Presentation on theme: "Association of Southeast Asian Nations"— Presentation transcript:
1Association of Southeast Asian Nations History of ASEANAssociation of Southeast Asian NationsMelvin Ong 4J20Zhou Quan 4J33Matthew Yeo 4J31
2Background Preceded organization Association of Southeast Asia, established in 1961consisting of only 3 countries (Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines)Prior to 1967, no regional association included most of the countries of Southeast Asia1963ties between Malaysia and Indonesia strained during the Confrontation in MalaysiaPhilippines broke off ties with Malaysia due to its claim over Sabah1967: leaders of 5 Southeast Asian countries realized it would be better to co-operate, rather than be at odds with each other
3Establishment of ASEAN Aims and Objectives of ASEAN Early beginnings of ASEAN
4Establishment of ASEAN On 8th August 1967, Ministers for Foreign Affairs of 5 countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand) signed the Bangkok Declaration.
5Establishment of ASEAN Established an Association of Regional Cooperation among countries in South-East Asia, known as Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN)
6Aims and Objectives of ASEAN To accelerate economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region through joint endeavours in the spirit of equality and partnership in order to strengthen the foundation for a prosperous and peaceful community of South-East Asian NationsTo provide assistance to each other in the form on training and research facilities in educational, professional, technical and administrative spheres
7Aims and Objectives of ASEAN To promote active collaboration and mutual assistance on matters of common interest in economic, social, cultural, technical, scientific and administrative fieldsTo maintain close and beneficial cooperation with existing international and regional organizations with similar aims and purposes, and explore all avenues for even closer cooperation among themselves
8Aims and Objectives of ASEAN To collaborate more effectively for the greater utilization of their agriculture and industries, the expansion of their trade, including the study of the problems of international commodity trade, the improvement of their transportation and communications facilities and the raising of the living standards of their peoplesTo promote South-East Asian studies
9Aims and Objectives of ASEAN To promote regional peace and stability through abiding respect for justice and the rule of law in the relationship among countries of the region and adherence to the principles of the United Nations Charter
10Fundamental Principles All ASEAN Member Countries have adopted fundamental principles contained in the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in South-East Asia (TAC)Mutual respect for the independence, sovereignty, equality territorial integrity and national identity of all nations
11Fundamental Principles The right of every State to lead its national existence free from external interference, subversion or coercionNon-interference in the internal affairs of one another;Settlement of differences or disputes by peaceful manner;Renunciation of the threat or use of forceEffective cooperation among themselves.
12Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality Declaration Signed on 27th November 1971All 5 members of ASEAN are determined to exert initially necessary efforts to secure the recognition of, and respect for, South East Asia as a Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality, free from any form or manner of interference by outside Powers
13Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality Declaration South East Asian countries should make concerted efforts to broaden the areas of cooperation which would contribute to their strength, solidarity and closer relationship
15How ASEAN works Members pledge to Components rely exclusively on peaceful processes in the settlement of intra-regional differencesregard their security as fundamentally linked to one anotherbound by geographic location, common vision and objectivesComponentspolitical developmentshaping and sharing of norms; conflict preventionconflict resolutionpost-conflict peace buildingand implementing mechanismsBuilt on the strong foundation of ASEAN processes, principles, agreements, and structures, which evolved over the years and are contained in the following major political agreements:ASEAN Declaration, Bangkok 1967Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality Declaration, Kuala Lumpur 1971Declaration of ASEAN Concord, Bali 1976Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia, Bali 1976ASEAN Declaration on the South China Sea, Manila 1992
16ASEAN SummitsASEAN countries hold regular summits for enhancing cooperation, discussing and searching for solutions to potential problems, through the creating and signing of various treaties and agreementsFrequency1976~1992: 1 summit every 5 years1993~2001: 1 summit every 3 years2002~now: 1 summit every yearsSummit in Singapore: 1992: 4th summitAgreement on the Common Effective Preferential Tariff Scheme for the ASEAN Free Trade AreaFramework Agreement on Enhancing ASEAN Economic CooperationThere are also informal summits1996: 1st ASEAN informal summit, Jakarta, Indonesia
18 The First ASEAN Summit 1976 in Bali, Indonesia Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast AsiaDeclaration of ASEAN ConcordREAFFIRM their commitment to the Declarations of Bandung, Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur, and the Charter of the United Nations; ENDEAVOUR to promote peace, progress, prosperity and the welfare of the peoples of member states; UNDERTAKE to consolidate the achievements of ASEAN and expand ASEAN cooperation in the economic, social, cultural and political fields- Excerpt from Declaration of ASEAN Concord Indonesia, 24 February 1976
19Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia BackgroundReduction of U.S. power in SA and the related collapse of anticommunist regimes in South Vietnam and Cambodia in 1975A powerful impetus to ASEAN's political developmentASEAN shifted its emphasis to the promotion of economic development as the surest way of combating the internal appeal of communism in the ASEAN nationsThe Indonesian government even wanted to redefine the organization as a military alliance, but the other states rejected this proposalThus the first summit meeting eventually called forth the TAC Principles envisaged as the foundation of a strong SA communitymutual respect for the independence, sovereignty, equality, territorial integrity, and national identity of all nationsthe right of every State to lead its national existence free from external interference, subversion or coercionnon-interference in the internal affairs of one anothersettlement of differences or disputes by peaceful mannerrenunciation of the threat or use of forceeffective cooperation among themselves
