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Presentation on theme: "EISENHOWER, KENNEDY, JOHNSON, NIXON"— Presentation transcript:


2 For AP CHANGE this into a Q&A format !!!!
Create a Tedition Make these notes more similar to the musical shortened VERSION!!!

Moving Toward Conflict



6 FRENCH INDOCHINA French Indochina = Vietnam, Laos , Cambodia
Chinese Colony French Colony Japanese Occupation during WWII DESIRE FOR INDEPENDENCE = Nationalism

7 Ho Chi Minh 1

8 Ho Chi Minh NATIONALIST Communist Vietnamese Hero
Opposed French and US dominance in Vietnam since World War I Communist Became communist while living in Europe (France) Communism as Anti-Imperialistic appealed Vietnamese Hero Organized & led a communist-dominated independence movement in Vietnam after WWII Won wide support of Vietnamese people Opposed French and US dominance in Vietnam

9 First Indochina War 1

10 1946-1954: First Indochina War War for Independence
After WWII = Ho Chi Minh proclaimed Vietnam independent & himself president Vietnamese Nationalists led by Ho Chi Minh against the French resulted from the French decision to move back into Vietnam after World War II French occupied coast and major cities drove revolutionaries out of Saigon Vietnamese forces occupied northern mountains North Vietnam and South Vietnam differed from one another in that the North was extremely nationalistic , while the South was much less so


12 Battle of Dien Bein Phu 1954

13 1954- Battle of Dien Bein Phu
FRENCH DEFEAT Climactic battle of First Indochina War Vietnamese forces besieged & overran French outpost in northwestern Vietnam French public tired of war & saw this battle as a humiliating defeat French withdraw from Indochina


15 1954: Geneva Conference 1954 Peace Agreement = Ended FIRST INDOCHINA WAR CREATED two Vietnams called for the two Vietnams to hold national elections within two years Signed by reps from Europe, Asia, & US Terms of agreement divided at 17th parallel Soviet backed NORTH VIETNAM = HANOI = HO CHI MINH U.S. backed SOUTH VIETNAM = SAIGON = NGO DINH DIEM Reunification election scheduled for 1956 Hold elections in 1956 to unite Vietnam chosen by popular vote

16 Results of GENEVA ACCORDS
U.S. began expanded presence in Vietnam US involvement in Vietnam based on the Domino Theory


18 DOMINO THEORY Belief held by many American policymakers during Cold War If Vietnam becomes communist , neighboring nations would also fall (like dominoes) = communism spread throughout Asia

19 Eisenhower & Vietnam Domino Theory = contain communism in Vietnam
Installed a anti-communist leader (Diem) in power in South Vietnam Extended official protection to South Vietnam by creating SEATO = South East Asia Treaty Organization Sent military equipment & a few hundred advisors

20 Ngo Dinh Diem 1

21 Ngo Dinh Diem 1st President of South Vietnam
Anti-communist aided by US w/US support Refused to sign Geneva Accords Held rigged election in 1955 only in S. Vietnam Declared S. Vietnam independent nation Launched violent campaign ag. Vietcong un-democratic actions sparked renewed independence movement

22 Civil War in South Vietnam against US backed President Diem
Second Indochina War Civil War in South Vietnam against US backed President Diem


24 VIETCONG Vietnamese Communists in South Vietnam who opposed Diem’s rule Short for Viet-nam Cong-san, or Vietnamese communists Originally a derogatory term like “commies” VC = Term commonly used by US forces South Vietnamese guerrillas who attacked their own government

25 National Liberation Front (NLF)

26 National Liberation Front (NLF)
Opposition movement in South Vietnam Sparked by Diem’s campaign ag. Vietcong Goals Overthrowing puppet regime of South Liberating nation from foreign domination Reunify Vietnam Creating a more equal society Aided by North Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh, Vietminh ,NVA)

27 ARVN 2

28 ARVN Army of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam)
Formed by US in 1955 Used by Diem & US to combat communist insurgents (Vietcong) in the South

