing.

14 History of Cambodian Genocide  1975 was deemed year zero  attempted to turn Cambodia into a classless society by depopulating cities and forcing the urban population into agricultural communes  Enemies were: ethnic Vietnamese, ethnic Chinese, Muslim chams, Buddhist monks, intellectuals (anyone completing 7 th grade), anyone suspected of even momentary disloyalty

15 History of Cambodian Genocide  Once reporters departed, the last independent sources of information dried up  For the next three and a half years, the American public would piece together a picture of life behind the Khmer curtain

16 History of the Cambodian Genocide  May 1975, President Ford announced that Cambodian officials and their spouses have been executed.  American administration had little credibility  It would be 2 years before most would acknowledge that this time the bloodbath reports were true.

17 History of Cambodian Genocide  With embassy closed and journalists cut off, information was hard to obtain.  The “Southwest Asia fatigue” from Vietnam compounded the problem  Received very little newspaper or television coverage

18 History of Cambodian Genocide  Americans clung to the few public statements of senior KR officials who consistently refuted the claims  Even Amnesty International, the largest human rights organization in the world, was not yet ready to respond forcifully.

19 History of Cambodian Genocide  Many came around once they had personal contact with traumatized refugees.  The first photographs were not smuggled out until April of 1977.

20 History of Cambodian Genocide  Those who tried to generate press coverage did so assuming that establishing the facts would empower the United States and other Western governments to act.

21 History of Cambodian Genocide  Vietnam invades Cambodia on Dec. 25, 1978 and seizes Phnom Penh on Jan. 7,  Vietnam establishes the People's Republic of Kampuchea

22 History of Cambodian Genocide  The Khmer Rouge were overthrown and sent into a retreat  They receive aid from the United States as well as hang on to the official Cambodian seat in the United Nations  Struggles continue as China supports and provides arms to the Khmer Rouge and Russia supports a fully Communist Vietnam

23 History of Cambodian Genocide  Upon seizing the country, Vietnamese find evidence of mass murder everywhere.  The Tuol Sleng Examination Center in Phnom Penh, code named Office S-21, became an emblem of terror  Found instructions for inmates  Found an interrogators manual  Was turned into Tuol Sleng Musueum

24 History of Cambodian Genocide  Torture center testified to the cruelty of the KR regime  The Vietnamese then installed a puppet government consisting of Khmer Rouge defectors with Heng Samrin as leader  People’s Republic of Kampuchea  The Khmer Rouge fought against the newly appointed government with the help of US training, funds, weapons

25 History of Cambodian Genocide  1989 Vietnamese troops withdraw from Cambodia  Country is renamed the State of Cambodia  Fighting continues for over a decade, before all political factions in Cambodia sign a treaty in 1991 calling for elections and disarmament.  Fighting broke out again in 1992

26 History of Cambodian Genocide  The monarchy is restored, Sihanouk becomes king again. The country is re-named the Kingdom of Cambodia. The government-in- exile loses its seat at the UN.  Pol Pot dies and is never brought to trial  Elderly King Sihanouk turns monarchy over to son, King Sihamoni, but real political power is held by elected President Hun Sen, a former Khmer Rouge officer.

27 2. Headlines from newspaper “Never Again the Khmer Rouge” “Never Again the Khmer Rouge” New York Times, Oct New York Times, Oct “Difficult to prove genocide in Cambodia’s killing fields” “Difficult to prove genocide in Cambodia’s killing fields” The Associated Press, September The Associated Press, September

28 Final 5  How is it possible that the people of Cambodia fell under the heinous rule of Pol Pot? (Your opinion)

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30  Purges were held to get rid of “old society”  Educated, wealthy, Buddhist monks, police, doctors, lawyers, teachers, former government officials  Anyone who was disloyal to the Khmer Rouge was shot  “What’s rotten must be removed”

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32 Symbolic emblem  SR-21, a former school was turned into a torture factory during the Cambodia genocide. Thousands of people who were sent here would be given a number tag, as a symbol of recognition. Those people would later be tortured or executed.  A total of 14,000 Cambodians were jailed here and only 10 of them survived. Photos of prisoners with number tags on.

33 History of Cambodian Genocide  Vietnam invades Cambodia on Dec. 25, 1978 and seizes Phnom Penh on Jan. 7,  Vietnam establishes the People's Republic of Kampuchea

34 History of Cambodian Genocide  The Khmer Rouge were overthrown and sent into a retreat  They receive aid from the United States as well as hang on to the official Cambodian seat in the United Nations  Struggles continue as China supports and provides arms to the Khmer Rouge and Russia supports a fully Communist Vietnam

35 History of Cambodian Genocide  1989 Vietnamese troops withdraw from Cambodia  Country is renamed the State of Cambodia  Fighting continues for over a decade, before all political factions in Cambodia sign a treaty in 1991 calling for elections and disarmament.  Fighting broke out again in 1992

36 History of Cambodian Genocide  The monarchy is restored, Sihanouk becomes king again. The country is re- named the Kingdom of Cambodia. The government-in-exile loses its seat at the UN.  Pol Pot dies and is never brought to trial

37 2. Headlines from newspaper “Never Again the Khmer Rouge” “Never Again the Khmer Rouge” New York Times, Oct New York Times, Oct “Difficult to prove genocide in Cambodia’s killing fields” “Difficult to prove genocide in Cambodia’s killing fields” The Associated Press, September The Associated Press, September


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