2CONTEXT 1968-1974 What was the political context? ProtestAssassinationsDemocrats dividedNation at warWhat was the social context?Counter-culture revolutionRacial politicsAnxietyWhat was the economic context?StagflationEnergy CrisisProductivity woesLoss of real income
3What were the weaknesses of the economy? Vietnam costsMore cheap labor/less skilled laborManufacturing ServicesRising Energy CostsDeclining investment in infrastructureSocial Welfare Programs w/o tax increases
5NIXON ABROAD Nixon Doctrine / Vietnamization Cambodia Incursion Détente with the China and the USSROperations Linebacker & XmasParis Peace Talks with N. VietnamABM (anti-ballistic missile) TreatySALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks)Achieves “peace with honor” (?) Jan. ’73Oil Embargo/Oil Shock of 1973
11VIETNAM UNDER NIXON “Peace with Honor” pledge Vietnamization Nixon DoctrineApril 1970: CambodiaizationDec. 1972: Operation LinebackerMarch 1973: Last US combat troops leaveApril 9,1974: Nixon resignsSouth Vietnamese forces retreatingApril 30, 1975: Saigon falls
12NIXON DOCTRINE Nixon’s “Silent Majority” Speech In Korea and again in Vietnam, the United States furnished most of the money, most of the arms, and most of the men to help the people of those countries defend their freedom against Communist aggression.Before any American troops were committed to Vietnam, a leader of another Asian country expressed this opinion to me when I was traveling in Asia as a private citizen. He said: "When you are trying to assist another nation defend its freedom, U.S. policy should be to help them fight the war but not to fight the war for them."Well, in accordance with this wise counsel, I laid down in Guam three principles as guidelines for future American policy toward Asia:--First, the United States will keep all of its treaty commitments.--Second, we shall provide a shield if a nuclear power threatens the freedom of a nation allied with us or of a nation whose survival we consider vital to our security.--Third, in cases involving other types of aggression, we shall furnish military and economic assistance when requested in accordance with our treaty commitments. But we shall look to the nation directly threatened to assume the primary responsibility of providing the manpower for its defense.
16OUTCOMES: CONSEQUENCES Loss of LifeLoss of VietnamLoss of trust in govt., see Pentagon PapersFall of Cambodia Khmer RougeDecline in Military Moral/ReadinessChallenge to American InternationalismSplit in Democratic Party (Hawks v. Doves)Nixon Elected and Re-electedSocial Unrest and DivisionInflation and Stagflation
17What lessons can be learned from the way that LBJ and Nixon handled Vietnam? Do any of these lessons apply to Iraq?
18HENRY KISSINGERThe real distinction is between those who adapt their purposes to reality and those who seek to mold reality in the light of their purposesServes Nixon on National Security CouncilServes Nixon and Ford as Secretary of StateAuthor of Détente and Real-politique=BALANCE OF POWER (NOT IDEOLOGICAL CONTEST)Wins Nobel Peace Prize for Paris Peace TalksFunny guy
19Ninety percent of the politicians give the other ten percent a bad reputation University politics are vicious precisely because the stakes are so smallNobody will ever win the Battle of the Sexes. There's just too much fraternizing with the enemy.
20FEB. 1972 - CHINA First US President to visit Oh, the irony… Nixon was the guy who accused Truman of “losing” China to the RedsPing-pong politicsGot help with pressuring N. VietnamPut USSR in the corner
21NIXON AND THE SOVIETS May 1972 visit to Moscow ABM treaty SALT treaty 3 year grain treaty($750 million)Pressure on North Vietnam
22MIS-STEPS Cambodia Incursion Arab Oil Embargo Done secretly STRONG negative reaction from public/CongressCongress passes War Powers Act of 1973Reinforces “new Isolationism”Destabilizes Cambodia Khmer RougeArab Oil Embargo1973 Six Day Arab-Israeli WarUS makes huge airlift to IsraelArabs use OPEC to embargo USPrice of oil after embargo is 4x higherHUGE negative impact on economy(12% inflation per year)US forms International Energy Agency to counter OPECMakes some modest conservationist steps
23WAR POWERS RESOLUTION REPORTING SEC. 4. (a) In the absence of a declaration of war, in any case in which United States Armed Forces are introduced--(1) into hostilities or into situations where imminent involvement in hostilities is clearly indicated by the circumstances;(2) into the territory, airspace or waters of a foreign nation, while equipped for combat, except for deployments which relate solely to supply, replacement, repair, or training of such forces; or(3) in numbers which substantially enlarge United States Armed Forces equipped for combat already located in a foreign nation; the president shall submit within 48 hours to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and to the President pro tempore of the Senate a report, in writing, setting forth--(A) the circumstances necessitating the introduction of United States Armed Forces;(B) the constitutional and legislative authority under which such introduction took place; and(C) the estimated scope and duration of the hostilities or involvement.(b) The President shall provide such other information as the Congress may request in the fulfillment of its constitutional responsibilities with respect to committing the Nation to war and to the use of United States Armed Forces abroad
27QUIZIn Griswold v. Connecticut the Supreme Court proclaimed a “right to ________.”2-3. Nixon appointed Warren _________ to replace Earl ________ as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.4. Nixon’s foreign policy of “relaxed tension” with China and the USSR was called _______________.5. Daniel Ellsberg leaked the “_______ _______” to the New York Times and exposed how the US provoked the North Vietnamese in the Gulf of Tonkin.
