8Ho Chi Minh NATIONALIST Communist Vietnamese Hero Opposed French and US dominance in Vietnam since World War ICommunistBecame communist while living in Europe (France)Communism as Anti-Imperialistic appealedVietnamese HeroOrganized & led a communist-dominated independence movement in Vietnam after WWIIWon wide support of Vietnamese peopleOpposed French and US dominance in Vietnam
101946-1954: First Indochina War War for Independence After WWII = Ho Chi Minh proclaimed Vietnam independent & himself presidentVietnamese Nationalists led by Ho Chi Minh against the Frenchresulted from the French decision to move back into Vietnam after World War IIFrench occupied coast and major citiesdrove revolutionaries out of SaigonVietnamese forces occupied northern mountainsNorth Vietnam and South Vietnam differed from one another in that the North was extremely nationalistic , while the South was much less so
131954- Battle of Dien Bein Phu FRENCH DEFEATClimactic battle of First Indochina WarVietnamese forces besieged & overran French outpost in northwestern VietnamFrench public tired of war & saw this battle as a humiliating defeatFrench withdraw from Indochina
151954: Geneva Conference1954 Peace Agreement = Ended FIRST INDOCHINA WARCREATED two Vietnamscalled for the two Vietnams to hold national elections within two yearsSigned by reps from Europe, Asia, & USTerms of agreementdivided at 17th parallelSoviet backed NORTH VIETNAM = HANOI = HO CHI MINHU.S. backed SOUTH VIETNAM = SAIGON = NGO DINH DIEMReunification election scheduled for 1956Hold elections in 1956 to unite Vietnam chosen by popular vote
16Results of GENEVA ACCORDS U.S. began expanded presence in VietnamUS involvement in Vietnam based on the Domino Theory
18DOMINO THEORYBelief held by many American policymakers during Cold WarIf Vietnam becomes communist , neighboring nations would also fall (like dominoes) = communism spread throughout Asia
19Eisenhower & Vietnam Domino Theory = contain communism in Vietnam Installed a anti-communist leader (Diem) in power in South VietnamExtended official protection to South Vietnam by creating SEATO = South East Asia Treaty OrganizationSent military equipment & a few hundred advisors
21Ngo Dinh Diem 1st President of South Vietnam Anti-communist aided by USw/US supportRefused to sign Geneva AccordsHeld rigged election in 1955 only in S. VietnamDeclared S. Vietnam independent nationLaunched violent campaign ag. Vietcongun-democratic actions sparked renewed independence movement
22Civil War in South Vietnam against US backed President Diem Second Indochina WarCivil War in South Vietnam against US backed President Diem
24VIETCONGVietnamese Communists in South Vietnam who opposed Diem’s ruleShort for Viet-nam Cong-san, or Vietnamese communistsOriginally a derogatory term like “commies”VC = Term commonly used by US forcesSouth Vietnamese guerrillas who attacked their own government
26National Liberation Front (NLF) Opposition movement in South VietnamSparked by Diem’s campaign ag. VietcongGoalsOverthrowing puppet regime of SouthLiberating nation from foreign dominationReunify VietnamCreating a more equal societyAided by North Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh, Vietminh ,NVA)
31KENNEDY & VIETNAMJFK increased military advisors from 700 to 15,000Diem became very unpopularlaunched attacks on the country’s BuddhistsRepressed country peasants,favored urban , Catholic minorityBuddhist Monk Suicide ProtestsJFK approved a coupDiem assassinatedIncreased political instability , growth of NLF, resistance
32Read excerpt from Buddhist protest with next slide of picture
351964 TONKIN GULF RESOLUTION US Congresspermitted President to “take all measures necessary” to protect American forces & prevent further aggression in SE Asiaauthorized escalation of conflictGave LBJ Blank check to wage undeclared warLBJ portrayed incident as an act of aggressionN. Vietnamese gunboats fired on the destroyer USS Maddox in Gulf of TonkinControversy over whether US provoked the attackOrdered air strikes against N. VietnamSpoke on TV to gain approval from US public
361964 TONKIN GULF RESOLUTION The American commitment in Vietnam increased substantially whenPresident Johnson asked forand Congressapproved the Gulf of Tonkin ResolutionEscalation of the Vietnam War in the 1960s includedAmerican soldiers began playing an active combat roleAmerican planes began bombing targets in North VietnamAmerican forces began increasing rapidly in number
