Cold War 1970s Détente—increased cooperation and a relaxation of tensions. Two important events take place during this decade: U.S. China Relations and S.A.L.T.
Cold War 1970s U.S.-China Relations— President Richard M. Nixon opens relations With China after 22 years of mutual isolation. What was the motivation to reach out to communist China after all these years?
Cold War 1970s Time For Peace Nixon In China http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VUmNCBf_5sk
Cold War Personality Profile “Looking at the two great powers, the United States and China…we Can find common ground, despite our differences, to build a world structure in which both can be safe to develop in our own ways on our own roads.” U.S. President Richard Nixon 1969-1973
Cold War 1970s Mao and Nixon meeting in February 1972
Cold War 1970s Nixon and Premier Zhou Enlai meeting in 1972
The U.S. opened relations with China for two reasons: 1) Nixon wanted to counterbalance the Soviet Union’s global power and 2) Nixon wanted Beijing’s help to end the Vietnam War
Cold War 1970s Nixon in China from the BBC http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N5V9sP_nDCM
Cold War 1970s S.A.L.T. What is S.A.L.T.? S trategicIt limited the two superpowers A rmsto 200 defensive nuclear L imitationsmissiles and froze the T alksnumber of intercontinental ballistic missiles for five years.
Cold War 1970s Nixon and Brezhnev meeting on May 26, 1972 Instruct.westvalley.edu
Cold War 1970s S.A.L.T. I—May 22, 1972 S.A.L.T II—June 18, 1979 never ratified by U.S. considering the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan
Cold War 1970s Helsinki Final Act The Helsinki Final Act was an agreement signed by 35 nations on August 1, 1975 that concluded the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, held in Helsinki, Finland http://history.state.gov/milestones/1969-1976/Helsinki
Cold War 1970s Helsinki Final Act Goals A variety of issues divided into four "baskets.” First Basket principles covering political and military issues, territorial Integrity, the definition of borders, peaceful settlement of disputes and the implementation of confidence building measures between opposing militaries
Cold War 1970s Helsinki Final Act Goals A variety of issues divided into four "baskets.” Second Basket Economic issues like trade and scientific cooperation
Cold War 1970s Helsinki Final Act Goals A variety of issues divided into four "baskets.” Third Basket emphasized human rights, including freedom of emigration and reunification of families divided by international borders, cultural exchanges and freedom of the press
Cold War 1970s Helsinki Final Act Goals A variety of issues divided into four "baskets.” Fourth Basket Formalized the details for follow-up meetings and implementation procedures
Cold War 1970s Helsinki Final Act http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RnMJq8qng1w
Cold War Personality Profile Pol Pot Saloth Sar Brother Number One
Cambodia 1966—Pol Pot influenced by China and Mao Zedong’s policy of continuous revolution. 1969-1973—U.S. Involvement, Ho Chi Minh Trail. U.S. bombs Cambodia in an effort to rid Vietnam’s Communist bases in Cambodia. 1975—Year Zero, April 17, Phnom Penh falls, parts of the 2 million population are marched out of city. Why?
Cambodia Year Zero—Campaign to purify Cambodian society of capitalism, Western culture, religion and all foreign influences in favor of isolation and a Maoist agrarian state. Agricultural collectives known as the Killing Fields. 1978—Cambodia invaded by Vietnam, Pol Pot ousted. 1998—Pol Pot dies April 15. 2001—2.2 to 2.5 million victims
Salvador Allende elected President of Chile on September 4, 1970, inaugurated on November 3, 1970. He gains 36.3% of the vote and becomes the first democratically elected socialist (communist) candidate.
Background The U.S. had been involved in Chile’s Government since as far back as 1958. The U.S. tried to stop the inauguration through a military coup. One of the opponents of the coup Army Chief of Staff was assassinated.
Cold War 1970s—Chile Background Popular Unity coalition stated Chile was being exploited by parasitic foreign and domestic capitalists. By 1971, the government voted to unanimously nationalize the foreign copper which were owned by Kennecott and Anaconda.
Cold War 1970s—Chile U.S. Interests Kennecott and Anaconda were two U.S. firms. The government took over virtually all the great estates and turned the lands over to the resident workers.
Cold War 1970s—Chile U.S. Policy Popular Unity tried to maintain cordial relations with the U.S. The U.S. had a two track policy with Chile 1) official relations were friendly but not openly hostile 2) the U.S. would launch an economic blockade with other U.S. companies
Cold War Personality Profile President Nixon informed the CIA director Richard Helms seen on the right to “make the economy scream”
Cold War Personality Profile “Workers of my homeland: I have faith in Chile and its future. Other men will overcome this dark and bitter moment when treason is trying to be uppermost. You must continue to know that, sooner rather than later, grand avenues will be opened where free men will go to build a better society.” Long live Chile; long live Chile; long live the workers.”
Cold War Personality Profile These are my last Words, certain that the sacrifice will not be in vain. I am sure that there will be at least a moral sanction that will punish the felony, cowardice and treason. Salvador Allende September 11, 1973
Cold War 1970s The Other 9/11 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y_MZdjvo6WE
Cold War 1970s Pope John Paul II, Solidarity Movement and the Beginning of Communism’s End
Cold War—Solidarity Movement Pre-Cursor to Change in Poland Edward Gierek is the Prime Minister and the economy is in bad shape. Prices are increasing and protests are the result.
Cold War—Solidarity Movement Pope John Paul’s 1979 Visit—30 Years of Soviet Rule Solidarity (Labor Union) = The Beginning of the End of Communism
Cold War –Solidarity Movement Roman Catholic Church The Prime Minister opens up a dialogue with Pope John Paul II. -Karol Wojtyla=Pope John Paul II (first non-Italian Pope since 1400s) installed on October 16, 1978. -June 2, 1979—Open Air mass in Victory Sq. in Warsaw “Don’t Be Afraid”
Cold War Personality Profile Becomes pope upon the death of Pope John Paul I
Cold War—Solidarity Movement Solidarity—a labor Union started in Gdansk, Poland by Lech Walesa in August 1980. Strikes ensue and workers present a list of 21 Demands. January 1981—Walesa and the Pope meet in the Vatican.
Cold War 1980s Pope John Paul II and Solidarity leader Lech Walesa meeting in 1981
Cold War—Solidarity Movement Fall 1981— Solidarity expands its charter to all areas of society. They are looking for the establishment of democratic local governments, independent judges and equal protection under the law.
Cold War—Solidarity Movement December 12-13, 1981— Poland declares Martial Law. Army and special riot police are used to crush the union. December 1982— Martial Law suspended, General amnesty in July 1983.
Cold War 1970s Pope John Paul II http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AJDKINa11rs
Cold War 1980s Mikhail Gorbachev Perestroika (Restructuring) Glasnost (Openness)