29 Show Heaven & Earth VIDEO CLIP


31 KENNEDY & VIETNAM JFK increased military advisors from 700 to 15,000 Diem became very unpopular launched attacks on the country’s Buddhists Repressed country peasants, favored urban , Catholic minority Buddhist Monk Suicide Protests JFK approved a coup Diem assassinated Increased political instability , growth of NLF, resistance

32 Read excerpt from Buddhist protest with next slide of picture



US Congress permitted President to “take all measures necessary” to protect American forces & prevent further aggression in SE Asia authorized escalation of conflict Gave LBJ Blank check to wage undeclared war LBJ portrayed incident as an act of aggression N. Vietnamese gunboats fired on the destroyer USS Maddox in Gulf of Tonkin Controversy over whether US provoked the attack Ordered air strikes against N. Vietnam Spoke on TV to gain approval from US public

The American commitment in Vietnam increased substantially when President Johnson asked for and Congress approved the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Escalation of the Vietnam War in the 1960s included American soldiers began playing an active combat role American planes began bombing targets in North Vietnam American forces began increasing rapidly in number

37 2001 Authorization for the Use of Military Force
On September 18, 2001, one week after the 9/11 attacks, Congress passed the Authorization for the Use of Military Force (AUMF), authorizing the President: To use all necessary and appropriate force against those nations, organizations, or persons he determines planned, committed, or aided the terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001…

38 War Powers Act 5

39 1973 : War Powers Act required the president to report to Congress any commitment of American troops Limits president’s war-making powers Inform Congress within 48 hours of sending forces into hostile areas Bring back forces within 90 days unless Congress authorizes longer action or declares war Direct result of govt dishonesty & lack of success in Vietnam

40 War Powers Act of 1973 (Public Law ) limits the power of the President of the United States to wage war without the approval of Congress. requires the President to consult with Congress prior to the start of any hostilities as well as regularly until U.S. armed forces are no longer engaged in hostilities (Sec. 3); to remove U.S. armed forces from hostilities if Congress has not declared war or passed a resolution authorizing the use of force within 60 days (Sec. 5(b)). Following an official request by the President to Congress, the time limit can be extended by an additional 30 days (presumably when "unavoidable military necessity" requires additional action for a safe withdrawal).

41 Guerilla Warfare & American Strategy
U.S. Involvement and Escalation

42 Johnson & Vietnam 1965 - surprise attack on US base at Pleiku
Didn’t want to be the 1st US President to lose a war (Vietnam to communists = lost war) Used strategy of limited war= No nukes; no invasion of N.Vietnam surprise attack on US base at Pleiku LBJ ordered first sustained bombing of N.Vietnam = Operation Rolling Thunder deployed 3,500 marines to Vietnam LBJ steadily escalated conflict into a war Over ½ million troops by intense bombing

43 Robert McNamara 2

44 Robert McNamara Secretary of Defense for JFK & LBJ administrations
Anti-communist Key supporter of involvement in Vietnam Encouraged LBJ to escalate conflict in 1965 1966 opposes further escalation Later resigns

45 William Westmoreland 2

46 William Westmoreland 1967 = announced in US that war was being won
Commander of US forces in Vietnam during the 1960s Thought ARVN incapable of defeating Vietcong Urged for more US troops & full combat operations 1967 = announced in US that war was being won

47 Guerilla warfare 2

48 Guerilla warfare Method of fighting often used by Vietnamese troops
Lack powerful weapons = avoid open combat Emphasized hit-and-run tactics that caused steady casualties , wore down enemy & public support Ambushes , booby traps , sniping , sabotage Guerilla soldiers aided by & hid among civilians Elusive Enemy Tunnel system