372001 Authorization for the Use of Military Force On September 18, 2001, one week after the 9/11 attacks, Congress passed the Authorization for the Use of Military Force (AUMF), authorizing the President:To use all necessary and appropriate force against those nations, organizations, or persons he determines planned, committed, or aided the terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001…
391973 : War Powers Actrequired the president to report to Congress any commitment of American troopsLimits president’s war-making powersInform Congress within 48 hours of sending forces into hostile areasBring back forces within 90 days unless Congress authorizes longer action or declares warDirect result of govt dishonesty & lack of success in Vietnam
40War Powers Act of 1973(Public Law ) limits the power of the President of the United States to wage war without the approval of Congress.requires the President to consult with Congress prior to the start of any hostilities as well as regularly until U.S. armed forces are no longer engaged in hostilities (Sec. 3);to remove U.S. armed forces from hostilities if Congress has not declared war or passed a resolution authorizing the use of force within 60 days (Sec. 5(b)).Following an official request by the President to Congress, the time limit can be extended by an additional 30 days (presumably when "unavoidable military necessity" requires additional action for a safe withdrawal).
41Guerilla Warfare & American Strategy U.S. Involvement and Escalation
42Johnson & Vietnam 1965 - surprise attack on US base at Pleiku Didn’t want to be the 1st US President to lose a war (Vietnam to communists = lost war)Used strategy of limited war= No nukes; no invasion of N.Vietnamsurprise attack on US base at PleikuLBJ ordered first sustained bombing of N.Vietnam = Operation Rolling Thunderdeployed 3,500 marines to VietnamLBJ steadily escalated conflict into a warOver ½ million troops by intense bombing
44Robert McNamara Secretary of Defense for JFK & LBJ administrations Anti-communistKey supporter of involvement in VietnamEncouraged LBJ to escalate conflict in 19651966 opposes further escalationLater resigns
46William Westmoreland 1967 = announced in US that war was being won Commander of US forces in Vietnam during the 1960sThought ARVN incapable of defeating VietcongUrged for more US troops & full combat operations1967 = announced in US that war was being won
48Guerilla warfare Method of fighting often used by Vietnamese troops Lack powerful weapons = avoid open combatEmphasized hit-and-run tactics that caused steady casualties , wore down enemy & public supportAmbushes , booby traps , sniping , sabotageGuerilla soldiers aided by & hid among civiliansElusive EnemyTunnel system
50Ho Chi Minh TrailSupply route through highlands of eastern Laos & CambodiaBuilt / used by NVA (North Vietnamese Army) to supply Vietcong with soldiers , weapons, ammo , food , etc.Footpath at first; later much was pavedUS repeatedly bombed but Vietnamese kept repairingConcluded that couldn’t stop traffic
52US STRATEGY Attrition Conventional Warfare Pacification Wear down enemy by inflicting more damage on enemy than they can absorbConventional WarfareUse superior firepower = air strikes , artillery , carpet bombingOne of the primary reasons that the United States could not fully win the Vietnam War was they employed conventional warfare techniques in an unconventional warPacificationPush Vietcong out of areaswin “hearts and minds” of VietnameseRelocation
54Napalm Incendiary bombs filled w/ gelatinous gasoline mixture Commonly used by US forces in VietnamWater boils at 100 C; Napalm generates temperatures of 800 – 1200 degrees
55AGENT ORANGE Plant killer sprayed by US aircraft in South Vietnam Intended to defoliate (destroy trees, plants) + hiding places19 million gallons sprayed = 12% of Vietnam stripped of foliageCancer , health problems for people exposed
59Body CountUS military policy of ordering combat forces to count number of dead Vietnamese after each conflictIntended as a methodOf measuring success to legitimize US war effortsTo stimulate soldiers to fight by rewarding units with highest body countsUnintended consequencesInflated , false countsUnnecessary killing , war atrocities
