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The Vietnam War: An Introduction Mr. Ornstein Willow Canyon High School IB: History of the Americas.

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Presentation on theme: "The Vietnam War: An Introduction Mr. Ornstein Willow Canyon High School IB: History of the Americas."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Vietnam War: An Introduction Mr. Ornstein Willow Canyon High School IB: History of the Americas

2 What Do I Know About Vietnam and the American War in Vietnam??? Write 10 Things You Know About Vietnam and the Vietnam War:

3 Where is Vietnam???

4 Southeast Asia Vietnam is in Southeast Asia Near Laos, Cambodia. Thailand, and parts of China

5 Vietnam Facts 83 Million People Very Fertile Many Resources Hot and Wet Climate

6 Religion in Vietnam Most People are Buddhist Strong Minority of Catholics

7 Early History of Vietnam One of Few Asian Countries to Defeat the Mongols at the Time of Kublai and Genghis Khan. Victim of Chinese Colonialism Vietnam and China have not had a good relationship.

8 Vietnam and Resistance to Foreign Control Vietnamese Resistance to the Chinese and Mongols is Typical to the History of Vietnam

9 Indochina and French Colonialism Ultimately Vietnam Gained Independence from China Vietnam's independence ended in the mid-19th century, when the country was colonized by the French Empire.19th centuryFrench Empire Vietnam was part of the French Colonial Empire in Southeast Asia/Indochina

10 France and Vietnam Exploited Vietnam’s Resources and People Introduced Catholicism Western Education French Language and Customs

11 Vietnam and Imperialism Vietnamese will Strongly Resist Imperialism from: China Mongols French Japanese Many American Military and Political Leaders were Ignorant of this.

12 WW1/14 Points and Vietnam At the End of WW1 American President Woodrow Wilson Promised to end Colonialism A Young Ho Chi Minh Showed Up at Versailles Conference Hoping to Get Vietnamese Independence from France

13 Nationalism Pride in your country. Desire for an independent homeland for your people.

14 Viet Minh Founded by Ho Chi Minh Communist/National ist Group that Opposed the French and later Japanese

15 WWII At the Start of WW2, Vietnam and Much of Southeast Asia was still controlled by France. Vietnamese Resistance to France had started to grow.

16 Ho Chi Minh Leader of the Viet Minh Wants Independent Vietnam Opposes French, Japanese, and Americans Trains in China and USSR Helps Rescue Americans during WW2 Communist or Nationalist

17 Answer: Who was Ho Chi Minh? What was the Vietnam? What European Country Colonized Vietnam? Who invaded Vietnam during WW2?

18 Vietnam During WW2 Invaded By Japan OSS/CIA Helps Train Viet Minh to Fight the Japanese OSS Officials were strong supporters of Viet Minh and Vietnamese Independence

19 Declaring Independence: Ho Chi Minh WW2 Ends and September 2, 1945 Ho Chi Minh Declares Vietnamese Independence Reads from US Declaration of Independence

20 Ho Chi Minh: Nationalist??? Some See Ho Chi Minh’s Declaration of Independence as Evidence of Being a Nationalist over Being a Communist and Wanting to Have Relationship with the US

21 France Wants Indochina Back France Does Not Recognize Vietnamese Independence France Reclaims its Colony

22 What Should the US Do??? Should the United States Support Vietnamese Independence or Help France Regain its Colonial Empire?

23 Divided American State Department European Experts in American Government Support Backing France Asia Experts in American Government Support Backing Ho Chi Minh Feel he is Nationalist or “Asian Tito”

24 US Backs France Truman Administration, Followed by Eisenhower Back the French Korean War Loss of China Idea of Monolithic Communism Cold War Strong France Helps Stop Communism in Western Europe Containment Ho Chi Minh and Viet Minh were more Communist than Nationalist

25 First Indo-China War 1945-1954 France vs. Viet Minh French try to keep Vietnam, Viet Minh Fight For Independence 70% of French Costs are Paid by US

26 Dien Bien Phu 1954 Final Defeat of the French by the Vietnamese French Surrender and Lose Indochina

27 1954 Geneva Conference End Hostilities Between French and Vietnamese Temporarily Divided Vietnam at 17 th Parallel until French Leave. Elections in 1956

28 Realities of Geneva Conference Dominated By Soviets and Chinese America Does not Directly Participate or Recognize Results. US won’t Negotiate with Communist China. Americans Know Ho Chi Minh and Communists Will Easily Win Unification Election

29 If Vietnam Goes Communist… Failure of Containment Domino Theory Fear of Monolithic Communist Alliance of China, Vietnam, and USSR

30 South Vietnam Instead of Support Geneva Agreement and Allowing Unification Elections and Communist Victory the United States Supports the Creation of Non- Communist South Vietnam American War in Vietnam is fought to keep South Vietnam Non-Communist

31 John F. Kennedy and Vietnam Views Vietnam as Important to Cold War like Truman and IKE Begins Escalation of Troops Overall Picture unsure due to assassination

32 South Vietnam JFK Believed the Best Way to Stop Communists in Vietnam was to Build South Vietnam into a Nation

33 Ngo Dinh Diem First Leader of South Vietnam Nationalist but strongly anti- Communist Catholic

34 Ngo Dinh Diem Strong Support from Eisenhower and Kennedy Massive Military and Financial Aid from US Brutal to Communists Upsets Buddhist Majority Brother and Sister in Law are unpopular Administration is very corrupt

35 Assassination of Diem Assassinated in November 1963 Kennedy either knew of plot and ignored it or supported it. South Vietnamese Government Would Never Be Stable Increased American Involvement in South Vietnam’s Internal Affairs

36 Some Stats When IKE Left Office Less than 1,000 US Soldiers in Vietnam. At Time of Kennedy Assassination over 16,000 Soldiers in Vietnam 1969- 543,000 Many of the Soldiers under JFK were Special Forces and under Johnson Regular Ground Troops will be introduced.

