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NIXON. CONTEXT 1968-1974 What was the political context? What was the political context? –Protest –Assassinations –Democrats divided –Nation at war What.

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Presentation on theme: "NIXON. CONTEXT 1968-1974 What was the political context? What was the political context? –Protest –Assassinations –Democrats divided –Nation at war What."— Presentation transcript:

1 NIXON

2 CONTEXT What was the political context? What was the political context? –Protest –Assassinations –Democrats divided –Nation at war What was the social context? What was the social context? –Counter-culture revolution –Racial politics –Anxiety What was the economic context? What was the economic context? –Stagflation –Energy Crisis –Productivity woes –Loss of real income

3 What were the weaknesses of the economy? Vietnam costs Vietnam costs More cheap labor/less skilled labor More cheap labor/less skilled labor Manufacturing  Services Manufacturing  Services Rising Energy Costs Rising Energy Costs Declining investment in infrastructure Declining investment in infrastructure Social Welfare Programs w/o tax increases Social Welfare Programs w/o tax increases

4 DECREASE DEMAND =RECESSION OIL SHOCK INCREASE PRICE = INFLATION

5 NIXON ABROAD Nixon Doctrine / Vietnamization Nixon Doctrine / Vietnamization Cambodia Incursion Cambodia Incursion Détente with the China and the USSR Détente with the China and the USSR Operations Linebacker & Xmas Operations Linebacker & Xmas Paris Peace Talks with N. Vietnam Paris Peace Talks with N. Vietnam ABM (anti-ballistic missile) Treaty ABM (anti-ballistic missile) Treaty SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks) SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks) Achieves “peace with honor” (?) Jan. ’73 Achieves “peace with honor” (?) Jan. ’73 Oil Embargo/Oil Shock of 1973 Oil Embargo/Oil Shock of 1973

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11 VIETNAM UNDER NIXON “Peace with Honor” pledge “Peace with Honor” pledge Vietnamization Vietnamization Nixon Doctrine Nixon Doctrine April 1970: Cambodiaization April 1970: Cambodiaization Dec. 1972: Operation Linebacker Dec. 1972: Operation Linebacker March 1973: Last US combat troops leave March 1973: Last US combat troops leave April 9,1974: Nixon resigns April 9,1974: Nixon resigns South Vietnamese forces retreating South Vietnamese forces retreating April 30, 1975: Saigon falls April 30, 1975: Saigon falls

12 NIXON DOCTRINE Nixon’s “Silent Majority” Speech In Korea and again in Vietnam, the United States furnished most of the money, most of the arms, and most of the men to help the people of those countries defend their freedom against Communist aggression. Before any American troops were committed to Vietnam, a leader of another Asian country expressed this opinion to me when I was traveling in Asia as a private citizen. He said: "When you are trying to assist another nation defend its freedom, U.S. policy should be to help them fight the war but not to fight the war for them." Well, in accordance with this wise counsel, I laid down in Guam three principles as guidelines for future American policy toward Asia: --First, the United States will keep all of its treaty commitments. --Second, we shall provide a shield if a nuclear power threatens the freedom of a nation allied with us or of a nation whose survival we consider vital to our security. --Third, in cases involving other types of aggression, we shall furnish military and economic assistance when requested in accordance with our treaty commitments. But we shall look to the nation directly threatened to assume the primary responsibility of providing the manpower for its defense.

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14 FALL OF SAIGON April 30, 1975

15 OUTCOMES: COSTS

16 OUTCOMES: CONSEQUENCES Loss of Life Loss of Life Loss of Vietnam Loss of Vietnam Loss of trust in govt., see Pentagon Papers Loss of trust in govt., see Pentagon Papers Fall of Cambodia  Khmer Rouge Fall of Cambodia  Khmer Rouge Decline in Military Moral/Readiness Decline in Military Moral/Readiness Challenge to American Internationalism Challenge to American Internationalism Split in Democratic Party (Hawks v. Doves) Split in Democratic Party (Hawks v. Doves) Nixon Elected and Re-elected Nixon Elected and Re-elected Social Unrest and Division Social Unrest and Division Inflation and Stagflation Inflation and Stagflation

17 What lessons can be learned from the way that LBJ and Nixon handled Vietnam? Do any of these lessons apply to Iraq?

18 HENRY KISSINGER Serves Nixon on National Security Council Serves Nixon on National Security Council Serves Nixon and Ford as Secretary of State Serves Nixon and Ford as Secretary of State Author of Détente and Real-politique= Author of Détente and Real-politique= BALANCE OF POWER (NOT IDEOLOGICAL CONTEST) Wins Nobel Peace Prize for Paris Peace Talks Wins Nobel Peace Prize for Paris Peace Talks Funny guy Funny guy The real distinction is between those who adapt their purposes to reality and those who seek to mold reality in the light of their purposes

19 Ninety percent of the politicians give the other ten percent a bad reputation Ninety percent of the politicians give the other ten percent a bad reputation University politics are vicious precisely because the stakes are so small University politics are vicious precisely because the stakes are so small Nobody will ever win the Battle of the Sexes. There's just too much fraternizing with the enemy. Nobody will ever win the Battle of the Sexes. There's just too much fraternizing with the enemy.