65The DraftMost US soldiers in Vietnam = draftedAge 18-26Many avoided draftCollege defermentPolitical connectionsJoined National Guard or Coast GuardMedical exemptions / lenient draft boardThe American armed forces in Vietnam were composed largely of the least privileged young AmericansMajority of US soldiers sent to Vietnam = lower income whites & minoritiesDraft resistance to the Vietnam War occurred as a result ofthe autocratic manner in which the draft policy was administeredthe unpopularity of the warthe disappearance of the traditional deferments allotted to students, teachers, fathers, and others
66The 26th AmendmentLowered the voting age to 18 (950)
68Peace MovementAnti-war protest movementBegan in 1965 on college campusesSupporters argued war in Vietnam = unjust, hypocritical, wasteful“teach-ins” & demonstrationsLate 1960s = intense , widespread protest & draft resistanceDuring the Vietnam War, President Lyndon Johnson ordered the CIA, in clear violation of its charter, to spy on domestic antiwar protestors (936)
70Doves & Hawks Late 1960s = Americans divided over Vietnam War Nicknames for groupsDoves = opposed to war , wanted US withdrawalOne of the earliest and most powerful opponents of the Vietnam War was J. William FulbrightHead of Senate Foreign Relations committeeStaged TV hearingHawks = supported war, wanted US intensify war
721968 TET Offensivetemp. truce for Vietnamese New Year violatedVietcong attacked throughout South VietnamOver 100 towns/cities , 12 US airbasesHue & American embassy in Saigon capturedUS troops eventually beat back Vietcong backresulted in a tactical defeat for the Viet Cong but a political defeat for the United StatesPublic opinion turned radically against the Vietnam War after the Viet Cong launched the 1968 TET OffensiveAttacks contradicted US of claim of winning the war = helped change public opinion against the war
74Johnson’s 1968 Announcement LBJ ruined by US catastrophe in VietnamMar = LBJ made public announcement on TVUS stop escalation + seek to end warNot run for re-election as presidentAnnouncement added to demoralization of troops
76CountercultureYouth movement against mainstream societyRacial turmoil , Vietnam War, govt. corruption of late 1960s & early 1970s shattered belief in the government & the American systemParticipants called “hippies”philosophy = life must be in tune with nature and dedicated to the free expression of the selfRejected traditional culture = materialism , technology , warFocuses on creating new lifestylePeace , love, harmony , communesMusic , drugs, eastern religions, hair & clothing style, sexBy the early 1970s, rock music and television began to abandon traditional values in order to deal with the following themessocial conflictdrugs and mysticismanger and rebelliousness
78Election of 1968Substantial opposition to America’s commitment to Vietnam between 1965 and 1968 came fromSenators Robert Kennedy and Eugene McCarthyCongress & the American publicmany draft registrants
79Election of 1968Turbulent race for DemocratsLBJ drops out , R.F.K + MLK assassinated , rioting at DNC in ChicagoThe violence outside the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago resulted from demonstrations against the Vietnam WarNixon = Rep candidatereferred to the Vietnam War with the dramatic phrase of peace with honorable to win the presidency in 1968 becausehe mobilized the “silent majority “ of middle Americaentry of G. Wallaceof the unpleasant, violent spectacle of the Democratic Conventionof the attractiveness of his plans for stability , law and order ,government retrenchment and “peace with honor”Both major-party presidential candidates in 1968 agreed that the United States should continue the war in pursuit of an “honorable peace”
80The New Left(941) The skepticism about authority that emerged in the United States during the 1960s had deep historical roots in American cultureThe social and cultural protest of the 1960s and 1970s stemmed from groups which sought to change American society by all of the following meansdestroying the corrupt elite and returning power to the peopleabandoning middle –class values and attaining individual liberationdemanding racial and economic justice and wiping out all forms of discriminationThe people who became the New Left in the 1960s received much of their inspiration form earlier experiences in the Civil Rights movement