20Economic Cooperation since the 1970s ASEAN embarked on a program of economic cooperation, following the Bali Summit of 1976Foundered in the mid-1980sOnly revived around 1991 due to a Thai proposal for a regional free trade area. The bloc then grew when Brunei became the sixth member after it joined on January 8, 1984
21The Dialogue System ASEAN did not seclude itself completely In 1977, 2nd Summit in Kuala Lumpur, ASEAN heads agreed that the association's economic relations with other countries or groups of countries needed to be expanded and intensifiedASEAN heads met with the PMs of Australia, Japan and New ZealandSetting the first example of holding meetings with leaders of non-ASEAN countries. 1988: 1st post-ministerial conference connecting ASEAN and its dialogue partners, Australia, Canada, EU, Japan, New Zealand and USLater, foreign ministers of dialogue countries met at these post-ministerial conferences with their ASEAN counterparts every yearDialogues were held at various levels wide ranges, and more countries joined the system after years - Republic of Korea, China, India and Russia
22ASEAN’s reaction during Vietnam’s invasion of Cambodia A communist state in Southeast Asian region persisted as a concern for ASEANWhile the communist victories in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia suggested a cause of dissent among Southeast Asian region by the three countries' coalition, it rather turned out that the three countries did not get along wellVietnam invaded Cambodia in 1978ASEAN countries had to work for resilienceASEAN member nations continually proposed resolutions in UN, calling for the withdrawal of Vietnamese troops and democracyThe nations also conducted continuous conversational attempts with the nations involved in the conflictIt could be said that such efforts combined to result inJakarta Informal Meetings in which four Cambodian factions discussed peace and national reconciliation19-nation Paris Conference on CambodiaParis Conference on Cambodia in 1991 which produced the Comprehensive Political Settlement of the Cambodian Conflict
23ASEAN Headquarter Located in Jakarta, Indonesia Inaugurated on 9 May, 1981
24Joining of new members 1984: Brunei 1995: Vietnam 1997: Laos, Myanmar 1999: CambodiaA political crisis in Cambodia prevented it from joining ASEAN in 1997 as originally planned
27ASEAN in the 1990sThe Common Effective Preferential Tariff (CEPT) scheme was signed as a schedule for phasing tariffs and as a goal to increase the region’s competitive advantage as a production base geared for the world market.On July , Vietnam became the seventh member, Laos and Myanmar joined two years later in July 23, 1997.Cambodia later joined on April 30, 1999, following the stabilization of its government.The signing of the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution in 2002 as an attempt to control haze pollution in Southeast Asia. Unfortunately, this was unsuccessful due to the outbreaks of the 2005 Malaysian haze and the 2006 Southeast Asian haze.
28ASEAN in 2003ASEAN members met for a 2-day summit in Tokyo. Japan joined the 10 Southeast Asian nations in a pledge to expand trade and join forces on regional security on 11 Dec‘ASEAN+3’ was created to improve existing ties with the People's Republic of China, Japan, and South Korea.‘ASEAN+3’ then held the East Asia Summit, which included these countries as well as India, Australia, and New Zealand. Through the Bali Concord II in October, ASEAN believes that democracy will promote regional peace and stability.On 21 Oct Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation leaders ended their two-day annual summit in Thailand with a statement seeking to boost trade and to fight terrorism.
29ASEAN in2005ASEAN member states signed the Cebu Declaration on East Asian Energy Security, the ASEAN-Wildlife Enforcement Network and the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate, responding to global warming and climate change.2006ASEAN was given observer status at the United Nations General Assembly.
30ASEAN in 2007ASEAN celebrated its 40th anniversary since its formation, as well as 30 years of diplomatic relations with the United States.On 12 Jan, East Timor and France signed non-aggression treaties with ASEAN member countries on the sidelines of the annual ASEAN summit in the Philippine resort city of Cebu. Both countries looked to strengthen ties with a bloc representing a sixth of the world's people. The next day, ASEAN leaders meeting in the Philippines signed an agreement to regulate migrant workers.The day after, ASEAN leaders meeting in the Philippines signed an agreement to liberalize the trade in services between China and ASEAN countries.
31ASEAN in 2007In July, Southeast Asian foreign ministers agreed to set up a regional human rights commission in the Philippines, overcoming fierce resistance from military-ruled Myanmar. Myanmar agreed not to veto discussion over the human rights commission at a November summit.On August 26, ASEAN has also stated that it aims to complete all its free trade agreements with China, Japan, South Korea, India, Australia and New Zealand by 2013, in line with the establishment of the ASEAN Economic Community by 2015, prompting economic ministers of Southeast Asian countries (ASEAN) and China to strengthen product standards and safety.
32ASEAN in 2007‘ASEAN+3’ foreign ministers gathered in Manila on the eve of high-level security talks which included delegates from the United States, Europe, India, Pakistan, North and South Korea and other countries. Diplomats used the annual gathering of nearly 30 nations to talk about issues such as North Korean crisis to the conflict in Darfur.In November the ASEAN members signed the ASEAN Charter, a constitution governing relations among the ASEAN members and establishing ASEAN itself as an international legal group.
33ASEAN in 2008Japan and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) signed a deal to tear down trade barriers between the two organizationsASEAN said Southeast Asian and UN experts will have full access to cyclone-devastated parts of Myanmar, where more than a million people have still not received any foreign help on 12 June