20 FEB CHINA First US President to visit First US President to visit Oh, the irony… Oh, the irony… Nixon was the guy who accused Truman of “losing” China to the Reds Ping-pong politics Ping-pong politics Got help with pressuring N. Vietnam Got help with pressuring N. Vietnam Put USSR in the corner Put USSR in the corner

21 NIXON AND THE SOVIETS May 1972 visit to Moscow May 1972 visit to Moscow ABM treaty ABM treaty SALT treaty SALT treaty 3 year grain treaty 3 year grain treaty ($750 million) Pressure on North Vietnam Pressure on North Vietnam

22 MIS-STEPS Cambodia Incursion Cambodia Incursion –Done secretly –STRONG negative reaction from public/Congress –Congress passes War Powers Act of 1973 –Reinforces “new Isolationism” –Destabilizes Cambodia  Khmer Rouge Arab Oil Embargo Arab Oil Embargo –1973 Six Day Arab-Israeli War –US makes huge airlift to Israel –Arabs use OPEC to embargo US –Price of oil after embargo is 4x higher –HUGE negative impact on economy(12% inflation per year) –US forms International Energy Agency to counter OPEC –Makes some modest conservationist steps

23 WAR POWERS RESOLUTION REPORTING SEC. 4. (a) In the absence of a declaration of war, in any case in which United States Armed Forces are introduced-- (1) into hostilities or into situations where imminent involvement in hostilities is clearly indicated by the circumstances; (2) into the territory, airspace or waters of a foreign nation, while equipped for combat, except for deployments which relate solely to supply, replacement, repair, or training of such forces; or (3) in numbers which substantially enlarge United States Armed Forces equipped for combat already located in a foreign nation; the president shall submit within 48 hours to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and to the President pro tempore of the Senate a report, in writing, setting forth-- (A) the circumstances necessitating the introduction of United States Armed Forces; (B) the constitutional and legislative authority under which such introduction took place; and (C) the estimated scope and duration of the hostilities or involvement. (b) The President shall provide such other information as the Congress may request in the fulfillment of its constitutional responsibilities with respect to committing the Nation to war and to the use of United States Armed Forces abroad

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26 NIXON

27 QUIZ 1. In Griswold v. Connecticut the Supreme Court proclaimed a “right to ________.” 2-3. Nixon appointed Warren _________ to replace Earl ________ as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. 4. Nixon’s foreign policy of “relaxed tension” with China and the USSR was called _______________. 5. Daniel Ellsberg leaked the “_______ _______” to the New York Times and exposed how the US provoked the North Vietnamese in the Gulf of Tonkin.

28 OBJECTIVES: 1. What were the accomplishments of Nixon’s domestic policies? 2. What were the causes and effects of Nixon’s downfall?

29 CONTEXT POLITICAL POLITICAL –Election Year –Vietnam –Cambodia –Watergate –Arab-Israeli Six Day War ECONOMIC ECONOMIC –Inflation –Stagnation –Energy woes SOCIAL SOCIAL –Anti-War Movement –Counter-Culture –Credibility of Government

30 NIXON AND THE COURT CONTEXT: The Warren Court demonstrated extreme interests in the rights of the individual, regardless of sex, race, or social and criminal status. BACKLASH from Conservatives and South Nixon attacks the Court for its activism Nixon attacks the Court for its activism Appoints Warren Burger as Chief Justice Appoints Warren Burger as Chief Justice Burger proves to be his own man. Burger proves to be his own man. Roe v. Wade (1973) is a nasty surprise for Nixon. Roe v. Wade (1973) is a nasty surprise for Nixon.

31 MAJOR CASES OF WARREN COURT Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) –Right to privacy Gideon v. Wainwright (1963), Escobedo (1964), Miranda (1966) Gideon v. Wainwright (1963), Escobedo (1964), Miranda (1966) –Rights of the accused New York Times v. Sullivan (1964) New York Times v. Sullivan (1964) –Freedom of the press Engel v. Vitale (1962) & Schempp (1963) Engel v. Vitale (1962) & Schempp (1963) –Separation of Church and State Reynolds v. Sims (1964) Reynolds v. Sims (1964) –Reapportionment of state legislatures

32 NIXON AT HOME- NOT SO REPUBLICAN!!! EXPANDS affirmative action with Philadelphia Plan : individuals  GROUPS EXPANDS affirmative action with Philadelphia Plan : individuals  GROUPS Created EPA and OSHA Created EPA and OSHA –Clean Air Act of 1970 –Endangered Species Act of 1973 Took US off Gold Standard to “Floating Rate” Took US off Gold Standard to “Floating Rate” 90 day price and wage freeze 90 day price and wage freeze Expanded welfare programs Expanded welfare programs –Food Stamps –Medicaid –Aid to Families and Dependent Children –SSI (Supplemental Security Income) –Raised Social Security (reduced poverty rate to 11%!!!)

