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Chapter 39 “The Stalemated Seventies”. End of the Economic Boom After the flurry of economic growth in the 1950s and 1960s, the U.S. economy stagnated.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 39 “The Stalemated Seventies”. End of the Economic Boom After the flurry of economic growth in the 1950s and 1960s, the U.S. economy stagnated."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 39 “The Stalemated Seventies”

2 End of the Economic Boom After the flurry of economic growth in the 1950s and 1960s, the U.S. economy stagnated in the 1970s.After the flurry of economic growth in the 1950s and 1960s, the U.S. economy stagnated in the 1970s. The entire decade of the 1970s did not witness a productivity advance equivalent to even one year’s progress in the preceding two decades.The entire decade of the 1970s did not witness a productivity advance equivalent to even one year’s progress in the preceding two decades. At the new rate, it would take five hundred more years to bring about another doubling of the average worker’s standard of living.At the new rate, it would take five hundred more years to bring about another doubling of the average worker’s standard of living.

3 Why the Decline? 1.Increase presence of women and teenagers in the workforce. 2.Declining investment in new machinery 3.The heavy cost of compliance with government-imposed safety and health regulations. 4.The shift of the American economy from manufacturing to services, where productivity gains were allegedly more difficult to achieve and measure. 5.Former President Lyndon B. Johnson’s spending on the Vietnam War and on his Great Society programs. 6.Both military spending and welfare spending are inherently inflationary in the absence of offsetting tax collections because they put dollars in people’s hands without adding to the supply of goods that those dollars can buy.

4 Nixon’s Vietnamization of the War (Nixon Doctrine) Nixon called for “Vietnamization” in which 540,000 American troops would be pulled out of Vietnam.Nixon called for “Vietnamization” in which 540,000 American troops would be pulled out of Vietnam. The South Vietnamese would then gradually take over.The South Vietnamese would then gradually take over. On November 3, 1969 Nixon delivered a dramatic televised appeal to the great “silent majority,” who presumably supported the war.On November 3, 1969 Nixon delivered a dramatic televised appeal to the great “silent majority,” who presumably supported the war. Criticized the “effete corps of impudent snobs” and the Nattering nabobs of negativism” with demanded quick withdrawal from VietnamCriticized the “effete corps of impudent snobs” and the Nattering nabobs of negativism” with demanded quick withdrawal from Vietnam The war was fought generally by the least privileged Americans, since college students and critically skilled civilians were exempt, and there were also reports of dissension in the army.The war was fought generally by the least privileged Americans, since college students and critically skilled civilians were exempt, and there were also reports of dissension in the army.

5 My Lai Massacre A unit of Charlie Company 1st Battalion 20th Infantry slaughter between200 and 500 unarmed villagers in the hamlet of My Lai. Led by Lieutenant William Calley, the platoon is ordered to enter the village firing.A unit of Charlie Company 1st Battalion 20th Infantry slaughter between200 and 500 unarmed villagers in the hamlet of My Lai. Led by Lieutenant William Calley, the platoon is ordered to enter the village firing.

6 My Lai Massacre Photo taken by Army photographer Ronald L. Haeberle on March 16th, 1968 in the aftermath of the My Lai massacre showing mostly women and children dead on a road.

7 Cambodianizing the Vietnam War North Vietnamese had been using Cambodia as a springboard for funneling troops and arms, and on April 29, 1970, Nixon ordered U.S. troops to invade Cambodia to stop this.North Vietnamese had been using Cambodia as a springboard for funneling troops and arms, and on April 29, 1970, Nixon ordered U.S. troops to invade Cambodia to stop this. Nixon never consulted Congress.Nixon never consulted Congress.

8 Hysteria in U.S Because of Invasion Much uproar was caused, as riots occurred at Kent State University and at Jackson State College.Much uproar was caused, as riots occurred at Kent State University and at Jackson State College. The Cambodian incident even more split the “hawks” and the “doves”The Cambodian incident even more split the “hawks” and the “doves” The U.S. Senate repealed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution, and in 1971, the 26th Amendment, lowering the voting age to eighteen, was also passedThe U.S. Senate repealed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution, and in 1971, the 26th Amendment, lowering the voting age to eighteen, was also passed In June 1971, The New York Times published a top-secret Pentagon study of America’s involvement of the Vietnam War—papers that had been leaked by Daniel Ellsberg, former Pentagon official—which exposed the deceit used by the Kennedy and Johnson administrations.In June 1971, The New York Times published a top-secret Pentagon study of America’s involvement of the Vietnam War—papers that had been leaked by Daniel Ellsberg, former Pentagon official—which exposed the deceit used by the Kennedy and Johnson administrations.