49 Ho Chi Minh Trail 1

50 Ho Chi Minh Trail Supply route through highlands of eastern Laos & Cambodia Built / used by NVA (North Vietnamese Army) to supply Vietcong with soldiers , weapons, ammo , food , etc. Footpath at first; later much was paved US repeatedly bombed but Vietnamese kept repairing Concluded that couldn’t stop traffic


52 US STRATEGY Attrition Conventional Warfare Pacification
Wear down enemy by inflicting more damage on enemy than they can absorb Conventional Warfare Use superior firepower = air strikes , artillery , carpet bombing One of the primary reasons that the United States could not fully win the Vietnam War was they employed conventional warfare techniques in an unconventional war Pacification Push Vietcong out of areas win “hearts and minds” of Vietnamese Relocation

53 Napalm 2

54 Napalm Incendiary bombs filled w/ gelatinous gasoline mixture
Commonly used by US forces in Vietnam Water boils at 100 C; Napalm generates temperatures of 800 – 1200 degrees

55 AGENT ORANGE Plant killer sprayed by US aircraft in South Vietnam
Intended to defoliate (destroy trees, plants) + hiding places 19 million gallons sprayed = 12% of Vietnam stripped of foliage Cancer , health problems for people exposed

56 Search & Destroy Mission

57 Search & Destroy Mission
U.S. military missions to root out Vietcong from rural areas & villages Often resulted in destruction of Vietnamese property Sometimes resulted in war atrocities, brutality

58 Body Count 2

59 Body Count US military policy of ordering combat forces to count number of dead Vietnamese after each conflict Intended as a method Of measuring success to legitimize US war efforts To stimulate soldiers to fight by rewarding units with highest body counts Unintended consequences Inflated , false counts Unnecessary killing , war atrocities

60 Show video clip from Born on 4th of July

61 Didn't have time to do for Vietnam War 2005 - do next year
Do ELUSIVE WAR Show video clip from Born on 4th of July Go over 1968 notes Show 1968 video H.W. Chicago 8 article and questions

62 Television & the Vietnam War 2
The Living Room War Television & the Vietnam War 2

63 The Living Room War TV news broadcasts made on war each day
Reported casualties & accounts of fighting Often contrasted w/ optimism of govt 1st war to receive extensive TV coverage = living room war

64 The Draft 3

65 The Draft Most US soldiers in Vietnam = drafted Age 18-26 Many avoided draft College deferment Political connections Joined National Guard or Coast Guard Medical exemptions / lenient draft board The American armed forces in Vietnam were composed largely of the least privileged young Americans Majority of US soldiers sent to Vietnam = lower income whites & minorities Draft resistance to the Vietnam War occurred as a result of the autocratic manner in which the draft policy was administered the unpopularity of the war the disappearance of the traditional deferments allotted to students, teachers, fathers, and others

66 The 26th Amendment Lowered the voting age to 18 (950)

67 Peace Movement 3

68 Peace Movement Anti-war protest movement Began in 1965 on college campuses Supporters argued war in Vietnam = unjust, hypocritical, wasteful “teach-ins” & demonstrations Late 1960s = intense , widespread protest & draft resistance During the Vietnam War, President Lyndon Johnson ordered the CIA, in clear violation of its charter, to spy on domestic antiwar protestors (936)

69 Doves & Hawks 3

70 Doves & Hawks Late 1960s = Americans divided over Vietnam War
Nicknames for groups Doves = opposed to war , wanted US withdrawal One of the earliest and most powerful opponents of the Vietnam War was J. William Fulbright Head of Senate Foreign Relations committee Staged TV hearing Hawks = supported war, wanted US intensify war

71 TET Offensive 4

72 1968 TET Offensive temp. truce for Vietnamese New Year violated Vietcong attacked throughout South Vietnam Over 100 towns/cities , 12 US airbases Hue & American embassy in Saigon captured US troops eventually beat back Vietcong back resulted in a tactical defeat for the Viet Cong but a political defeat for the United States Public opinion turned radically against the Vietnam War after the Viet Cong launched the 1968 TET Offensive Attacks contradicted US of claim of winning the war = helped change public opinion against the war