33 THE ELECTION OF 1972 (Nixon’s Southern Strategy) CANDIDATES CANDIDATES –S. Dakota Sen. George McGovern (DEMS) –Pres. Nixon (REPS) –Wallace shot and out of race ISSUES ISSUES –Vietnam –Youth/Peace movement v. Blue-collar/Traditionalists –Thomas Eagleton’s psychiatric history –Paris Peace Talks OUTCOMES OUTCOMES –LANDSLIDE!!!

34 THE ELECTION OF 1972

35 What other elections does the Election of 1972 remind you of? 1928 (Hoover), 1932 & 1936 (FDR), 1980, 1984 (Reagan)

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37 “CREEP” Committee to Re-elect the President June 17, 1972: The midnight “plumbers” caught at Watergate. Doing what? June 17, 1972: The midnight “plumbers” caught at Watergate. Doing what? CREEP raised tens of millions –not all properly CREEP raised tens of millions –not all properly CREEP engaged in “dirty tricks” campaign CREEP engaged in “dirty tricks” campaign Use of FBI and CIA to harass “opponents” Use of FBI and CIA to harass “opponents” Mark Rosenker and assistant monitoring tapes and equipment at CRP headquarters, June 29, Photo © Fred J. Maroon.

38 Woodward and Bernstein Young reporters with Washington Post Young reporters with Washington Post Starting with burglary article, they unravel the Watergate Scandal – over 4 years Starting with burglary article, they unravel the Watergate Scandal – over 4 years Assisted by insider leads from “Deep Throat” Assisted by insider leads from “Deep Throat” Deep Throat identified in 2005 after 30 years as FBI’s #3 man, Mark Felt Deep Throat identified in 2005 after 30 years as FBI’s #3 man, Mark Felt W & B write All the President’s Men, win Pulitzer W & B write All the President’s Men, win Pulitzer

39 THE COVER-UP White House denies all White House denies all “plumbers” begin cutting deals “plumbers” begin cutting deals Sen. Sam Ervin leads Senate Hearings Sen. Sam Ervin leads Senate Hearings John Dean, former lawyer John Dean, former lawyer in White House, testifies White House persists White House persists in its denials

40 V.P. SPIRO AGNEW RESIGNS Former Gov. of Maryland Former Gov. of Maryland “Nixon’s Nixon.” “Nixon’s Nixon.” Hatchet man for Nixon Hatchet man for Nixon Attacked the Press and any opponents Attacked the Press and any opponents Forced to resign for taking “kickbacks” Forced to resign for taking “kickbacks” Congress replaces Agnew with Ford, using 25 th amendment Congress replaces Agnew with Ford, using 25 th amendment

41 THE TAPE CONTROVERSY July 1973: Ervin’s committee learns of Nixon’s “tapes” July 1973: Ervin’s committee learns of Nixon’s “tapes” Congress demands the tapes Congress demands the tapes Nixon claimed executive privilege Nixon claimed executive privilege Oct. 20, 1973: “Saturday Night Massacre” – Nixon fires Archibald Cox, the special prosecutor, and accepts the resignations of Attorney General and Dep. AG, for refusing to fire Cox Oct. 20, 1973: “Saturday Night Massacre” – Nixon fires Archibald Cox, the special prosecutor, and accepts the resignations of Attorney General and Dep. AG, for refusing to fire Cox

42 NIXON RESIGNS Spring 1974: Nixon releases “relevant” tapes – with “gaps” Spring 1974: Nixon releases “relevant” tapes – with “gaps” July 24, 1974: Supreme Court rules against Nixon on “executive privilege” July 24, 1974: Supreme Court rules against Nixon on “executive privilege” Senate begins impeachment process Senate begins impeachment process Aug. 5, 1974: Nixon releases 3 tapes – they show him part of the cover-up Aug. 5, 1974: Nixon releases 3 tapes – they show him part of the cover-up August 8, 1974: Nixon resigns August 8, 1974: Nixon resigns

43 CAUSES & EFFECTS

44 FORD Official White House photo / permission of Benton L. Becker) President Gerald Ford, Phil Buchen, Alexander Haig, and Benton Becker on September 3, 1974, discussing the subjects of the Nixon pardon and the transfer of the president's records, papers, and tapes. Shortly thereafter, Becker would fly to San Clemente on behalf of President Ford to negotiate these issues - neither man knowing that Haig had already been negotiating on his own.


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