9 1970: Kent State Riot Mary Ann Vecchio gestures and screams as she kneels by the body of a student lying face down on the campus of Kent State University, Kent, Ohio, on May 4, Four students died and nine others were wounded during student protests against the Vietnam War when National Guardsman opened fire.

10 1970 Kent State Riot

11 Jackson State Riot Bullets and blood on a dorm Floor at Jackson State

12 Pentagon Papers They found that the U.S. government had continually resisted full disclosure of increasing military involvement in Southeast Asia—air strikes over Laos, raids along the coast of North Vietnam, and offensive actions by U.S. marines had taken place long before the American public was informed.They found that the U.S. government had continually resisted full disclosure of increasing military involvement in Southeast Asia—air strikes over Laos, raids along the coast of North Vietnam, and offensive actions by U.S. marines had taken place long before the American public was informed.

13 Daniel Ellsberg In 1971, Ellsberg precipitated a national uproar when he released the Pentagon Papers, the U.S. military's account of activities in Vietnam, to The New York Times. A Vietnam veteran and a senior research associate at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Center for International Studies, Ellsberg helped to compile the Pentagon Papers while working in the Defense Department. Initially, he supported the war effort, but later turned against it. His release of the Pentagon Papers succeeded in eroding public support for the warIn 1971, Ellsberg precipitated a national uproar when he released the Pentagon Papers, the U.S. military's account of activities in Vietnam, to The New York Times. A Vietnam veteran and a senior research associate at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Center for International Studies, Ellsberg helped to compile the Pentagon Papers while working in the Defense Department. Initially, he supported the war effort, but later turned against it. His release of the Pentagon Papers succeeded in eroding public support for the war 2004 Harvard Square Library

14 Nixon’s Détente with Beijing (Peking) and Moscow China and the Soviet Union were clashing over their own interpretations of Marxism, and Nixon seized this as a chance for the U.S. to relax tensions.China and the Soviet Union were clashing over their own interpretations of Marxism, and Nixon seized this as a chance for the U.S. to relax tensions. Sent national security adviser Dr. Henry A. Kissinger to China to encourage better relationsSent national security adviser Dr. Henry A. Kissinger to China to encourage better relations Nixon became the first president to visit China – he knew this would upset USSR (“China Card”)Nixon became the first president to visit China – he knew this would upset USSR (“China Card”) Promoted good relations with USSRPromoted good relations with USSR –Grain deal –Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty –SALT – Strategic Arms Limitation Talks

15 Nixon and China President Richard Nixon (in fur-collared coat) gestures as he walks along the Great Wall during a 1972 tour of China. Pat Nixon, Secretary of State William P. Rogers, and China's Vice-Premier Li Hsien-nien are among others in the party. (The Bettmann Archive)

16 Nixon and the Supreme Court The decisions of Chief Justice Earl Warren were liberal and reflected its deep concern for the individual, no matter how lowly.The decisions of Chief Justice Earl Warren were liberal and reflected its deep concern for the individual, no matter how lowly. The liberalness of the Supreme Court frustrated Nixon.The liberalness of the Supreme Court frustrated Nixon. Warren led the court into a series of decisions that drastically affected sexual freedom, the rights of criminals, the practice of religion, and civil rightsWarren led the court into a series of decisions that drastically affected sexual freedom, the rights of criminals, the practice of religion, and civil rights

17 Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) Court struck down a state law that banned the use of contraceptives, even by married couples, but creating a “right to privacy.”(1965) Court struck down a state law that banned the use of contraceptives, even by married couples, but creating a “right to privacy.” Estelle Griswold & Cornelia Jahncke, Planned Parenthood League, Connecticut

18 Coddling Criminals Gideon v. Wainwright - (1963)Court said that all criminals were entitled to legal counsel, even if they were too poor to afford it.Gideon v. Wainwright - (1963)Court said that all criminals were entitled to legal counsel, even if they were too poor to afford it. Escobedo and Miranda Cases - two cases in which the Supreme Court ruled that the accused could now remain silent.Escobedo and Miranda Cases - two cases in which the Supreme Court ruled that the accused could now remain silent.