73 Johnson’s 1968 Announcement

74 Johnson’s 1968 Announcement
LBJ ruined by US catastrophe in Vietnam Mar = LBJ made public announcement on TV US stop escalation + seek to end war Not run for re-election as president Announcement added to demoralization of troops

75 Counterculture

76 Counterculture Youth movement against mainstream society Racial turmoil , Vietnam War, govt. corruption of late 1960s & early 1970s shattered belief in the government & the American system Participants called “hippies” philosophy = life must be in tune with nature and dedicated to the free expression of the self Rejected traditional culture = materialism , technology , war Focuses on creating new lifestyle Peace , love, harmony , communes Music , drugs, eastern religions, hair & clothing style, sex By the early 1970s, rock music and television began to abandon traditional values in order to deal with the following themes social conflict drugs and mysticism anger and rebelliousness

77 Election of 1968 4

78 Election of 1968 Substantial opposition to America’s commitment to Vietnam between 1965 and 1968 came from Senators Robert Kennedy and Eugene McCarthy Congress & the American public many draft registrants

79 Election of 1968 Turbulent race for Democrats LBJ drops out , R.F.K + MLK assassinated , rioting at DNC in Chicago The violence outside the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago resulted from demonstrations against the Vietnam War Nixon = Rep candidate referred to the Vietnam War with the dramatic phrase of peace with honor able to win the presidency in 1968 because he mobilized the “silent majority “ of middle America entry of G. Wallace of the unpleasant, violent spectacle of the Democratic Convention of the attractiveness of his plans for stability , law and order ,government retrenchment and “peace with honor” Both major-party presidential candidates in 1968 agreed that the United States should continue the war in pursuit of an “honorable peace”

80 The New Left (941) The skepticism about authority that emerged in the United States during the 1960s had deep historical roots in American culture The social and cultural protest of the 1960s and 1970s stemmed from groups which sought to change American society by all of the following means destroying the corrupt elite and returning power to the people abandoning middle –class values and attaining individual liberation demanding racial and economic justice and wiping out all forms of discrimination The people who became the New Left in the 1960s received much of their inspiration form earlier experiences in the Civil Rights movement

81 The New Left The New Left expressed its radicalism in the following ways disruptions on college and university campuses political demonstrations opposing the Vietnam War rallies that included draft card burnings The strength of the New Left was indicated by the conversion of the anti-war movement into a national crusade


83 Vietnamization 5

84 Vietnamization President Nixon’s policy called for a gradual handover of the ground war to the South Vietnamese Policy of Nixon admin to help end US participation in Vietnam War Gradual withdrawal of US troops + increased combat role for S. Vietnamese troops Early 1970s = # of US troops decreased from 500,000 to 25,000

85 Peace with Honor 5

86 Peace with Honor Nixon’s goal in ending US involvement in Vietnam
Quick US withdrawal = obvious defeat, damage US world rep, encourage Communists in Vietnam Peace with Honor = Vietnamization , negotiate end, keep S. Vietnam gov’t intact Very difficult to achieve = Vietnamese refuse to back down + Americans eventually demand an end to the war

87 Nixon and Vietnam 5

88 Nixon and Vietnam In an effort to bring an end to the controversy over the Vietnam War, Nixon’s first moves were to authorize changing U.S. policy by creating the draft lottery and gradually withdrawing U.S. troops from Vietnam Began troop withdrawal + eventually ended US war in Vietnam Slow withdrawal + increase in other war efforts = angered Americans Secretly ordered massive bombing raids in North Vietnam , Laos ,Cambodia Invasion of Cambodia w/o telling Congress

89 My Lai Massacre 5

90 My Lai Massacre 1968 = US soldiers murdered unarmed Vietnamese civilians 300 +, mostly old men, women , children Village of My Lai 1969 = story broke in US Public outraged Reduced support for war

