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Chapter 11: Southeast Asia. World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 2 General Background Region of large and small.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11: Southeast Asia. World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 2 General Background Region of large and small."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 11: Southeast Asia

2 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 2 General Background Region of large and small peninsulas and islands Two constituent subregions Mainland Southeast (SE) Asia Countries that are physically a part of the continent Viet Nam Cambodia Laos Thailand Myanmar Insular SE Asia Malaysia Singapore Indonesia Brunei Timor-Leste The Philippines

3 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 3 Physiography of Southeast Asia

4 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 4 Areal Organization/Environmental Patterns Wide expanse SE Asia stretches more than 3,000 miles. With surrounding oceans and seas included, equal to India and neighboring states Situated almost entirely in tropics Climate patterns Monsoon climate Mainland Wet season: May–October Dry season: November–April Insular Much more complex monsoon season More copious rain during season

5 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 5 Landforms Mainland Alternating east–west bands of mountain ranges and river valleys Most average 3,000–5,000 feet Insular Sweeping volcanic arcs that have pushed to the edges of the Indian and Pacific plates Many volcanic peaks reach 10,000 feet. At the edge of volcanic arcs are deep oceanic trenches marking tectonic plate boundaries.

6 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 6 Physical Environments & Human Activity Mainland Numerous and broad interior alluvial river valleys Provide for substantial population concentrations and agricultural production sustained by soil-enriching floodwaters Insular Island and sea environment Most population clusters located along coastal plains. Traditional economic activity focuses on agriculture, fishing, and maritime trade.

7 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 7 Pre-European Culture and Economy Economic, political, and cultural cores are the result of reemergence of Hinduism and Buddhism. Monumental ruins at Angkor Thom and Angkor Wat stand as testimony to agricultural productivity and trade capabilities of this pre- European economy. Srivijaya—A thalassocracy

8 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 8 Colonialism and Development Two time periods to 1800— Mercantile colonialism to 1945—Industrial colonialism Creation of core-periphery exchange Chinese middlemen

9 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 9 Modern Economic Growth and Stagnation Two urgent needs 1.Diversify economic production. 2.Reduce dependence on exports of raw materials.

10 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 10 Economics: Modernizers vs. Reformers Modernizers Members of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Established 1967 Manufacturing as engine of economic growth Foreign Direct Investment from the West Reformers Countries in 1970s and 1980s Previously socialist governments Resistant to globalization Laos Cambodia Viet Nam Myanmar Joined ASEAN in 1990s Asean Free Trade Area (AFTA)—1992

11 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 11 Socioeconomic Indicators of Southeast Asia

12 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 12 Urban and Rural Transformations Megacity regions Jakarta Manila Bangkok Known as Extended Metropolitan Regions (EMRs)—Core inner and outer zones comprising the larger urban area Fueled by FDI But is the outer zone truly “urban”?

13 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 13 Environmental Challenges Deforestation Coastal environments Urban air pollution

14 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 14 Insular Southeast Asia Some of the first developing world economies to engage in economic forces of globalization Singapore Thoroughly globalized economy Regional center of banking, transport, and service industry Malaysia Middle-income industrialized country Economy based on a wide variety of electronics exports Indonesia and the Philippines Tied to resource exports Developing countries with problems of economically integrating their respective far-flung archipelagos

15 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 15 Singapore Distinctive state 4.6 million population A city-state Smallest and most urbanized of all SE Asian countries Only developed nation in SE Asia where ethnic Chinese constitute the majority of the population. Regional and global shipping hub Global maritime center Producer services

16 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 16 Singaporean Economy and Politics Economy Diversified Regional headquarters for many international firms State-planned industrial parks have attracted FDI. Part of the global growth triangle Government Pervasive role of government critical to economy and society Soft-authoritarian government

17 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 17 Malaysia Spatially fragmented country West Malaysia—More densely populated East Malaysia—Sparsely populated state of Sarawak and Sabah

18 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 18 Malaysian Economy Since 1970s has emerged from a developing state New Economic Policy (NEP) Increase economic contributions of ethnic Malays This would be done at the expense of Chinese and Western economic interests. Increase government funding of roads and other infrastructural improvements to expand commercial cultivation of rubber, oil palm, and coffee by native smallholder farmers in frontier areas Movement toward postindustrial economy with Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC)

19 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 19 Indonesia Archipelagic state is largest in SE Asia Most populous country in SE Asia Enlarged considerably when newly independent state annexed the western half of New Guinea in Forge national unity from a diverse array of ethnic groups Religious freedom respected, even though it is the most populous Islamic country in the world. Population 231 million population Growth and distribution major issues

20 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 20 Initiatives Poverty eradication through widespread adoption of hybrid rice seed and fertilizers Most of economy is state-owned enterprises. Jakarta National capital region (primate city) Has attracted some export-oriented manufacturing operations Electronic parts Footwear Household appliances

21 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 21 Asian Financial Crisis Meltdown of Indonesian economy Forced resignation of Suharto in 1998 Regional tensions associated with economic disparities between core and periphery

22 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 22 December 26, 2004 Tsunami Tsunami—Seismic sea waves triggered by energy released from deep earthquakes, massive landslides, or volcanic eruptions Banda Aceh, Indonesia—Focal point 300,000 deaths in thirteen countries Indonesia—243,530 India—18,389

23 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 23 The Philippines 7,000 islands Early colonization by Spain Ceded to US in 1898 after Spanish–American War American culture domination has retarded development of a national culture. 1946—Independence

24 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 24 The Philippines: Current Problems High unemployment Underemployment Poverty Disparate quality of life

25 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 25 Mainland Southeast Asia Only recent liberalization of economies to engage forces of globalization Thailand Newly industrialized country FDI in a wide variety of industries, notably in automobiles. Viet Nam Major target of FDI Introduction of market-based economies in 1980s Cambodia Slow economic rebound after Marxist-inspired and horrifically murderous regime Heavily reliant on foreign aid Myanmar Resource-rich One of the last isolationist military governments in the world

26 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 26 Thailand Never a Western possession Renamed from Siam in 1939 Ruled by successive military governments with constitutional monarchy Monarchy carries moral force.

27 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 27 Thailand Economy Until late 1970s, economy was primarily agriculture. Some benefit from association with West as part of Viet Nam War Has become center of SE Asia auto industry Economic growth has been restricted to capital city region and EMR of Bangkok. Clustering has had several environmental consequences.

28 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 28 Viet Nam Conquered by Viets from China 2 nd century B.C. Next 2,000 dominated culturally and politically by China Captured by France in mid-to-late 19 th century 1940s—Nationalist opposition forms under leadership of Communist guerilla, Ho Chi Minh. Viet Nam War (1958–1975) North Traditional core of Vietnamese culture Incubation for communism Allied with USSR South Was capitalist French and US influences 1975—Unification of North and South

29 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 29 Vietnamese Economy Positive developments FDI has been vehicle for economic turnaround. Primary East Asian Specifically has targeted garments and footwear for export Negative developments Increased sex workers Spread of HIV/AIDS

30 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 30 Cambodia (Kampuchea) and Myanmar (Burma) Cambodia Even more troubled than Viet Nam Part of Viet Nam War spilled over into the East. Khmer Rouge—Genocide in the “killing fields” Myanmar Led by authoritarian government Indigenous brand of socialism Well-endowed resource base Timber Rice Gems Gold Tin Petroleum A reformer country that has resisted globalization


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