19 Other Cases New York Times v. Sullivan (1964) – The Court ruled unanimously that public figures could sue for libel only if they could prove that “malice” had motivated their defamers.New York Times v. Sullivan (1964) – The Court ruled unanimously that public figures could sue for libel only if they could prove that “malice” had motivated their defamers. Engle v. Vitale (1962) and School District of Abington Township v. Schempp - led to the Court ruling against required prayers and having the Bible in public schools, basing the judgment on the First Amendment, which separated church and stateEngle v. Vitale (1962) and School District of Abington Township v. Schempp - led to the Court ruling against required prayers and having the Bible in public schools, basing the judgment on the First Amendment, which separated church and state

20 Warren Burger President Nixon appointed Burger, an active Republican, Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court in Although Burger's court was more conservative than the previous Warren Court, it was judicially active. Two of the most famous and controversial decisions of the Burger Court were the Roe v. Wade abortion decision and the University of California v. Bakke affirmative action decision. In 1986, Burger resigned from his post and became head of the US Bicentennial Commission.President Nixon appointed Burger, an active Republican, Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court in Although Burger's court was more conservative than the previous Warren Court, it was judicially active. Two of the most famous and controversial decisions of the Burger Court were the Roe v. Wade abortion decision and the University of California v. Bakke affirmative action decision. In 1986, Burger resigned from his post and became head of the US Bicentennial Commission.

21 Liberalness of Nixon Expanded Medicare and MedicaidExpanded Medicare and Medicaid Boosted Aid to Families with Dependent ChildrenBoosted Aid to Families with Dependent Children Implemented Supplemental Security Income (SSI) which gave generous benefits to the indigent aged, blind and disabled.Implemented Supplemental Security Income (SSI) which gave generous benefits to the indigent aged, blind and disabled. Improved Social SecurityImproved Social Security Philadelphia Plan – Start of affirmative actionPhiladelphia Plan – Start of affirmative action Created Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)Created Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Created Occupational health and Safety Administration (OSHA)Created Occupational health and Safety Administration (OSHA) Clean Air Act of 1970 and the Endangered Species Act of 1973 both aimed to protect and preserve the environment and made notable progress.Clean Air Act of 1970 and the Endangered Species Act of 1973 both aimed to protect and preserve the environment and made notable progress.

22 Election of 1972 Republicans – Richard NixonRepublicans – Richard Nixon –Candidacy given a boost by Kissinger’s announcement that “peace was at had in Vietnam” Democrats – George McGovernDemocrats – George McGovern –promised to end the war within 90 days after the election and also appealed to teens and women **Huge landslide victory for Nixon. **540 to 17 in electoral college

23 Landslide Victories the greatest percentage point margin in the popular vote (Harding 60.3% to Cox 34.1%) the greatest electoral votes difference between winner and opponent (Roosevelt 523 to Landon 8) the greatest percentage point margin in the popular vote (Harding 60.3% to Cox 34.1%) the greatest electoral votes difference between winner and opponent (Roosevelt 523 to Landon 8) the highest percentage for winner (Lyndon Johnson 61.1%) the highest percentage for winner (Lyndon Johnson 61.1%) the highest number of electoral votes (Reagan 525) the highest number of electoral votes (Reagan 525).

24 Shaky “Peace” in Vietnam Nixon then ordered a bombing rampage that eventually drove the North Vietnamese to the bargaining table to agree to a cease-fire, which occurred on January 23, 1973.Nixon then ordered a bombing rampage that eventually drove the North Vietnamese to the bargaining table to agree to a cease-fire, which occurred on January 23, America’s way out of VietnamAmerica’s way out of Vietnam

25 On a scorching hot day in 1964, Lt. Everett Alvarez was shot down over Vietnam. He was sent to the Hanoi Hilton and would not know freedom again for almost nine years, earning the dubious honor of being the longest prisoner of war in Vietnam. Battling personal demons both in the Hilton and back home, Alvarez nevertheless overcame his obstacles, earning the respect of his fellow soldiers and becoming a true Legend. Photo Courtesy: Everett AlvarezOn a scorching hot day in 1964, Lt. Everett Alvarez was shot down over Vietnam. He was sent to the Hanoi Hilton and would not know freedom again for almost nine years, earning the dubious honor of being the longest prisoner of war in Vietnam. Battling personal demons both in the Hilton and back home, Alvarez nevertheless overcame his obstacles, earning the respect of his fellow soldiers and becoming a true Legend. Photo Courtesy: Everett Alvarez Everett Alvarez Jr.

