Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 11: Southeast Asia

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11: Southeast Asia"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 11: Southeast Asia

2 General Background Region of large and small peninsulas and islands
Two constituent subregions Mainland Southeast (SE) Asia Countries that are physically a part of the continent Viet Nam Cambodia Laos Thailand Myanmar Insular SE Asia Malaysia Singapore Indonesia Brunei Timor-Leste The Philippines World Regional Geography, Tenth Edition

3 Physiography of Southeast Asia
World Regional Geography, Tenth Edition

4 Areal Organization/Environmental Patterns
Wide expanse SE Asia stretches more than 3,000 miles. With surrounding oceans and seas included, equal to India and neighboring states Situated almost entirely in tropics Climate patterns Monsoon climate Mainland Wet season: May–October Dry season: November–April Insular Much more complex monsoon season More copious rain during season World Regional Geography, Tenth Edition

5 Landforms Mainland Insular
Alternating east–west bands of mountain ranges and river valleys Most average 3,000–5,000 feet Insular Sweeping volcanic arcs that have pushed to the edges of the Indian and Pacific plates Many volcanic peaks reach 10,000 feet. At the edge of volcanic arcs are deep oceanic trenches marking tectonic plate boundaries. World Regional Geography, Tenth Edition

6 Physical Environments & Human Activity
Mainland Numerous and broad interior alluvial river valleys Provide for substantial population concentrations and agricultural production sustained by soil-enriching floodwaters Insular Island and sea environment Most population clusters located along coastal plains. Traditional economic activity focuses on agriculture, fishing, and maritime trade. World Regional Geography, Tenth Edition

7 Pre-European Culture and Economy
Economic, political, and cultural cores are the result of reemergence of Hinduism and Buddhism. Monumental ruins at Angkor Thom and Angkor Wat stand as testimony to agricultural productivity and trade capabilities of this pre-European economy. Srivijaya—A thalassocracy World Regional Geography, Tenth Edition

8 Colonialism and Development
Two time periods 1500 to 1800—Mercantile colonialism 1800 to 1945—Industrial colonialism Creation of core-periphery exchange Chinese middlemen World Regional Geography, Tenth Edition

9 Modern Economic Growth and Stagnation
Two urgent needs Diversify economic production. Reduce dependence on exports of raw materials. World Regional Geography, Tenth Edition

10 Economics: Modernizers vs. Reformers
Members of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Established 1967 Manufacturing as engine of economic growth Foreign Direct Investment from the West Reformers Countries in 1970s and 1980s Previously socialist governments Resistant to globalization Laos Cambodia Viet Nam Myanmar Joined ASEAN in 1990s Asean Free Trade Area (AFTA)—1992 World Regional Geography, Tenth Edition

11 Socioeconomic Indicators of Southeast Asia
World Regional Geography, Tenth Edition

12 Urban and Rural Transformations
Megacity regions Jakarta Manila Bangkok Known as Extended Metropolitan Regions (EMRs)—Core inner and outer zones comprising the larger urban area Fueled by FDI But is the outer zone truly “urban”? World Regional Geography, Tenth Edition

13 Environmental Challenges
Deforestation Coastal environments Urban air pollution World Regional Geography, Tenth Edition

14 Insular Southeast Asia
Some of the first developing world economies to engage in economic forces of globalization Singapore Thoroughly globalized economy Regional center of banking, transport, and service industry Malaysia Middle-income industrialized country Economy based on a wide variety of electronics exports Indonesia and the Philippines Tied to resource exports Developing countries with problems of economically integrating their respective far-flung archipelagos World Regional Geography, Tenth Edition

15 Singapore Distinctive state 4.6 million population A city-state
Smallest and most urbanized of all SE Asian countries Only developed nation in SE Asia where ethnic Chinese constitute the majority of the population. Regional and global shipping hub Global maritime center Producer services World Regional Geography, Tenth Edition

16 Singaporean Economy and Politics
Diversified Regional headquarters for many international firms State-planned industrial parks have attracted FDI. Part of the global growth triangle Government Pervasive role of government critical to economy and society Soft-authoritarian government World Regional Geography, Tenth Edition