91 Moratorium:1969 largest demonstration in US history with an estimated 20 to 30 million people involved Supporters wore black armbands to signify their dissent and paid tribute to American personnel killed in the war since 1961

92 Kent State University 5

93 Kent State University 1970 – massive student protest
Protestors burned ROTC building , threw rocks National Guard troops opened fire on crowd of protesting students 4 killed , 9 wounded Shocked public = decreased support for war Results of the Cambodian incursion ordered by President Nixon in 1970 included the killing the student demonstrators at Kent State University the repeal of the Tonkin Gulf Resolution by the Senate a deepening of the division between pro-war “hawks” and antiwar “doves”

94 Pentagon Papers 5

95 Pentagon Papers published in 1971 , exposed the deception that had led the United States into the Vietnam War Secret govt document detailing the history of US political & military involvement in Vietnam War 1971 = leaked to public by former govt worker Revealed LBJ’s desire for war , dishonesty, lack of plan to end the war Confirmed belief that govt not been honest about its war intentions = increased the Credibility Gap

96 In the early 1970s, a majority of Americans became increasingly concerned about the course of the Vietnam War because of : the publication of the Pentagon Papers showed that the government had frequently lied to them about the war the rate at which American soldiers were being killed each week was continuing to increase the U.S. government was using illegal methods to discredit antiwar groups in America

97 End of the Vietnam War 5

98 End of the Vietnam War 1973 Intense domestic, international , Congressional pressure put on Nixon to end war Nixon’s approach to U.S. policy in Vietnam finally resulted in a negotiated settlement (the Paris accords), which provided for the release of several hundred American prisoners of war cease-fire agreement the United States was to withdraw all its troops from Vietnam War between North and South soon resumed 1975 South surrendered to North Vietnam unified under Communist govt During the two years following the American pullout of troops from South Vietnam, the North Vietnamese occupied the South and established a united Vietnam under the control of Hanoi

99 The people of the United States had provided
the most sophisticated aircraft hundreds of thousands of U.S. troops enough time to win enough money to build its own military just about everything EXCEPT the will to win the war Since the fall of Vietnam in 1975, historians have offered the following explanations for U.S. involvement the U.S. was trying to save Vietnam from the evils of communism the U.S. was selflessly attempting to save its friends from foreign aggression the U.S. wanted to impose its own political and economic system on the Vietnamese

100 Results of the Vietnam War

101 Results of the Vietnam War
2 mill killed Destruction of property Communist take over = violence + instability Health problems & land mines US 58 thousand killed ; 300,000 wounded Post traumatic stress disorder , health problems Ended draft War Powers Act American cynicism about govt, leaders, foreign policy lost respect in the eyes of foreigners confidence in its military prowess economic power the war

102 War Powers Act 5

103 1973 : War Powers Act required the president to report to Congress any commitment of American troops Limits president’s war-making powers US pres must Inform Congress within 48 hours of sending forces into hostile areas Bring back forces within 90 days unless Congress authorizes longer action or declares war Direct result of govt dishonesty + lack of success in Vietnam

104 Cambodia As a result of Richard Nixon’s aerial bombing of neutral Cambodia in 1973, the Cambodian economy was ruined and its politics revolutionized Khymer Rouge

105 Cambodia 1953 through 1970 1970 to 1975 1975 to 1979 1979 to 1989
Kingdom of Cambodia/ Royaume du Cambodge under the rule of the monarchy 1970 to 1975 Khmer Republic/République Khmère (French Republic) under Lon Nol 1975 to 1979 Democratic Kampuchea/Kampuchea démocratique under the rule of the communist Khmer Rouge 1979 to 1989 People's Republic of Kampuchea/République populaire du Kampuchea under the rule of the Vietnamese-sponsored government 1989 to 1993 State of Cambodia/État du Cambodge (a neutral name, while deciding whether to return to monarchy) under the rule of the United Nations transitional authority 1994 Kingdom of Cambodia/Royaume du Cambodge reused after the restoration of the monarchy