26 Gilligan’s Island

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28 Good Times

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30 All in the Family

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34 Watergate On June 17, 1972, five men working for the Republican Committee for the Re-election of the President were caught breaking into the Watergate Hotel and fixing some bugs of the room.On June 17, 1972, five men working for the Republican Committee for the Re-election of the President were caught breaking into the Watergate Hotel and fixing some bugs of the room. Provoked the improper of illegal use of the FBI and the CIAProvoked the improper of illegal use of the FBI and the CIA Hearings proceeded, headed by Senator Sam Erving, and John Dean III testified about all the corruption, illegal activities, and scandal that took place.Hearings proceeded, headed by Senator Sam Erving, and John Dean III testified about all the corruption, illegal activities, and scandal that took place.

35 Watergate Hotel The break-in on June 17, 1972, at the Watergate office and apartment complex in Washington, D.C., led to the downfall of United States President Richard Nixon ( ). Four Cubans and a member of the Committee to Reelect the President were arrested here burglarizing the national headquarters of the Democratic Party. Archive Photos

36 Deep Throat Deep Throat is the name that was given to a secret source who leaked information about the involvement of U.S. President Richard Nixon's administration in the events that came to be known as the Watergate scandal. "Deep Throat" was an important source for Washington Post reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, who together wrote a series of articles on the scandal that played a decisive role in exposing the misdeeds of the Nixon administration. The scandal would eventually lead to the resignation of President NixonDeep Throat is the name that was given to a secret source who leaked information about the involvement of U.S. President Richard Nixon's administration in the events that came to be known as the Watergate scandal. "Deep Throat" was an important source for Washington Post reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, who together wrote a series of articles on the scandal that played a decisive role in exposing the misdeeds of the Nixon administration. The scandal would eventually lead to the resignation of President Nixon In 2005,when Mark Felt admitted to Vanity Fair magazine that he was "Deep Throat," a source of Washington Post stories about the Watergate scandal that led to President Nixon's resignation, years of speculation were put to rest.In 2005,when Mark Felt admitted to Vanity Fair magazine that he was "Deep Throat," a source of Washington Post stories about the Watergate scandal that led to President Nixon's resignation, years of speculation were put to rest.

37 The Great Tape Controversy For historical purposes Nixon recorded everything that went on in the White House. He refused to give up the tapes which could have proved his guilt or innocense.For historical purposes Nixon recorded everything that went on in the White House. He refused to give up the tapes which could have proved his guilt or innocense. Vice President Spiro Agnew was forced to resign in 1973 due to tax evasion.Vice President Spiro Agnew was forced to resign in 1973 due to tax evasion. “Saturday Night Massacre” (Oct. 20, Archibald Cox, special prosecutor of the case who had issued a subpoena of the tapes, was fired and the attorney general and deputy general resigned because they didn’t want to fire Cox.“Saturday Night Massacre” (Oct. 20, Archibald Cox, special prosecutor of the case who had issued a subpoena of the tapes, was fired and the attorney general and deputy general resigned because they didn’t want to fire Cox.

38 “I am Not a Crook” On November 17, 1973, Nixon gave a televised press conference urging Americans to put Watergate behind them, saying, "In my years of public life … I welcome this kind of examination, because people have got to know whether or not their president's a crook. Well, I'm not a crook. I've earned everything I've got. "On November 17, 1973, Nixon gave a televised press conference urging Americans to put Watergate behind them, saying, "In my years of public life … I welcome this kind of examination, because people have got to know whether or not their president's a crook. Well, I'm not a crook. I've earned everything I've got. "

39 The Unmaking of a President On July 24, 1974, the Supreme Court ruled that Nixon had to give all tapes to Congress.On July 24, 1974, the Supreme Court ruled that Nixon had to give all tapes to Congress. Late in July 1974, the House approved its first article of impeachment for obstruction of the administration of justice.Late in July 1974, the House approved its first article of impeachment for obstruction of the administration of justice. On August 5, 1974, Nixon finally released the three tapes that held the most damaging information—the same three tapes that had been “missing.”On August 5, 1974, Nixon finally released the three tapes that held the most damaging information—the same three tapes that had been “missing.”