81The New LeftThe New Left expressed its radicalism in the following waysdisruptions on college and university campusespolitical demonstrations opposing the Vietnam Warrallies that included draft card burningsThe strength of the New Left was indicated by the conversion of the anti-war movement into a national crusade
84VietnamizationPresident Nixon’s policy called for a gradual handover of the ground war to the South VietnamesePolicy of Nixon admin to help end US participation in Vietnam WarGradual withdrawal of US troops + increased combat role for S. Vietnamese troopsEarly 1970s = # of US troops decreased from 500,000 to 25,000
86Peace with Honor Nixon’s goal in ending US involvement in Vietnam Quick US withdrawal = obvious defeat, damage US world rep, encourage Communists in VietnamPeace with Honor = Vietnamization , negotiate end, keep S. Vietnam gov’t intactVery difficult to achieve = Vietnamese refuse to back down + Americans eventually demand an end to the war
88Nixon and VietnamIn an effort to bring an end to the controversy over the Vietnam War, Nixon’s first moves were to authorize changing U.S. policy by creating the draft lottery and gradually withdrawing U.S. troops from VietnamBegan troop withdrawal + eventually ended US war in VietnamSlow withdrawal + increase in other war efforts = angered AmericansSecretly ordered massive bombing raids in North Vietnam , Laos ,CambodiaInvasion of Cambodia w/o telling Congress
90My Lai Massacre1968 = US soldiers murdered unarmed Vietnamese civilians300 +, mostly old men, women , childrenVillage of My Lai1969 = story broke in USPublic outragedReduced support for war
91Moratorium:1969largest demonstration in US history with an estimated 20 to 30 million people involvedSupporters wore black armbands to signify their dissent and paid tribute to American personnel killed in the war since 1961
93Kent State University 1970 – massive student protest Protestors burned ROTC building , threw rocksNational Guard troops opened fire on crowd of protesting students4 killed , 9 woundedShocked public = decreased support for warResults of the Cambodian incursion ordered by President Nixon in 1970 includedthe killing the student demonstrators at Kent State Universitythe repeal of the Tonkin Gulf Resolution by the Senatea deepening of the division between pro-war “hawks” and antiwar “doves”
95Pentagon Paperspublished in 1971 , exposed the deception that had led the United States into the Vietnam WarSecret govt document detailing the history of US political & military involvement in Vietnam War1971 = leaked to public by former govt workerRevealed LBJ’s desire for war , dishonesty, lack of plan to end the warConfirmed belief that govt not been honest about its war intentions = increased the Credibility Gap
96In the early 1970s, a majority of Americans became increasingly concerned about the course of the Vietnam War because of :the publication of the Pentagon Papers showed that the government had frequently lied to them about the warthe rate at which American soldiers were being killed each week was continuing to increasethe U.S. government was using illegal methods to discredit antiwar groups in America
98End of the Vietnam War1973Intense domestic, international , Congressional pressure put on Nixon to end warNixon’s approach to U.S. policy in Vietnam finally resulted in a negotiated settlement (the Paris accords), which provided for the release of several hundred American prisoners of warcease-fire agreementthe United States was to withdraw all its troops from VietnamWar between North and South soon resumed1975South surrendered to NorthVietnam unified under Communist govtDuring the two years following the American pullout of troops from South Vietnam, the North Vietnamese occupied the South and established a united Vietnam under the control of Hanoi
99The people of the United States had provided the most sophisticated aircrafthundreds of thousands of U.S. troopsenough time to winenough money to build its own militaryjust about everything EXCEPT the will to win the warSince the fall of Vietnam in 1975, historians have offered the following explanations for U.S. involvementthe U.S. was trying to save Vietnam from the evils of communismthe U.S. was selflessly attempting to save its friends from foreign aggressionthe U.S. wanted to impose its own political and economic system on the Vietnamese