106 Pol Pot, 1925–1998 Cambodian political leader, originally named Saloth Sar. Paris-educated, and a Khmer Communist leader from 1960, he led Khmer Rouge  guerrillas against the government of Lon Nol (lŏn nōl)after 1970. In 1975 he proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Kampuchea and served as its premier (1976–79). The systematic murder of members of various groups; the complete destruction of individual rights; forced labor, disease, and starvation in Cambodia's "killing fields"; the transformation of a developing country into a xenophobic agrarian society; and other horrors that can be ascribed to the cruelty or ineptitude of Pol Pot made him one of the most infamous leaders in modern history. Some 1.5 million out of a total population of about 7 million died during his rule, which ended with an invasion by the Vietnamese in late 1979. Although he retired officially in 1985, Pol Pot continued to control his guerrillas, the strongest antigovernment force, in western jungle areas of Cambodia until factional collapse shortly before his death.

107 CAUSES : Containment The Domino Theory Fear of the spread of Communism
French military failure The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

108 CONSEQUENCES : Dissent and protest
Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) Draft Dodgers Distrust of the American Government Moratorium

109 Cause or Consequence ? Dissent and protest CONSEQUENCE

110 Cause or Consequence ? The Domino Theory CAUSE

111 Cause or Consequence ? Students for a Democratic Society (S.D.S.) CONSEQUENCE

112 Cause or Consequence ? Fear of the spread of Communism CAUSE

113 Cause or Consequence ? Draft dodgers CONSEQUENCE

114 Cause or Consequence ? Distrust of the American government CONSEQUENCE

115 Cause or Consequence ? French military failure CAUSE

116 Cause or Consequence ? Containment CAUSE

117 Cause or Consequence ? Moratorium CONSEQUENCE

118 Vietnam Veterans Memorial 1982

119 Cambodia Timeline Chronology of U.S -Vietnam Relations
1930 Indochinese Communist Party, opposed to French rule, organized by Ho Chi Minh and his followers Bao Dai returns from France to reign as emperor of Vietnam under the French. September, 1940 Japanese troops occupy Indochina, but allow the French to continue their colonial adminstration of the area. Japan's move into southern part of Vietnam in July 1941 sparks an oil boycott by the U.S. and Great Britain. The resulting oil shortage strengthens Japan's desire to risk war against the U.S. and Britain. 1945 An OSS (Office of Strategic Services, forerunner of the CIA) team parachutes into Ho Chi Minh's jungle camp in northern Vietnam and saves Ho Chi Minh who is ill with malaria and other tropical diseases. August, 1945 Japan surrenders. Ho Chi Minh establishes the Viet Minh, a guerilla army. Bao Dai abdicates after a general uprising led by the Viet Minh. September, 1945 Seven OSS officers, led by Lieutenant Colonel A. Peter Dewey, land in Saigon to liberate Allied war prisoners, search for missing Americans, and gather intelligence. September 2, 1945 Ho Chi Minh reads Vietnam's Declaration of Independence to end 80 years of colonialism under French rule and establish the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in Hanoi. Vietnam is divided north and south.

