Presentation on theme: "History of ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations Melvin Ong 4J20 Zhou Quan 4J33 Matthew Yeo 4J31."— Presentation transcript:
History of ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations Melvin Ong 4J20 Zhou Quan 4J33 Matthew Yeo 4J31
Background Preceded organization –Association of Southeast Asia, established in 1961 –consisting of only 3 countries (Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines) Prior to 1967, no regional association included most of the countries of Southeast Asia 1963 o ties between Malaysia and Indonesia strained during the Confrontation in Malaysia o Philippines broke off ties with Malaysia due to its claim over Sabah 1967: leaders of 5 Southeast Asian countries realized it would be better to co-operate, rather than be at odds with each other
Establishment of ASEAN Aims and Objectives of ASEAN Early beginnings of ASEAN
Establishment of ASEAN On 8 th August 1967, Ministers for Foreign Affairs of 5 countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand) signed the Bangkok Declaration.
Establishment of ASEAN Established an Association of Regional Cooperation among countries in South-East Asia, known as Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN)
Aims and Objectives of ASEAN To accelerate economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region through joint endeavours in the spirit of equality and partnership in order to strengthen the foundation for a prosperous and peaceful community of South-East Asian Nations To provide assistance to each other in the form on training and research facilities in educational, professional, technical and administrative spheres
Aims and Objectives of ASEAN To promote active collaboration and mutual assistance on matters of common interest in economic, social, cultural, technical, scientific and administrative fields To maintain close and beneficial cooperation with existing international and regional organizations with similar aims and purposes, and explore all avenues for even closer cooperation among themselves
Aims and Objectives of ASEAN To collaborate more effectively for the greater utilization of their agriculture and industries, the expansion of their trade, including the study of the problems of international commodity trade, the improvement of their transportation and communications facilities and the raising of the living standards of their peoples To promote South-East Asian studies
Aims and Objectives of ASEAN To promote regional peace and stability through abiding respect for justice and the rule of law in the relationship among countries of the region and adherence to the principles of the United Nations Charter
Fundamental Principles All ASEAN Member Countries have adopted fundamental principles contained in the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in South-East Asia (TAC) 1. Mutual respect for the independence, sovereignty, equality territorial integrity and national identity of all nations
Fundamental Principles 2. The right of every State to lead its national existence free from external interference, subversion or coercion 3. Non-interference in the internal affairs of one another; 4. Settlement of differences or disputes by peaceful manner; 5. Renunciation of the threat or use of force 6. Effective cooperation among themselves.
Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality Declaration Signed on 27 th November 1971 All 5 members of ASEAN are determined to exert initially necessary efforts to secure the recognition of, and respect for, South East Asia as a Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality, free from any form or manner of interference by outside Powers
Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality Declaration South East Asian countries should make concerted efforts to broaden the areas of cooperation which would contribute to their strength, solidarity and closer relationship
ASEAN’s Development 1970s~1990s
How ASEAN works Members pledge to rely exclusively on peaceful processes in the settlement of intra-regional differences regard their security as fundamentally linked to one another bound by geographic location, common vision and objectives Components o political development o shaping and sharing of norms; conflict prevention o conflict resolution o post-conflict peace building o and implementing mechanisms Built on the strong foundation of ASEAN processes, principles, agreements, and structures, which evolved over the years and are contained in the following major political agreements: o ASEAN Declaration, Bangkok 1967 o Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality Declaration, Kuala Lumpur 1971 o Declaration of ASEAN Concord, Bali 1976 o Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia, Bali 1976 o ASEAN Declaration on the South China Sea, Manila 1992
ASEAN Summits ASEAN countries hold regular summits for enhancing cooperation, discussing and searching for solutions to potential problems, through the creating and signing of various treaties and agreements Frequency o 1976~1992: 1 summit every 5 years o 1993~2001: 1 summit every 3 years o 2002~now: 1 summit every years Summit in Singapore: 1992: 4 th summit o Agreement on the Common Effective Preferential Tariff Scheme for the ASEAN Free Trade Area o Framework Agreement on Enhancing ASEAN Economic Cooperation There are also informal summits o 1996: 1 st ASEAN informal summit, Jakarta, Indonesia
The First ASEAN Summit The First ASEAN Summit 1976 in Bali, Indonesia Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia Declaration of ASEAN Concord REAFFIRM their commitment to the Declarations of Bandung, Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur, and the Charter of the United Nations; ENDEAVOUR to promote peace, progress, prosperity and the welfare of the peoples of member states; UNDERTAKE to consolidate the achievements of ASEAN and expand ASEAN cooperation in the economic, social, cultural and political fields - Excerpt from Declaration of ASEAN Concord Indonesia, 24 February 1976
Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia Background o Reduction of U.S. power in SA and the related collapse of anticommunist regimes in South Vietnam and Cambodia in 1975 o A powerful impetus to ASEAN's political development o ASEAN shifted its emphasis to the promotion of economic development as the surest way of combating the internal appeal of communism in the ASEAN nations o The Indonesian government even wanted to redefine the organization as a military alliance, but the other states rejected this proposal o Thus the first summit meeting eventually called forth the TAC o Thus the first summit meeting eventually called forth the TAC Principles envisaged as the foundation of a strong SA community o mutual respect for the independence, sovereignty, equality, territorial integrity, and national identity of all nations o the right of every State to lead its national existence free from external interference, subversion or coercion o non-interference in the internal affairs of one another o settlement of differences or disputes by peaceful manner o renunciation of the threat or use of force o effective cooperation among themselves