28OBJECTIVES: 1. What were the accomplishments of Nixon’s domestic policies? 2. What were the causes and effects of Nixon’s downfall?
29CONTEXT 1972-74 POLITICAL ECONOMIC SOCIAL Election Year Vietnam CambodiaWatergateArab-Israeli Six Day WarECONOMICInflationStagnationEnergy woesSOCIALAnti-War MovementCounter-CultureCredibility of Government
30NIXON AND THE COURTCONTEXT: The Warren Court demonstrated extreme interests in the rights of the individual, regardless of sex, race, or social and criminal status.BACKLASH from Conservatives and SouthNixon attacks the Court for its activismAppoints Warren Burger as Chief JusticeBurger proves to be his own man.Roe v. Wade (1973) is a nasty surprise for Nixon.
31MAJOR CASES OF WARREN COURT Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)Right to privacyGideon v. Wainwright (1963), Escobedo (1964), Miranda (1966)Rights of the accusedNew York Times v. Sullivan (1964)Freedom of the pressEngel v. Vitale (1962) & Schempp (1963)Separation of Church and StateReynolds v. Sims (1964)Reapportionment of state legislatures
32NIXON AT HOME- NOT SO REPUBLICAN!!! EXPANDS affirmative action with Philadelphia Plan : individuals GROUPSCreated EPA and OSHAClean Air Act of 1970Endangered Species Act of 1973Took US off Gold Standard to “Floating Rate”90 day price and wage freezeExpanded welfare programsFood StampsMedicaidAid to Families and Dependent ChildrenSSI (Supplemental Security Income)Raised Social Security (reduced poverty rate to 11%!!!)
33THE ELECTION OF 1972 (Nixon’s Southern Strategy) CANDIDATESS. Dakota Sen. George McGovern (DEMS)Pres. Nixon (REPS)Wallace shot and out of raceISSUESVietnamYouth/Peace movement v. Blue-collar/TraditionalistsThomas Eagleton’s psychiatric historyParis Peace TalksOUTCOMESLANDSLIDE!!!
38Woodward and Bernstein Young reporters with Washington PostStarting with burglary article, they unravel the Watergate Scandal – over 4 yearsAssisted by insider leads from “Deep Throat”Deep Throat identified in 2005 after 30 years as FBI’s #3 man, Mark FeltW & B write All the President’s Men, win Pulitzer
39THE COVER-UP White House denies all “plumbers” begin cutting deals Sen. Sam Ervin leads Senate HearingsJohn Dean, former lawyerin White House, testifiesWhite House persistsin its denials
40V.P. SPIRO AGNEW RESIGNS Former Gov. of Maryland “Nixon’s Nixon.” Hatchet man for NixonAttacked the Press and any opponentsForced to resign for taking “kickbacks”Congress replaces Agnew with Ford, using 25th amendment
41THE TAPE CONTROVERSYJuly 1973: Ervin’s committee learns of Nixon’s “tapes”Congress demands the tapesNixon claimed executive privilegeOct. 20, 1973: “Saturday Night Massacre” – Nixon fires Archibald Cox, the special prosecutor, and accepts the resignations of Attorney General and Dep. AG, for refusing to fire Cox
42NIXON RESIGNSSpring 1974: Nixon releases “relevant” tapes – with “gaps”July 24, 1974: Supreme Court rules against Nixon on “executive privilege”Senate begins impeachment processAug. 5, 1974: Nixon releases 3 tapes – they show him part of the cover-upAugust 8, 1974: Nixon resigns
44Official White House photo / permission of Benton L. Becker) FORDOfficial White House photo / permission of Benton L. Becker)President Gerald Ford, Phil Buchen, Alexander Haig, and Benton Becker on September 3, 1974, discussing the subjects of the Nixon pardon and the transfer of the president's records, papers, and tapes. Shortly thereafter, Becker would fly to San Clemente on behalf of President Ford to negotiate these issues - neither man knowing that Haig had already been negotiating on his own.