37 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution North Vietnamese “Attack” on Two US Ships in the Gulf of Tonkin is Johnson’s Excused to Get Congressional Approval for Major Escalation in Vietnam.

38 Some Terms Hanoi-Refers to North Vietnamese Government NVA-North Vietnamese Army VC/Charlie-Viet Cong-Communist Rebels in South Vietnam ARVN-South Vietnamese Army POW-Prisoner of War MIA-Missing in Action

39 Must Read Fallen Angels-Walter Dean Meyers Fields of Fire and Lost Soldiers by James Webb Rumor of War-Phil Caputo Faith of my Fathers- McCain

40 Who Did America Fight in Vietnam? Viet Cong North Vietnamese Army Heavily Supplied from USSR via China

41 Johnson and Limited War Johnson is Afraid of Conflict Spreading to involve USSR and China. Strict Rules of Engagement Limited Targets for US Troops and Air Strikes Areas of North Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos North Vietnamese Communists Can Attack, Move Supplies From and Retreat and American Troops Can Not Go

42 North Vietnam North Vietnam wants a unified and Communist Vietnam Want Americans Out One Vietnam

43 Early American Support for War in Vietnam Americans Initially Supported War in Vietnam Hit Song-”The Green Berets” Public is Told Troops will be home soon and war is almost over

44 The Television War Vietnam is First War Heavily Covered by TV News. American Public See Daily Images of Casualties Public Begins to Turn Against the War

45 Escalation Johnson Attempts to Limit the War while at the Same Time Constantly Increasing the Number of Soldiers in Vietnam Over 500,000 by 1969

46 Johnson and Negotiation LBJ would attempt negotiation at the same time he would scale back offensive operations in Vietnam North Vietnamese Take Advantage Of This

47 Tet Tết, is the most important holiday in Vietnam. It is the Vietnamese New Year Tet is the most popular festival in in Vietnam VietnameseNew Year 1968 Cease Fire

48 Tet Offensive 1968 Viet Cong Attack Every Major US Base in South Vietnam North Vietnamese Army Takes City of Hue and kills many inhabitants US Embassy Compound in Saigon is attacked

49 Effects of Tet Major Military Victory for the US Viet Cong Devastated American Media Turns Against War American Public Turns Against War Political and Psychological Victory for North Vietnam President Johnson Will Not Seek Reelection

50 American Anti-War Movement Strong Anti-War Movement in the United States Becomes Stronger After 1968 War Divides American Population

51 Richard Nixon Elected in 1968 Claims to Have A Secret Plan to End the Vietnam War

52 Cambodia Was Neutral Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Would Use Cambodia as a Sanctuary US Troops Could Not Enter Cambodian Government is Powerless to Prevent Communists From Entering Bad History between Vietnam and Cambodia

53 Nixon and Cambodia Supports Coup That Puts Strong Anti-Communist Government in Charge Secret Bombing and Invasion of Cambodia Expands Conflict

54 Public Opinion, Vietnam, and Cambodia War is Illegal Public is Outraged at Expansion of Conflict Massive Protests

55 Cambodia Bombing and Invasion Fails to Make Significant Difference in War Cambodian Communists Go Deeper into Cambodia Vietnamese Were Using Cambodia to attack to kill Americans

56 Nixon and Ending Vietnam War Uses Combination of Increased Bombing of North Vietnam and Secret Negotiations Diplomacy with China and USSR

57 Ending the War/Vietnamization Vietnamization-Nixon’s Plan Turn the War over the war South Vietnamese Train and Equip South Vietnamese to Fight the North US Troops Withdraw Last US Troops Leave by 1973

58 South Vietnam Betrayed??? South Vietnam is Promised that the US Would Send Troops, Money, and Supplies if North Vietnamese Launch Massive Attack Nixon Resigns due to Watergate Congress and American People Do Not Support the Idea of Further Involvement

59 1975 North Vietnam Takes Over South Vietnam US Does not Prevent Vietnam is Unified Vietnam is All Communist

60 Results of Vietnam War 60,000 Americans Killed US reluctant to use military power American public is divided Americans don’t trust government Vietnam is Communist Cambodia Falls to Communist

61 Results in Cambodia Khmer Rouge/Cambodian Communist Take Power Pol Pot is Leader Killing Fields-Genocide of 1/3 of Cambodian Population by killed. Vietnam Invades and Occupies Cambodia to defeat Khmer Rouge.

62 Ticket Out the Door How was Tet a Turning Point in the Vietnam War? How did TV affect people’s view of the Vietnam War? What country did President Nixon Expand the Vietnam War Into? Which US President is associated with escalating the number of US troops in Vietnam? What year did the last US Troops leave Vietnam?

63 Vietnam and China 1979 War Between Vietnam and China China improved relations with US after Nixon’s Visit Vietnam Moved Closer to USSR China Supports Khmer Rouge and is upset that Vietnam Defeats. China attempts to invade Vietnam to “teach lesson” Chinese leave after 1 month Vietnamese Put up much stronger fight than the Chinese expected

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