101Results of the Vietnam War 2 mill killedDestruction of propertyCommunist take over = violence + instabilityHealth problems & land minesUS58 thousand killed ; 300,000 woundedPost traumatic stress disorder , health problemsEnded draftWar Powers ActAmerican cynicism about govt, leaders, foreign policylostrespect in the eyes of foreignersconfidence in its military prowesseconomic powerthe war
1031973 : War Powers Actrequired the president to report to Congress any commitment of American troopsLimits president’s war-making powersUS pres mustInform Congress within 48 hours of sending forces into hostile areasBring back forces within 90 days unless Congress authorizes longer action or declares warDirect result of govt dishonesty + lack of success in Vietnam
104CambodiaAs a result of Richard Nixon’s aerial bombing of neutral Cambodia in 1973, the Cambodian economy was ruined and its politics revolutionizedKhymer Rouge
105Cambodia 1953 through 1970 1970 to 1975 1975 to 1979 1979 to 1989 Kingdom of Cambodia/ Royaume du Cambodge under the rule of the monarchy1970 to 1975Khmer Republic/République Khmère (French Republic) under Lon Nol1975 to 1979Democratic Kampuchea/Kampuchea démocratique under the rule of the communist Khmer Rouge1979 to 1989People's Republic of Kampuchea/République populaire du Kampuchea under the rule of the Vietnamese-sponsored government1989 to 1993State of Cambodia/État du Cambodge (a neutral name, while deciding whether to return to monarchy) under the rule of the United Nations transitional authority1994Kingdom of Cambodia/Royaume du Cambodge reused after the restoration of the monarchy
106Pol Pot, 1925–1998Cambodian political leader, originally named Saloth Sar. Paris-educated, and a Khmer Communist leader from 1960, he led Khmer Rouge guerrillas against the government of Lon Nol (lŏn nōl)after 1970.In 1975 he proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Kampuchea and served as its premier (1976–79). The systematic murder of members of various groups; the complete destruction of individual rights; forced labor, disease, and starvation in Cambodia's "killing fields"; the transformation of a developing country into a xenophobic agrarian society; and other horrors that can be ascribed to the cruelty or ineptitude of Pol Pot made him one of the most infamous leaders in modern history.Some 1.5 million out of a total population of about 7 million died during his rule, which ended with an invasion by the Vietnamese in late 1979.Although he retired officially in 1985, Pol Pot continued to control his guerrillas, the strongest antigovernment force, in western jungle areas of Cambodia until factional collapse shortly before his death.
107CAUSES : Containment The Domino Theory Fear of the spread of Communism French military failureThe Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
108CONSEQUENCES : Dissent and protest Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)Draft DodgersDistrust of the American GovernmentMoratorium
109Cause or Consequence ?Dissent and protestCONSEQUENCE
119Cambodia Timeline Chronology of U.S -Vietnam Relations 1930 Indochinese Communist Party, opposed to French rule, organized by Ho Chi Minh and his followers Bao Dai returns from France to reign as emperor of Vietnam under the French. September, 1940 Japanese troops occupy Indochina, but allow the French to continue their colonial adminstration of the area. Japan's move into southern part of Vietnam in July 1941 sparks an oil boycott by the U.S. and Great Britain. The resulting oil shortage strengthens Japan's desire to risk war against the U.S. and Britain.1945 An OSS (Office of Strategic Services, forerunner of the CIA) team parachutes into Ho Chi Minh's jungle camp in northern Vietnam and saves Ho Chi Minh who is ill with malaria and other tropical diseases. August, 1945 Japan surrenders. Ho Chi Minh establishes the Viet Minh, a guerilla army. Bao Dai abdicates after a general uprising led by the Viet Minh. September, 1945 Seven OSS officers, led by Lieutenant Colonel A. Peter Dewey, land in Saigon to liberate Allied war prisoners, search for missing Americans, and gather intelligence. September 2, 1945 Ho Chi Minh reads Vietnam's Declaration of Independence to end 80 years of colonialism under French rule and establish the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in Hanoi. Vietnam is divided north and south.
