Presentation on theme: "Independence Struggles in Southeast Asia"— Presentation transcript:
1Independence Struggles in Southeast Asia PreviewMain Idea / Reading FocusIndependence in Southeast AsiaMap: Southeast AsiaThe Vietnam WarFaces of History: Ho Chi MinhMap: The Vietnam WarChanges in Southeast Asia
2Independence Struggles in Southeast Asia Main IdeaLong under colonial domination, many Southeast Asian nations achieved independence in the postwar years. The transition, however, was not always a smooth one.Reading FocusHow did independence come to Southeast Asia?What were the main causes of the Vietnam War?How has Southeast Asia changed in recent decades?
3Independence in Southeast Asia Before World War II, Southeast Asia controlled by major colonial powersBurma, Malaya controlled by British; Philippines by United States; Indonesia was Dutch colonyModern day countries of Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia part of French colony, French IndochinaColonial PowersDuring war, Japanese occupied these Southeast Asian coloniesOccupation helped weaken grip of European, American powersSome nations decided to end colonial presence in region at end of warU.S. granted independence to Philippines; British gave up BurmaEnd of Colonial Presence
5StrugglesCommunist rebels in Malaya fought British before achieving independenceGroup known as Vietminh fought French troops to win Vietnamese independenceVietminh leader, Communist Ho Chi MinhReceived assistance from China, Soviet UnionMajor goal was independence, not expansion of communismAfter years of fighting, Vietminh defeated France; French control of Indochina ended
6How did Southeast Asian nations achieve independence? Make GeneralizationsHow did Southeast Asian nations achieve independence?Answer(s): In some areas, Japanese occupation during World War II helped weaken the grip of the European and American powers in the region. In others, independence came with struggle.
7The Vietnam War Vietnam’s Future Domino Theory Fighting with France was over, but conflict was not—Ho Chi Minh’s dream of a united, independent Vietnam would be achieved only after years of war.1954, representatives from France, Vietnam, U.S., Soviet Union, other nations met to establish peace agreement for VietnamTalks reflected Cold War tensionsWorried about spread of communism, Western powers did not want Ho Chi Minh, Communists, to have complete control of VietnamVietnam’s FutureVietnam temporarily divided into northern, southern halvesCommunists would control northVoters to choose government for reunited Vietnam in 1956President Eisenhower warned if Vietnam fell to communism, other Southeast Asian nations would quickly followBelief that communism would spread called domino theoryDomino Theory
9Fighting Begins U.S. supported South Vietnam Vietcong U.S. supported South Vietnam to keep from being taken over by NorthSouth Vietnam leader Ngo Dinh Diem prevented 1956 electionAlso made enemies with corrupt, brutal ruleVietcongDiem’s enemies formed Vietcong, “Vietnamese Communist”—not all Vietcong Communists; all shared goal of overthrowing Diem, reuniting VietnamSoon North Vietnamese entered South Vietnam, fought alongside VietcongFighting EscalatesAs Vietcong influence spread, U.S. increased aid to South VietnamAlso sent thousands of military advisors to help South Vietnamese forcesAugust 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson informed Congress two U.S. Navy ships subject of unprovoked attack by North Vietnamese gunboats
10Gulf of Tonkin Resolution True, one U.S. ship fired on by North Vietnamese; second attack seems to have been misunderstandingJohnson did not mention full facts, Congress passed Gulf of Tonkin Resolution—gave Johnson power to expand U.S. involvement without formal declaration of warAmerican Presence in VietnamAmerican military presence in Vietnam grew quickly, hundreds of thousands of combat troops sent to regionIncreased U.S. involvement forced North Vietnam, Vietcong to change military strategyRather than press for quick victory, focused on outlasting enemies
11Tet: A Turning Point Weakened Support Opposition Grew 1968, North Vietnamese army, Vietcong carried out daring strike against cities, other targets across South VietnamAttack began on Vietnamese New Year, called Tet—came to be known as Tet OffensiveOffensive military setback for Vietcong; still delivered heavy political blow to U.S., South Vietnamese effortAmerican leaders had claimed victory in Vietnam close at handTet Offensive dramatically showed this was not caseAttacks greatly weakened American public support for warWeakened SupportAfter Tet Offensive, war expanded into Laos, CambodiaNorth Vietnamese had supply network—Ho Chi Minh TrailU.S. efforts to destroy trail failedMore Americans opposed warOpposition Grew
12Vietnam War Ends End of War After the War Still Communist Nation 1973, after long negotiations, U.S. reached peace agreement with North Vietnam, withdrew military support; without support, South lost ground1975, North Vietnamese tanks rolled into Saigon, ending warAfter the War1976, Vietnam reunited officially, but faced major problemsMillions dead or made homeless; Vietnamese economy severely crippled1980s, abandoned Soviet-style planned economy, made economic reformsStill Communist Nation1995, U.S. formally recognized united VietnamTwo nations agreed to improve trade relationshipMany economic reforms; political reforms slow for Communist nation
14Summarize the course of the Vietnam War. Make GeneralizationsSummarize the course of the Vietnam War.Answer(s): United States feared Communists would take control of South Vietnam; war began and U.S. involvement increased; American public opposition to the war grew; United States removed troops; North Vietnamese took control of South Vietnam.
