Presentation on theme: "中国往柬埔寨的投资：案例分 析与初步思考 Jason Tower Quaker International Affairs Representative Northeast Asia American Friends Service Committee April 18,"— Presentation transcript:
中国往柬埔寨的投资：案例分 析与初步思考 Jason Tower Quaker International Affairs Representative Northeast Asia American Friends Service Committee firstname.lastname@example.org April 18, 2011
柬埔寨背景 One of the least developed Countries in Southeast Asia, highly dependent on Western aid (accounts for over 50% of the government budget) Legal system benefited from Western ODA assistance 1992 – present Strong civil society Development challenges: Corruption, poverty, need for investment, governance issues
Role of Emerging Countries in Southeast Asia China, Korea and Vietnam now important sources of aid and investment for Cambodia Chinese investment to Cambodia surged in 2005; Chinese accumulated FDI to Cambodia at 11 billion US dollars as of 2010 (6 times that of the United States) The Erdos Hongjun Company signed a 3.0 billion US dollar deal with Cambodia at the end of 2010 – will become the largest single investor
Chinese Investment in Cambodia Garments – Following the Multi-fiber agreement in 2004 (60% of Chinese companies investing in Cambodia) Hydropower – State Grid, Sinohydro, Datang Mineral Exploration Agriculture – Limited, but a focus of a recent high-level delegation to Cambodia in 2010 Real Estate – Ports, commercial development, Special Economic Zones
A Case Study: Kirirom III Project Small (18 MW) Hydropower project in Sre Ambel, Cambodia. Serious impacts for Dong Peang and Krang Chek villages. Located in a National Park; situated literally on top of an AFSC community forestry program Investor: 国家电网新源公司； Sub-contractor: 安能公 司 2008 Study Before the Dam finds serious environmental and social impacts not discussed in the EIA Report, including: loss of land, flooding, soil erosion, loss of common areas / community forests, and deterioration / loss of water resources (p.73)
A Case Study Kirirom III Project 2007: Communities negotiated with Xinyuan Company leadership through a local government official. Were told verbally that they would receive: roads, a school, subsidized electricity, and a new irrigation system. As of end of 2010, only part of the road has been constructed (part needed to get equipment to the project site) Initial impacts: “company has been stealing our community trees”
Problems with Engagement: Kirirom III Example – No Mechanisms for Dialogue Visit to site in January 2010: No local benefits: “Could you tell the company to please leave us just a couple of small trees?” Xinyuan Company maintains no onsite presence; no concerns about local community (interview in Phnom Penh, January 2010) Anneng tells villagers with concerns to go to Phnom Penh and meet Xinyuan (Interview, Sre Ambel, January 2010) No mechanisms for handling these problems – frustrations increase Extremely limited local employment – less than 1% Profit questions: Company questions profitability of project
Global Problems with Chinese Investment in Cambodia 江湖 Investment Climate : Chinese companies often looking for quick profit, not long term; Cambodian deal brokers often looking to exploit Chinese Companies (Bueong Kak Lake Project) Chinese companies not familiar with community engagement Cambodian NGOs don’t know how to engage No Chinese NGO presence to help
Why Should we be Concerned? Communities in Laos, Cambodia and Myanmar are becoming more concerned – could lead to anti-Chinese sentiment Chinese investment in these countries could be a good thing – how to make it long term and sustainable? Serious challenges for Chinese Foreign Policy
Erdos Deal: Serious Developmental Concerns? The arrival of Erdos in Cambodia has enabled the country to advance initiatives which multi- laterals and Western companies have considered destructive to the environment and to local communities World Bank Land Mapping Project around Boueng Kak Lake Bauxite mining in Mondulkiri Province (BHP quit in 2006)
Opportunities Investment can be positive – how to help Chinese companies better engage?
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