40 Nixon’s Resignation On August 8, 1974, Nixon became the first U.S. president to resignOn August 8, 1974, Nixon became the first U.S. president to resign

41 Gerald Ford Vice President Gerald Ford is sworn in as president on August 9, 1974.Vice President Gerald Ford is sworn in as president on August 9, 1974.

42 The Arab Oil Embargo and the Energy Crisis An oil embargo which strictly limited oil in the U.S. was enforced by OPEC after the U.S. backed Israel in its war against Syria and Egypt,An oil embargo which strictly limited oil in the U.S. was enforced by OPEC after the U.S. backed Israel in its war against Syria and Egypt, OPEC lifted the embargo in 1974, and then quadrupled the price of oil.OPEC lifted the embargo in 1974, and then quadrupled the price of oil.

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44 “I Can’t Drive 55” A speed limit of 55 MPH was imposed, and the oil pipeline in Alaska was approved in 1974 despite environmentalists’ cries, and other types of energy were pursued.A speed limit of 55 MPH was imposed, and the oil pipeline in Alaska was approved in 1974 despite environmentalists’ cries, and other types of energy were pursued.

45 The “Energy Crisis” of began when OPEC, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, instituted an oil embargo that reduced the amount of oil provided to the United States. This embargo resulted in long lines at gas stations and higher prices for gasoline.The “Energy Crisis” of began when OPEC, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, instituted an oil embargo that reduced the amount of oil provided to the United States. This embargo resulted in long lines at gas stations and higher prices for gasoline.

46 The First Un-elected President Gerald Ford was the first un-elected president ever, since his name had been submitted by Nixon as a VP candidate.Gerald Ford was the first un-elected president ever, since his name had been submitted by Nixon as a VP candidate. In July 1975, Ford signed the Helsinki accords, which recognized Soviet boundaries.In July 1975, Ford signed the Helsinki accords, which recognized Soviet boundaries.

47 Defeat in Vietnam Disastrously for Ford, South Vietnam fell in 1975, and American troops had to be evacuated, the last on April 29, 1975, thus ending the Vietnam War.Disastrously for Ford, South Vietnam fell in 1975, and American troops had to be evacuated, the last on April 29, 1975, thus ending the Vietnam War. Embarrassment for Ford and the U.S.Embarrassment for Ford and the U.S.

48 Evacuation of Vietnam Mobs of Vietnamesee scale the wall of the U.S. Embassy in Saigon, trying to get to the helicopter pickup zone on April 29, Neal Ulevich / AP The last Huey out of Saigon, Vietnam War

49 1976 Election Republicans – Gerald FordRepublicans – Gerald Ford Democrats – Jimmy CarterDemocrats – Jimmy Carter –“I will never lie to you.” ** Jimmy Carter barely squeezed by Gerald Ford 297 to 240.

50 Jimmy Carter Carter was a champion for human rights, and in Rhodesia, and South Africa, he stood up for black rights and privileges.Carter was a champion for human rights, and in Rhodesia, and South Africa, he stood up for black rights and privileges. Shining moment for Carter Administration was at Camp David when he brokered and agreement between Israel and Egypt.Shining moment for Carter Administration was at Camp David when he brokered and agreement between Israel and Egypt. –Anwar Sadat of Egypt and Menochim Begin of Isreal Carter also pledged to return the Panama Canal to Panama by the year 2000 and resumed full diplomatic relations with China in 1979Carter also pledged to return the Panama Canal to Panama by the year 2000 and resumed full diplomatic relations with China in 1979

51 Jimmy Carter The Democrats reclaimed the White House in the 1976 election. The Governor from Georgia defeated Gerald Ford, who had become President on August 9, 1974, upon the resignation of President Nixon. The oath of office was taken on the Bible used in the first inauguration by George Washington; it was administered by Chief Justice Warren Burger on the East Front of the Capitol. The new President and his family surprised the spectators by walking from the Capitol to the White House after the ceremony. The Democrats reclaimed the White House in the 1976 election. The Governor from Georgia defeated Gerald Ford, who had become President on August 9, 1974, upon the resignation of President Nixon. The oath of office was taken on the Bible used in the first inauguration by George Washington; it was administered by Chief Justice Warren Burger on the East Front of the Capitol. The new President and his family surprised the spectators by walking from the Capitol to the White House after the ceremony.