15Changes in Southeast Asia Some of the political and social forces that tore apart Vietnam were also at work elsewhere in the region. After World War II, other nations in Southeast Asia struggled to build stable independent nations.Over 13,000 islands spread across Indian, Pacific oceansHad been Dutch colony known as Dutch East Indies before being taken over by Japan during World War IIIndonesiaDutch tried to regain control after warDutch faced independence movement led by Sukarno1949, Indonesia finally won independenceIndependenceSukarno became first Indonesian presidentTried to stay out of Cold War; eventually allied with Soviet Union, supported growth of Indonesia’s Communist partySukarno almost bankrupted nationSoviet Ally
16Coup d’EtatIn 1965 a group of army officers and Communists tried to seize power in a coup d’état. The head of the army, General Suharto, fought back. In the struggle for power that followed the attempted coup, hundreds of thousands of Communists and alleged Communists were murdered.Suharto took control of country when struggle endedRuled Indonesia for many yearsAuthoritarian regime corrupt, but Indonesian economy revivedSuharto In Control1980s, some Indonesians turned against Suharto, resented corruption, use of power1997, economy collapsed; protests, riots broke outSuharto Loses ControlSuharto stepped down the following year. In subsequent years, a series of democratic governments worked to rebuild the nation’s economy.
17Indonesia Today Population Diversity Conflict Tsunami Today Indonesia has fourth-largest population in worldHome to over 300 ethnic groupsDiversityMuslim majorityLarge Christian minority; also Hindus, BuddhistsDiversity has led to conflictConflictOn island of Sulawesi, thousands died in fighting between Christians, Muslims2000s, Muslim radicals linked to terrorist attacks in IndonesiaTsunami2004, devastating tsunami struck IndonesiaOver 225,000 people killed, destruction widespread
18East Timor and Cambodia 1975, Indonesia seized control of East Timor, former Portuguese colonyEast Timorese fought against Indonesian invasion for nearly three decadesOver 100,000 people died; 2002, finally won independenceMyanmar1948, Burma, now known as Myanmar, won independence from Great BritainFaced many difficulties: weak central government, severe ethnic tensions1960s, military dictatorship seized power; still controls Myanmar todayPeace Prize Winner Imprisoned1991, opponent of government, Aung San Suu Kyi won Nobel Peace Prize for her efforts to promote democracy in MyanmarGovernment has held her in prison, or under house arrest, for much of time since late 1980s
19Constitutional Monarchy CambodiaCambodia endured years of struggle after winning independence from France in 1953In 1975 Communist Khmer Rouge gained control of countryKhmer Rouge established Communist government led by Pol PotRenamed country KampucheaBegan radical program to rebuild Cambodian societyGoal: country of simple peasantsTo achieve goal, all influences of urban life, modern civilization had to be destroyedAll opposition destroyedAnyone educated killed1.5 million diedRebuilding SocietyConflict between Khmer Rouge, Vietnam turned into war1979, Vietnam invaded Cambodia, forced Pol Pot from powerPol Pot led Khmer Rouge guerrillas in civil war throughout 1980sNow rebuildingConstitutional Monarchy
20How have nations in Southeast Asia changed? Make GeneralizationsHow have nations in Southeast Asia changed?Answer(s): Many of its nations have gained independence from colonial rule, but have struggled to build stable, independent governments.