120CambodiaSeptember 26, 1945 OSS Lieutenant Dewey killed in Saigon, the first American to be killed in Vietnam. French and Vietminh spokesmen blame each other for his death. November, 1946 Ho Chi Minh attempts to negotiate the end of colonial rule with the French without success. The French army shells Haiphong harbor in November, killing over 6,000 Vietnamese civilians, and, by December, open war between France and the Viet Minh begins.Return to Top The U.S., recognizing Boa Dai's regime as legitimate, begins to subsidize the French in Vietnam; the Chinese Communists, having won their civil war in 1949, begin to supply weapons to the Viet Minh. August 3, 1950 A U.S. Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) of 35 men arrives in Saigon. By the end of the year, the U.S. is bearing half of the cost of France's war effort in Vietnam. May 7, 1954 The French are defeated at Dien Bien Phu. General Vo Nguyen Giap commands the Viet Minh forces. France is forced to withdraw. The French-indochina War ends. See also:Dien Bien Phu: A Vietnamese Perspective Dien Bien Phu: A Website of the BattleJune, 1954 The CIA establishes a military mission in Saigon. Bao Dai selects Ngo Dinh Diem as prime minster of his government. July 20, 1954 The Geneva Conference on Indochina declares a demilitarized zone at the 17th parallel with the North under Communist rule and the South under the leadership of Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem. October 24, 1954 President Dwight D. Eisenhower pledges support to Diem's government and military forces The U.S.-backed Ngo Dinh Diem organizes the Republic of Vietnam as an independent nation; declares himself president.1956 Fighting begins between the North and the South. July 8, 1959 The first American combat deaths in Vietnam occur when Viet Cong attack Bien Hoa billets; two servicemen are killed.Return to Top1960 The National Liberation Front (NLF)--called the Viet Cong--is founded in South Vietnam.
121CambodiaFebruary, 1961 The U.S. military buildup in Vietnam begins with combat advisors. President John F. Kennedy declares that they will respond if fired upon. June 16, 1963 A Buddhist monk immolates himself in Saigon. Buddhist demonstrations occurred from May through August.June 20, 1964 General William Westmoreland succeeds General Paul Harkins as head of the U.S. forces (MACV) in Vietnam. November 1, 1963 South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem is assassinated. May 4, 1964 Trade embargo imposed on North Vietnam in response to attacks from the North on South Vietnam. August 2 and 4, 1964 The Gulf of Tonkin Incident. North Vietnamese torpedo boats attacked the U.S. destroyer Maddox in the Gulf of Tonkin. A second attack allegedly occurs on August 4.In November, 2005, the National Security Agency (NSA) released "previously classified information regarding the Vietnam era, specifically the Gulf of Tonkin incident. This release includes a variety of articles, chronologies of events, oral history interviews, signals intelligence (SIGINT) reports and translations, and other related memoranda." URL: LII Item: August 5, 1964 President Lyndon Johnson asks Congress for a resolution against North Vietnam following the Gulf of Tonkin incident. Congress debates. August 7, 1964 Congress approves the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution which allows the president to take any necessary measures to repel further attacks and to provide military assistance to any South Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) member. Senators Wayne L. Morse of Oregon and Ernest Gruening of Alaska cast the only dissenting votes. President Johnson orders the bombing of North Vietnam. For additional information, see New Light on Gulf of Tonkin, McNamara Asks Giap, "What Happened at Tonkin Gulf?", and 30-Year Anniversary: Tonkin Gulf Lie Launched the Vietnam War. March 8-9, 1965 The first American combat troops arrive in Vietnam. April 6-8, 1965 President Johnson authorizes the use of U.S. ground combat troops for offensive operations. The next day he offers North Vietnam aid in exchange for peace. North Vietnam rejects the offer. April 17, 1965 Students for a Democratic Society sponsor the first major anti-war rally in Washington, D.C. Vietnam completes Cambodia withdrawal.