120 Cambodia September 26, 1945 OSS Lieutenant Dewey killed in Saigon, the first American to be killed in Vietnam. French and Vietminh spokesmen blame each other for his death. November, 1946 Ho Chi Minh attempts to negotiate the end of colonial rule with the French without success. The French army shells Haiphong harbor in November, killing over 6,000 Vietnamese civilians, and, by December, open war between France and the Viet Minh begins. Return to Top The U.S., recognizing Boa Dai's regime as legitimate, begins to subsidize the French in Vietnam; the Chinese Communists, having won their civil war in 1949, begin to supply weapons to the Viet Minh. August 3, 1950 A U.S. Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) of 35 men arrives in Saigon. By the end of the year, the U.S. is bearing half of the cost of France's war effort in Vietnam. May 7, 1954 The French are defeated at Dien Bien Phu. General Vo Nguyen Giap commands the Viet Minh forces. France is forced to withdraw. The French-indochina War ends. See also: Dien Bien Phu: A Vietnamese Perspective Dien Bien Phu: A Website of the Battle June, 1954 The CIA establishes a military mission in Saigon. Bao Dai selects Ngo Dinh Diem as prime minster of his government. July 20, 1954 The Geneva Conference on Indochina declares a demilitarized zone at the 17th parallel with the North under Communist rule and the South under the leadership of Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem. October 24, 1954 President Dwight D. Eisenhower pledges support to Diem's government and military forces The U.S.-backed Ngo Dinh Diem organizes the Republic of Vietnam as an independent nation; declares himself president. 1956 Fighting begins between the North and the South. July 8, 1959 The first American combat deaths in Vietnam occur when Viet Cong attack Bien Hoa billets; two servicemen are killed. Return to Top 1960 The National Liberation Front (NLF)--called the Viet Cong--is founded in South Vietnam.

121 Cambodia February, 1961 The U.S. military buildup in Vietnam begins with combat advisors. President John F. Kennedy declares that they will respond if fired upon. June 16, 1963 A Buddhist monk immolates himself in Saigon. Buddhist demonstrations occurred from May through August. June 20, 1964 General William Westmoreland succeeds General Paul Harkins as head of the U.S. forces (MACV) in Vietnam. November 1, 1963 South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem is assassinated. May 4, 1964 Trade embargo imposed on North Vietnam in response to attacks from the North on South Vietnam. August 2 and 4, 1964 The Gulf of Tonkin Incident. North Vietnamese torpedo boats attacked the U.S. destroyer Maddox in the Gulf of Tonkin. A second attack allegedly occurs on August 4. In November, 2005, the National Security Agency (NSA) released "previously classified information regarding the Vietnam era, specifically the Gulf of Tonkin incident. This release includes a variety of articles, chronologies of events, oral history interviews, signals intelligence (SIGINT) reports and translations, and other related memoranda." URL: LII Item: August 5, 1964 President Lyndon Johnson asks Congress for a resolution against North Vietnam following the Gulf of Tonkin incident. Congress debates. August 7, 1964 Congress approves the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution which allows the president to take any necessary measures to repel further attacks and to provide military assistance to any South Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) member. Senators Wayne L. Morse of Oregon and Ernest Gruening of Alaska cast the only dissenting votes. President Johnson orders the bombing of North Vietnam. For additional information, see New Light on Gulf of Tonkin, McNamara Asks Giap, "What Happened at Tonkin Gulf?", and 30-Year Anniversary: Tonkin Gulf Lie Launched the Vietnam War. March 8-9, 1965 The first American combat troops arrive in Vietnam. April 6-8, 1965 President Johnson authorizes the use of U.S. ground combat troops for offensive operations. The next day he offers North Vietnam aid in exchange for peace. North Vietnam rejects the offer. April 17, 1965 Students for a Democratic Society sponsor the first major anti-war rally in Washington, D.C. Vietnam completes Cambodia withdrawal.

122 Cambodia June, 1965 Generals Nguyen Cao Ky and Nguyen Van Thieu seize the South Vietnamese government. October 15-16, 1965 Anti-war protests are held in about 40 American cities. November 14-16, 1965 The first major military engagement occurs between U.S. and North Vietnamese forces. September, 1967 Thieu is elected president of South Vietnam. Oct , ,000 people demonstrate against the war in Washington, D.C. January 21, 1968 The battle of Khe Sanh begins, ending six months later. January 31, 1968 The Tet Offensive. Communist forces launch attacks on Hue´ and 31 other South Vietnamese provincial capitals and military bases. One assault team gets inside the walls of the U.S. embassy in Saigon but is driven back. American Perspective Vietnamese Perspective March 16, 1968 Unarmed Vietnamese civilians are killed by members of U.S. Army Lt. William L. Calley Jr.'s platoon at My Lai. March 22, 1968 President Lyndon Johnson names General William Westmoreland as Army Chief of Staff. He was replaced in Vietnam by General Creighton W. Abrams . May 10, 1968 The Paris peace talks begin between U. S. and Vietnamese officials. May 10-20, 1969 The battle for Hamburger Hill June 8, 1969 President Richard Nixon announces the first troop withdrawals from South Vietnam September 3, 1969 Ho Chi Minh dies. November 15, ,000 people demonstrate against the war in Washington, D.C. December 1, 1969 The first draft lottery since 1942 begins. Return to Top