17 Malaysia Spatially fragmented country
West Malaysia—More densely populated East Malaysia—Sparsely populated state of Sarawak and Sabah World Regional Geography, Tenth Edition

18 Malaysian Economy Since 1970s has emerged from a developing state
New Economic Policy (NEP) Increase economic contributions of ethnic Malays This would be done at the expense of Chinese and Western economic interests. Increase government funding of roads and other infrastructural improvements to expand commercial cultivation of rubber, oil palm, and coffee by native smallholder farmers in frontier areas Movement toward postindustrial economy with Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) World Regional Geography, Tenth Edition

19 Indonesia Archipelagic state is largest in SE Asia
Most populous country in SE Asia Enlarged considerably when newly independent state annexed the western half of New Guinea in 1963. Forge national unity from a diverse array of ethnic groups Religious freedom respected, even though it is the most populous Islamic country in the world. Population 231 million population Growth and distribution major issues World Regional Geography, Tenth Edition

20 Initiatives Poverty eradication through widespread adoption of hybrid rice seed and fertilizers Most of economy is state-owned enterprises. Jakarta National capital region (primate city) Has attracted some export-oriented manufacturing operations Electronic parts Footwear Household appliances World Regional Geography, Tenth Edition

21 Asian Financial Crisis
Meltdown of Indonesian economy Forced resignation of Suharto in 1998 Regional tensions associated with economic disparities between core and periphery World Regional Geography, Tenth Edition

22 December 26, 2004 Tsunami Tsunami—Seismic sea waves triggered by energy released from deep earthquakes, massive landslides, or volcanic eruptions Banda Aceh, Indonesia—Focal point 300,000 deaths in thirteen countries Indonesia—243,530 India—18,389 World Regional Geography, Tenth Edition

23 The Philippines 7,000 islands Early colonization by Spain
Ceded to US in 1898 after Spanish–American War American culture domination has retarded development of a national culture. 1946—Independence World Regional Geography, Tenth Edition

24 The Philippines: Current Problems
High unemployment Underemployment Poverty Disparate quality of life World Regional Geography, Tenth Edition

25 Mainland Southeast Asia
Only recent liberalization of economies to engage forces of globalization Thailand Newly industrialized country FDI in a wide variety of industries, notably in automobiles. Viet Nam Major target of FDI Introduction of market-based economies in 1980s Cambodia Slow economic rebound after Marxist-inspired and horrifically murderous regime Heavily reliant on foreign aid Myanmar Resource-rich One of the last isolationist military governments in the world World Regional Geography, Tenth Edition

26 Thailand Never a Western possession Renamed from Siam in 1939
Ruled by successive military governments with constitutional monarchy Monarchy carries moral force. World Regional Geography, Tenth Edition

27 Thailand Economy Until late 1970s, economy was primarily agriculture.
Some benefit from association with West as part of Viet Nam War Has become center of SE Asia auto industry Economic growth has been restricted to capital city region and EMR of Bangkok. Clustering has had several environmental consequences. World Regional Geography, Tenth Edition

28 Viet Nam Conquered by Viets from China 2nd century B.C.
Next 2,000 dominated culturally and politically by China Captured by France in mid-to-late 19th century 1940s—Nationalist opposition forms under leadership of Communist guerilla, Ho Chi Minh. Viet Nam War (1958–1975) North Traditional core of Vietnamese culture Incubation for communism Allied with USSR South Was capitalist French and US influences 1975—Unification of North and South World Regional Geography, Tenth Edition

29 Vietnamese Economy Positive developments Negative developments
FDI has been vehicle for economic turnaround. Primary East Asian Specifically has targeted garments and footwear for export Negative developments Increased sex workers Spread of HIV/AIDS World Regional Geography, Tenth Edition

30 Cambodia (Kampuchea) and Myanmar (Burma)
Even more troubled than Viet Nam Part of Viet Nam War spilled over into the East. Khmer Rouge—Genocide in the “killing fields” Myanmar Led by authoritarian government Indigenous brand of socialism Well-endowed resource base Timber Rice Gems Gold Tin Petroleum A reformer country that has resisted globalization World Regional Geography, Tenth Edition

Download ppt "Chapter 11: Southeast Asia"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google