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Presentation on theme: "NIXON."— Presentation transcript:


2 CONTEXT 1968-1974 What was the political context?
Protest Assassinations Democrats divided Nation at war What was the social context? Counter-culture revolution Racial politics Anxiety What was the economic context? Stagflation Energy Crisis Productivity woes Loss of real income

3 What were the weaknesses of the economy?
Vietnam costs More cheap labor/less skilled labor Manufacturing  Services Rising Energy Costs Declining investment in infrastructure Social Welfare Programs w/o tax increases


5 NIXON ABROAD Nixon Doctrine / Vietnamization Cambodia Incursion
Détente with the China and the USSR Operations Linebacker & Xmas Paris Peace Talks with N. Vietnam ABM (anti-ballistic missile) Treaty SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks) Achieves “peace with honor” (?) Jan. ’73 Oil Embargo/Oil Shock of 1973






11 VIETNAM UNDER NIXON “Peace with Honor” pledge Vietnamization
Nixon Doctrine April 1970: Cambodiaization Dec. 1972: Operation Linebacker March 1973: Last US combat troops leave April 9,1974: Nixon resigns South Vietnamese forces retreating April 30, 1975: Saigon falls

12 NIXON DOCTRINE Nixon’s “Silent Majority” Speech
In Korea and again in Vietnam, the United States furnished most of the money, most of the arms, and most of the men to help the people of those countries defend their freedom against Communist aggression. Before any American troops were committed to Vietnam, a leader of another Asian country expressed this opinion to me when I was traveling in Asia as a private citizen. He said: "When you are trying to assist another nation defend its freedom, U.S. policy should be to help them fight the war but not to fight the war for them." Well, in accordance with this wise counsel, I laid down in Guam three principles as guidelines for future American policy toward Asia: --First, the United States will keep all of its treaty commitments. --Second, we shall provide a shield if a nuclear power threatens the freedom of a nation allied with us or of a nation whose survival we consider vital to our security. --Third, in cases involving other types of aggression, we shall furnish military and economic assistance when requested in accordance with our treaty commitments. But we shall look to the nation directly threatened to assume the primary responsibility of providing the manpower for its defense.


14 FALL OF SAIGON April 30, 1975


Loss of Life Loss of Vietnam Loss of trust in govt., see Pentagon Papers Fall of Cambodia  Khmer Rouge Decline in Military Moral/Readiness Challenge to American Internationalism Split in Democratic Party (Hawks v. Doves) Nixon Elected and Re-elected Social Unrest and Division Inflation and Stagflation

17 What lessons can be learned from the way that LBJ and Nixon handled Vietnam? Do any of these lessons apply to Iraq?

18 HENRY KISSINGER The real distinction is between those who adapt their purposes to reality and those who seek to mold reality in the light of their purposes Serves Nixon on National Security Council Serves Nixon and Ford as Secretary of State Author of Détente and Real-politique= BALANCE OF POWER (NOT IDEOLOGICAL CONTEST) Wins Nobel Peace Prize for Paris Peace Talks Funny guy

19 Ninety percent of the politicians give the other ten percent a bad reputation
University politics are vicious precisely because the stakes are so small Nobody will ever win the Battle of the Sexes. There's just too much fraternizing with the enemy.

20 FEB. 1972 - CHINA First US President to visit Oh, the irony…
Nixon was the guy who accused Truman of “losing” China to the Reds Ping-pong politics Got help with pressuring N. Vietnam Put USSR in the corner

21 NIXON AND THE SOVIETS May 1972 visit to Moscow ABM treaty SALT treaty
3 year grain treaty ($750 million) Pressure on North Vietnam

22 MIS-STEPS Cambodia Incursion Arab Oil Embargo Done secretly
STRONG negative reaction from public/Congress Congress passes War Powers Act of 1973 Reinforces “new Isolationism” Destabilizes Cambodia  Khmer Rouge Arab Oil Embargo 1973 Six Day Arab-Israeli War US makes huge airlift to Israel Arabs use OPEC to embargo US Price of oil after embargo is 4x higher HUGE negative impact on economy(12% inflation per year) US forms International Energy Agency to counter OPEC Makes some modest conservationist steps

SEC. 4. (a) In the absence of a declaration of war, in any case in which United States Armed Forces are introduced-- (1) into hostilities or into situations where imminent involvement in hostilities is clearly indicated by the circumstances; (2) into the territory, airspace or waters of a foreign nation, while equipped for combat, except for deployments which relate solely to supply, replacement, repair, or training of such forces; or (3) in numbers which substantially enlarge United States Armed Forces equipped for combat already located in a foreign nation; the president shall submit within 48 hours to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and to the President pro tempore of the Senate a report, in writing, setting forth-- (A) the circumstances necessitating the introduction of United States Armed Forces; (B) the constitutional and legislative authority under which such introduction took place; and (C) the estimated scope and duration of the hostilities or involvement. (b) The President shall provide such other information as the Congress may request in the fulfillment of its constitutional responsibilities with respect to committing the Nation to war and to the use of United States Armed Forces abroad

24 http://www. worldenergy. org/wec-geis/images/speeches/spc050303jm_fig3

25 http://upload. wikimedia


27 QUIZ In Griswold v. Connecticut the Supreme Court proclaimed a “right to ________.” 2-3. Nixon appointed Warren _________ to replace Earl ________ as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. 4. Nixon’s foreign policy of “relaxed tension” with China and the USSR was called _______________. 5. Daniel Ellsberg leaked the “_______ _______” to the New York Times and exposed how the US provoked the North Vietnamese in the Gulf of Tonkin.