Economic Cooperation since the 1970s ASEAN embarked on a program of economic cooperation, following the Bali Summit of 1976 Foundered in the mid-1980s Only revived around 1991 due to a Thai proposal for a regional free trade area. The bloc then grew when Brunei became the sixth member after it joined on January 8, 1984
The Dialogue System ASEAN did not seclude itself completely In 1977, 2 nd Summit in Kuala Lumpur, ASEAN heads agreed that the association's economic relations with other countries or groups of countries needed to be expanded and intensified ASEAN heads met with the PMs of Australia, Japan and New Zealand Setting the first example of holding meetings with leaders of non- ASEAN countries. Setting the first example of holding meetings with leaders of non- ASEAN countries. 1988: 1 st post-ministerial conference connecting ASEAN and its dialogue partners, Australia, Canada, EU, Japan, New Zealand and US Later, foreign ministers of dialogue countries met at these post- ministerial conferences with their ASEAN counterparts every year Dialogues were held at various levels wide ranges, and more countries joined the system after years - Republic of Korea, China, India and Russia
A communist state in Southeast Asian region persisted as a concern for ASEAN While the communist victories in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia suggested a cause of dissent among Southeast Asian region by the three countries' coalition, it rather turned out that the three countries did not get along well Vietnam invaded Cambodia in 1978 ASEAN countries had to work for resilience ASEAN member nations continually proposed resolutions in UN, calling for the withdrawal of Vietnamese troops and democracy The nations also conducted continuous conversational attempts with the nations involved in the conflict It could be said that such efforts combined to result in o Jakarta Informal Meetings in which four Cambodian factions discussed peace and national reconciliation o 19-nation Paris Conference on Cambodia o Paris Conference on Cambodia in 1991 which produced the Comprehensive Political Settlement of the Cambodian Conflict o Paris Conference on Cambodia in 1991 which produced the Comprehensive Political Settlement of the Cambodian Conflict ASEAN’s reaction during Vietnam’s invasion of Cambodia
ASEAN Headquarter Located in Jakarta, Indonesia Inaugurated on 9 May, 1981
Joining of new members 1984: Brunei 1995: Vietnam 1997: Laos, Myanmar 1999: Cambodia A political crisis in Cambodia prevented it from joining ASEAN in 1997 as originally planned
Admission of Vietnam
History of ASEAN ( )
ASEAN in the 1990s The Common Effective Preferential Tariff (CEPT) scheme was signed as a schedule for phasing tariffs and as a goal to increase the region’s competitive advantage as a production base geared for the world market. On July , Vietnam became the seventh member, Laos and Myanmar joined two years later in July 23, Cambodia later joined on April 30, 1999, following the stabilization of its government. The signing of the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution in 2002 as an attempt to control haze pollution in Southeast Asia. Unfortunately, this was unsuccessful due to the outbreaks of the 2005 Malaysian haze and the 2006 Southeast Asian haze.
ASEAN in 2003 ASEAN members met for a 2-day summit in Tokyo. Japan joined the 10 Southeast Asian nations in a pledge to expand trade and join forces on regional security on 11 Dec ‘ASEAN+3’ was created to improve existing ties with the People's Republic of China, Japan, and South Korea. ‘ASEAN+3’ then held the East Asia Summit, which included these countries as well as India, Australia, and New Zealand. Through the Bali Concord II in October, ASEAN believes that democracy will promote regional peace and stability. On 21 Oct Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation leaders ended their two-day annual summit in Thailand with a statement seeking to boost trade and to fight terrorism.
ASEAN in ASEAN member states signed the Cebu Declaration on East Asian Energy Security, the ASEAN-Wildlife Enforcement Network and the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate, responding to global warming and climate change ASEAN was given observer status at the United Nations General Assembly.
ASEAN in 2007 ASEAN celebrated its 40th anniversary since its formation, as well as 30 years of diplomatic relations with the United States. On 12 Jan, East Timor and France signed non- aggression treaties with ASEAN member countries on the sidelines of the annual ASEAN summit in the Philippine resort city of Cebu. Both countries looked to strengthen ties with a bloc representing a sixth of the world's people. The next day, ASEAN leaders meeting in the Philippines signed an agreement to regulate migrant workers. The day after, ASEAN leaders meeting in the Philippines signed an agreement to liberalize the trade in services between China and ASEAN countries.
ASEAN in 2007 In July, Southeast Asian foreign ministers agreed to set up a regional human rights commission in the Philippines, overcoming fierce resistance from military-ruled Myanmar. Myanmar agreed not to veto discussion over the human rights commission at a November summit. On August 26, ASEAN has also stated that it aims to complete all its free trade agreements with China, Japan, South Korea, India, Australia and New Zealand by 2013, in line with the establishment of the ASEAN Economic Community by 2015, prompting economic ministers of Southeast Asian countries (ASEAN) and China to strengthen product standards and safety.
ASEAN in 2007 ‘ASEAN+3’ foreign ministers gathered in Manila on the eve of high-level security talks which included delegates from the United States, Europe, India, Pakistan, North and South Korea and other countries. Diplomats used the annual gathering of nearly 30 nations to talk about issues such as North Korean crisis to the conflict in Darfur. In November the ASEAN members signed the ASEAN Charter, a constitution governing relations among the ASEAN members and establishing ASEAN itself as an international legal group.
ASEAN in 2008 Japan and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) signed a deal to tear down trade barriers between the two organizations ASEAN said Southeast Asian and UN experts will have full access to cyclone- devastated parts of Myanmar, where more than a million people have still not received any foreign help on 12 June