122CambodiaJune, 1965 Generals Nguyen Cao Ky and Nguyen Van Thieu seize the South Vietnamese government. October 15-16, 1965 Anti-war protests are held in about 40 American cities. November 14-16, 1965 The first major military engagement occurs between U.S. and North Vietnamese forces. September, 1967 Thieu is elected president of South Vietnam. Oct , ,000 people demonstrate against the war in Washington, D.C. January 21, 1968 The battle of Khe Sanh begins, ending six months later. January 31, 1968 The Tet Offensive. Communist forces launch attacks on Hue´ and 31 other South Vietnamese provincial capitals and military bases. One assault team gets inside the walls of the U.S. embassy in Saigon but is driven back.American Perspective Vietnamese PerspectiveMarch 16, 1968 Unarmed Vietnamese civilians are killed by members of U.S. Army Lt. William L. Calley Jr.'s platoon at My Lai.March 22, 1968 President Lyndon Johnson names General William Westmoreland as Army Chief of Staff. He was replaced in Vietnam by General Creighton W. Abrams .May 10, 1968 The Paris peace talks begin between U. S. and Vietnamese officials. May 10-20, 1969 The battle for Hamburger Hill June 8, 1969 President Richard Nixon announces the first troop withdrawals from South Vietnam September 3, 1969 Ho Chi Minh dies. November 15, ,000 people demonstrate against the war in Washington, D.C.December 1, 1969 The first draft lottery since 1942 begins.Return to Top
123CambodiaMarch 10, 1970 Captain Ernest Medina charged with murder for the murders at My Lai. Events leading up the the My Lai Courts-Martial begin, ending with the conviction of Lieutenant William Calley on March 29, 1970.April 30, 1970 The armies of the U.S. and South Vietnam invade Cambodia to roust North Vietnamese troops. The invasion sparks campus protests. May 4, 1970 Four students are killed by National Guardsmen at Kent State University in Ohio. The killings sparked hundreds of protest activities across college campuses in the United States. Some protesters, like those at the University of New Mexico, were met with violence. See: The United Sates Anti-War Movement and the Vietnam War and New Mexico State Police Association.May 6, 1970 More than 100 colleges are closed due to student riots over he invasion of Cambodia. February, 1971 South Vietnam and the U.S. invade Laos in an attempt to sever the Ho Chi Minh Trail. December 18, 1972 Christmas bombing of Hanoi and North Vietnam begins.
124CambodiaDecember 24, Bob Hope gives his last show to U.S. servicemen in Saigon. It was his 9th consecutive Christmas show in Vietnam. President Nixon suspends Operation Linebacker II for 36 hours to mark the Christmas holiday.December 28, 1972 Tthe North Vietnamese announced that they will return to Paris if Nixon ends the bombing. The bombing campaign was halted and the negotiators met during the first week of January, January 23, 1973 United States, South Vietnam, and North Vietnam sign Paris Peace Accords, ending American combat role in war. U.S. military draft ends. A cease-fire goes into effect 5 days later. March 29, 1973 Last U.S. combat troops leave Vietnam. February 12-27, 1973 POWs begin to come home as part of Operation Homecoming April 1, 1973 Hanoi releases last 591 acknowledged American POWs.
125CambodiaSeptember 16, 1974 President Gerald Ford offers clemency to draft evaders and military deserters. April 21, 1975 South Vietnamese President Thieu resigns. April 29-30, 1975 Saigon falls. U. S. Navy evacuates U.S. personnel and South Vietnamese refugees. The last American combat death in Vietnam occurs. South Vietnamese President Duong Van Minh surrenders.April 30, 1975 North Vietnamese forces take over Saigon; South Vietnam surrenders to North Vietnam, ending the war and reunifying the country under communist control, forming the Independent Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Washington extends embargo to all of Vietnam. May 12, 1975 The U.S. merchant ship Mayaguez is seized by the Khmer Rouge in international waters in the Gulf of Siam. The ship, owned by Sea-Land Corporation, was en route to Sattahip, Thailand, from Hong-Kong, carrying a non-arms cargo for military bases in Thailand. December, 1978 Vietnam invades Cambodia and topples Pol Pot's Khmer Rouge government, ending its reign of terror.
1261979 Western European countries and non-communist Asian nations support U.S.-led embargo against Vietnam, in protest against invasion of Cambodia.February, 1982 Vietnam agrees to talks on American MIAs. November 11, 1982 The Vietnam Veterans Memorial, "The Wall," is dedicated in Washington, D.C Vietnam begins cooperation with United States to resolve fate of American servicemen missing in action (MIA). September/October, 1988 United States and Vietnam conduct first joint field investigations on MIAs.
127LaosIn 1995, after a twenty-year embargo, the United States established Normal Trade Relations with Laos.