28 OBJECTIVES: 1. What were the accomplishments of Nixon’s domestic policies? 2. What were the causes and effects of Nixon’s downfall?

29 CONTEXT 1972-74 POLITICAL ECONOMIC SOCIAL Election Year Vietnam
Cambodia Watergate Arab-Israeli Six Day War ECONOMIC Inflation Stagnation Energy woes SOCIAL Anti-War Movement Counter-Culture Credibility of Government

30 NIXON AND THE COURT CONTEXT: The Warren Court demonstrated extreme interests in the rights of the individual, regardless of sex, race, or social and criminal status. BACKLASH from Conservatives and South Nixon attacks the Court for its activism Appoints Warren Burger as Chief Justice Burger proves to be his own man. Roe v. Wade (1973) is a nasty surprise for Nixon.

Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) Right to privacy Gideon v. Wainwright (1963), Escobedo (1964), Miranda (1966) Rights of the accused New York Times v. Sullivan (1964) Freedom of the press Engel v. Vitale (1962) & Schempp (1963) Separation of Church and State Reynolds v. Sims (1964) Reapportionment of state legislatures

EXPANDS affirmative action with Philadelphia Plan : individuals  GROUPS Created EPA and OSHA Clean Air Act of 1970 Endangered Species Act of 1973 Took US off Gold Standard to “Floating Rate” 90 day price and wage freeze Expanded welfare programs Food Stamps Medicaid Aid to Families and Dependent Children SSI (Supplemental Security Income) Raised Social Security (reduced poverty rate to 11%!!!)

33 THE ELECTION OF 1972 (Nixon’s Southern Strategy)
CANDIDATES S. Dakota Sen. George McGovern (DEMS) Pres. Nixon (REPS) Wallace shot and out of race ISSUES Vietnam Youth/Peace movement v. Blue-collar/Traditionalists Thomas Eagleton’s psychiatric history Paris Peace Talks OUTCOMES LANDSLIDE!!!


35 What other elections does the Election of 1972 remind you of?
1928 (Hoover), 1932 & 1936 (FDR), 1980, 1984 (Reagan)


37 “CREEP” Committee to Re-elect the President
June 17, 1972: The midnight “plumbers” caught at Watergate. Doing what? CREEP raised tens of millions –not all properly CREEP engaged in “dirty tricks” campaign Use of FBI and CIA to harass “opponents” Mark Rosenker and assistant monitoring tapes and equipment at CRP headquarters, June 29, Photo © Fred J. Maroon.

38 Woodward and Bernstein
Young reporters with Washington Post Starting with burglary article, they unravel the Watergate Scandal – over 4 years Assisted by insider leads from “Deep Throat” Deep Throat identified in 2005 after 30 years as FBI’s #3 man, Mark Felt W & B write All the President’s Men, win Pulitzer

39 THE COVER-UP White House denies all “plumbers” begin cutting deals
Sen. Sam Ervin leads Senate Hearings John Dean, former lawyer in White House, testifies White House persists in its denials

40 V.P. SPIRO AGNEW RESIGNS Former Gov. of Maryland “Nixon’s Nixon.”
Hatchet man for Nixon Attacked the Press and any opponents Forced to resign for taking “kickbacks” Congress replaces Agnew with Ford, using 25th amendment

41 THE TAPE CONTROVERSY July 1973: Ervin’s committee learns of Nixon’s “tapes” Congress demands the tapes Nixon claimed executive privilege Oct. 20, 1973: “Saturday Night Massacre” – Nixon fires Archibald Cox, the special prosecutor, and accepts the resignations of Attorney General and Dep. AG, for refusing to fire Cox

42 NIXON RESIGNS Spring 1974: Nixon releases “relevant” tapes – with “gaps” July 24, 1974: Supreme Court rules against Nixon on “executive privilege” Senate begins impeachment process Aug. 5, 1974: Nixon releases 3 tapes – they show him part of the cover-up August 8, 1974: Nixon resigns


44 Official White House photo / permission of Benton L. Becker)
FORD Official White House photo / permission of Benton L. Becker) President Gerald Ford, Phil Buchen, Alexander Haig, and Benton Becker on September 3, 1974, discussing the subjects of the Nixon pardon and the transfer of the president's records, papers, and tapes. Shortly thereafter, Becker would fly to San Clemente on behalf of President Ford to negotiate these issues - neither man knowing that Haig had already been negotiating on his own.

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