52 Camp David Accords The U.S. presidential retreat at Camp David, Maryland, was the setting for a historic moment in September With the help of U.S. President Jimmy Carter, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin reached agreements that would end a 30- year state of war between their countries. Carter (center), Sadat (left), and Begin (right) are shown here at the White House ceremony marking the Camp David Accords. (Jimmy Carter Library/National Archives)The U.S. presidential retreat at Camp David, Maryland, was the setting for a historic moment in September With the help of U.S. President Jimmy Carter, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin reached agreements that would end a 30- year state of war between their countries. Carter (center), Sadat (left), and Begin (right) are shown here at the White House ceremony marking the Camp David Accords. (Jimmy Carter Library/National Archives)

53 Carter’s Downfall Double digit inflation – 13%Double digit inflation – 13% High oil prices which led to high gas prices, rations, and lines at the pump.High oil prices which led to high gas prices, rations, and lines at the pump. Death of Isolationism due to the realization that the U.S. could not use oil as a weaponDeath of Isolationism due to the realization that the U.S. could not use oil as a weapon High deficitHigh deficit High interest rates – Federal Reserve raised interest rates to 20+%High interest rates – Federal Reserve raised interest rates to 20+% Energy woes due to lack of oil which meant high energy costs.Energy woes due to lack of oil which meant high energy costs.

54 SALT II Talks Carter signed the SALT II agreements with Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev, but the U.S. senate wouldn’t ratify itCarter signed the SALT II agreements with Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev, but the U.S. senate wouldn’t ratify it An agreement to limit strategic launchers was reached in Vienna on June 18, 1979, and was signed by Leonid Brezhnev and President Jimmy Carter. Six months after the signing, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, and as such the treaty was never ratified by the United States Senate. Its terms were nonetheless honored by both sides.An agreement to limit strategic launchers was reached in Vienna on June 18, 1979, and was signed by Leonid Brezhnev and President Jimmy Carter. Six months after the signing, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, and as such the treaty was never ratified by the United States Senate. Its terms were nonetheless honored by both sides.

55 1980 Olympics The Olympics as politics.The Olympics as politics. America led 62 nations in boycotting the Games held in Moscow to protest the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan. Four years later, the Soviets and their allies would boycott the Summer Olympics in Los Angeles.America led 62 nations in boycotting the Games held in Moscow to protest the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan. Four years later, the Soviets and their allies would boycott the Summer Olympics in Los Angeles.

56 Iranian Hostage Situation In, in 1979, Iran’s shah Mohammed Reza Pahlevi, who had been installed by America in 1953 and had ruled his land as a dictator, was overthrown and succeeded by the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.In, in 1979, Iran’s shah Mohammed Reza Pahlevi, who had been installed by America in 1953 and had ruled his land as a dictator, was overthrown and succeeded by the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. Iranian fundamentalists were against Western customs, and Iran stopped exporting oil; OPEC also seized to hike up oil prices, thus causing another oil crisis.Iranian fundamentalists were against Western customs, and Iran stopped exporting oil; OPEC also seized to hike up oil prices, thus causing another oil crisis. Ayatollah Khomeini returns from exile on an Air France plane from Paris. February 1, Photo by Mahmoud Mohammadi

57 Botched Rescue Attempt A daring US military rescue operation codenamed Eagle Claw ended in further US humiliation in April The plan was to land aircraft covertly in the desert allowing special forces to infiltrate Tehran and free the 52 hostages.A daring US military rescue operation codenamed Eagle Claw ended in further US humiliation in April The plan was to land aircraft covertly in the desert allowing special forces to infiltrate Tehran and free the 52 hostages. But the planning was flawed, and the mission had to be aborted when two helicopters were damaged in a sandstorm and failed to reach the rendezvous point. Worse was to come when another crashed into a transport plane as it was pulling out.But the planning was flawed, and the mission had to be aborted when two helicopters were damaged in a sandstorm and failed to reach the rendezvous point. Worse was to come when another crashed into a transport plane as it was pulling out.

58 Hostages On November 4, 1979, anti-American Muslim militants stormed the U.S. embassy in Tehran and took hostages, demanding that the U.S. return the exiled shah who had arrived in the U.S. two weeks earlier for cancer treatments.On November 4, 1979, anti-American Muslim militants stormed the U.S. embassy in Tehran and took hostages, demanding that the U.S. return the exiled shah who had arrived in the U.S. two weeks earlier for cancer treatments. The American hostages languished in cruel captivity for 444 daysThe American hostages languished in cruel captivity for 444 days


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