123 Cambodia March 10, 1970 Captain Ernest Medina charged with murder for the murders at My Lai. Events leading up the the My Lai Courts-Martial begin, ending with the conviction of Lieutenant William Calley on March 29, 1970. April 30, 1970 The armies of the U.S. and South Vietnam invade Cambodia to roust North Vietnamese troops. The invasion sparks campus protests. May 4, 1970 Four students are killed by National Guardsmen at Kent State University in Ohio. The killings sparked hundreds of protest activities across college campuses in the United States. Some protesters, like those at the University of New Mexico, were met with violence. See: The United Sates Anti-War Movement and the Vietnam War and New Mexico State Police Association. May 6, 1970 More than 100 colleges are closed due to student riots over he invasion of Cambodia. February, 1971 South Vietnam and the U.S. invade Laos in an attempt to sever the Ho Chi Minh Trail. December 18, 1972 Christmas bombing of Hanoi and North Vietnam begins.

124 Cambodia December 24, Bob Hope gives his last show to U.S. servicemen in Saigon. It was his 9th consecutive Christmas show in Vietnam. President Nixon suspends Operation Linebacker II for 36 hours to mark the Christmas holiday. December 28, 1972 Tthe North Vietnamese announced that they will return to Paris if Nixon ends the bombing. The bombing campaign was halted and the negotiators met during the first week of January, January 23, 1973 United States, South Vietnam, and North Vietnam sign Paris Peace Accords, ending American combat role in war. U.S. military draft ends. A cease-fire goes into effect 5 days later. March 29, 1973 Last U.S. combat troops leave Vietnam. February 12-27, 1973 POWs begin to come home as part of Operation Homecoming April 1, 1973 Hanoi releases last 591 acknowledged American POWs.

125 Cambodia September 16, 1974 President Gerald Ford offers clemency to draft evaders and military deserters. April 21, 1975 South Vietnamese President Thieu resigns. April 29-30, 1975 Saigon falls. U. S. Navy evacuates U.S. personnel and South Vietnamese refugees. The last American combat death in Vietnam occurs. South Vietnamese President Duong Van Minh surrenders. April 30, 1975 North Vietnamese forces take over Saigon; South Vietnam surrenders to North Vietnam, ending the war and reunifying the country under communist control, forming the Independent Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Washington extends embargo to all of Vietnam. May 12, 1975 The U.S. merchant ship Mayaguez is seized by the Khmer Rouge in international waters in the Gulf of Siam. The ship, owned by Sea-Land Corporation, was en route to Sattahip, Thailand, from Hong-Kong, carrying a non-arms cargo for military bases in Thailand. December, 1978 Vietnam invades Cambodia and topples Pol Pot's Khmer Rouge government, ending its reign of terror.

126 1979 Western European countries and non-communist Asian nations support U.S.-led embargo against Vietnam, in protest against invasion of Cambodia. February, 1982 Vietnam agrees to talks on American MIAs. November 11, 1982 The Vietnam Veterans Memorial, "The Wall," is dedicated in Washington, D.C Vietnam begins cooperation with United States to resolve fate of American servicemen missing in action (MIA). September/October, 1988 United States and Vietnam conduct first joint field investigations on MIAs.

127 Laos In 1995, after a twenty-year embargo, the United States established Normal Trade Relations with Laos.


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